Aragon

Aragon (/ˈærəɡɒn/ or /ˈærəɡən/, Spanish and Aragonese: Aragón [aɾaˈɣon], Catalan: Aragó [əɾəˈɣo]) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces (from north to south): Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Its capital is Zaragoza (also called Saragossa in English). The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain.

Covering an area of 47720 km2 (18420 sq mi),[3] the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza. It is also home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees.

As of January 2016, the population of Aragon was 1308563,[3] with over half of it living in its capital city, Zaragoza. During the same year, the economy of Aragon generates a GDP of €34687 million, which represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP,[4] and is currently 6th in per capita production behind Madrid, Basque Country, Navarre, Catalonia and La Rioja.[5]

In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into 33 comarcas or counties. All comarcas of Aragon have a rich geopolitical and cultural history from its pre-Roman, Celtic and Roman days, and four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus or kingdom (or taifa) of Saraqusta, and as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica, counties that later formed the Kingdom of Aragon and eventually the empire or Crown of Aragon.

Aragon

Aragón  (Spanish)
Aragón  (Aragonese)
Aragó  (Catalan)
Flag of Aragon
Flag
Coat of arms of Aragon
Coat of arms
Anthem: Himno de Aragón (officially)
Unofficial Anthem: "Canto a la libertad"
Map of Aragon
Location of Aragon within Spain
Coordinates: 41°00′N 1°00′W / 41.000°N 1.000°WCoordinates: 41°00′N 1°00′W / 41.000°N 1.000°W
CountrySpain
CapitalZaragoza
Government
 • PresidentJavier Lambán (PSOE)
 • LegislatureCortes of Aragon
Area
(9.4% of Spain; Ranked 4th)
 • Total47,720 km2 (18,420 sq mi)
Population
(2016)
 • Total1,308,563
 • Density27/km2 (71/sq mi)
 • Pop. rank
11th
 • Percent
2.82% of Spain
Demonym(s)Aragonese
ISO 3166-2
ES-AR
Official languagesSpanish
Recognised languagesAragonese, Catalan[1]
Statute of Autonomy16 August 1982
18 April 2007 (current version)
National day23 April
ParliamentAragonese Corts
Congress seats13 (of 350)
Senate seats14 (of 264)
HDI (2017)0.889[2]
very high · 6th
WebsiteGobierno de Aragón

Symbols

Escudo de Aragón, Vagad y Hurus, 1499
First testimony of the coat of arms of Aragon. Fabricio Vagad, printed in Zaragoza in 1499 by Pablo Hurus.

The current coat of arms of Aragon is composed of the four barracks and is attested for the first time in 1499, consolidating since the Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be approved, according to precept, by the Real Academia de la Historia in 1921.

The first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary kingdom of Sobrarbe; in the second quarter there is the so-called "Cross of Íñigo Arista", innovation of Peter IV of Aragon (from an anachronistic interpretation of the cross that symbolized the religion of the Asturian, Navarrese and Aragonese Christian kings), who took it as shields of the ancient kings of Aragon, although historically there were no heraldic emblems in the peninsula (or "signal shields", as it was said in the Middle Ages) before the union dynastic of 1137 of the House of Aragon with the House of Barcelona; in the third quartering appears the Saint George's Cross escutcheoned of four heads of Moors (the call "Cross of Alcoraz"), that is witnessed for the first time in a seal of 1281 of Peter III of Aragon and would remember, according to tradition arising from the 14th century, the battle in which Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona and the future Alfonso I of Aragon took Huesca and was considered in the Early modern Ages one of the proprietary emblems of the kingdom of Aragon; and in the fourth is the emblem of the so-called "bars of Aragon" or Royal Sign of Aragon, the oldest of the heraldic emblems that are part of the current coat of arms, dated in the second half of the 12th century.

This emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners, shields and standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that later denoted the authority as King of Aragon until, with the birth of Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol.

Plaza de Aragón en Zaragoza el día de San Jorge
La Plaza de Aragón square in Zaragoza, on Saint George's Day, with a flag of Aragon of flowers.

The current flag was approved in 1984, with the provisions of Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of arms of Aragon shifted towards the flagpole.

The bars of Aragon, common historic element of the current four autonomous communities that once were integrated into the Crown of Aragon, present in the third quartering of the coat of arms of Spain.

The anthem of Aragon (himno de Aragón) was regulated in 1989 with music by the Aragonese composer Antón García Abril that combines the old Aragonese musical tradition with popular musical elements within a modern conception. The lyrics were elaborated by the Aragonese poets Ildefonso Manuel Gil, Ángel Guinda, Rosendo Tello and Manuel Vilas and highlights within its poetic framework, values such as freedom, justice, reason, truth, open land ... that historically represent the expression of Aragon as a people.

The Day of Aragon is celebrated on April 23 and commemorates Saint George, patron of the Kingdom of Aragon since the 15th century. It appears in Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon since 1984. Institutional acts such as the delivery of the Aragon Awards by the Government of Aragon or the composition of a flag of Aragon of flowers, with the collaboration of citizens, in the Plaza de Aragón square of Zaragoza.

Geography

Location

The area of Aragon is 47720 km2 of which 15636 km2 belong to the province of Huesca, 17275 km2 to the province of Zaragoza and 14810 km2 to the province of Teruel.[3] The total represents a 9.43% of the surface of Spain, being thus the fourth autonomous community in size behind Castile and León, Andalusia, and Castile-La Mancha.

It is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude between 39º and 43º'N in the temperate zone of the Earth. Its boundaries and borders are in the north with France, the regions of (Nouvelle Aquitaine and Occitanie), in the west with the autonomous communities of Castile-La Mancha (provinces of Guadalajara and Cuenca), Castile and León (province of Soria), La Rioja and Navarre and in the east with the autonomous communities of Catalonia (provinces of Lérida and Tarragona) and Valencian Community (provinces of Castellón and Valencia).

Relief

The orography of the community has as central axis the Ebro valley (with heights between 150 and 300 meters approx.) which transits between two foothills, the Pyrenean and the Ibérico, preambles of two great mountain formations, the Pyrenees to the north and the Sistema Ibérico to the south; the Community has the highest peaks of both mountain ranges, the Aneto and the Moncayo respectively.

Pyrenees

Pic d´Aneto
Aneto peak is the highest point of all Pyrenees. It is located in the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park.

The Aragonese Pyrenees is located in the north of the province of Huesca and is arranged longitudinally in three large units: High Pyrenees, Intrapirenaic Depression and Outer Ranges.

The Aragonese High Pyrenees contains the maximum heights of all the Pyrenees mountainous chain. The High Pyrenees is formed in turn by the axial Pyrenees and the Inland Ranges.

In the axial Pyrenees are the oldest materials: granites, quartzites, slates and limestones and the highest peaks like: the Aneto (3404 m), Maladeta (3309 m) and the Perdiguero (3221 m). The inner Pre-Pyrenees, composed of more modern rocks (limestones) also has large mountains such as Monte Perdido (3355 m), Collarada (2886 m) and Tendeñera (2853 m).

Benasque - Llanos del Hospital 07
La Besurta trail in the Benasque Pyrenean Valley.
Monasterio de Siresa. Huesca
Abbey of San Pedro de Siresa, monastic, political and cultural center of the ancient County of Aragon, where Alfonso I was educated. It is located in the Hecho Pyrenean Valley.

The main Pyrenean valleys are formed by the rivers that are born there, which are:

2005.09.17 mallos de Riglos
Mallos de Riglos conglomerate rock formations, in Las Peñas de Riglos.

The intrapirenaic depression is a broad perpendicular corridor. Its best represented section is the Canal de Berdún. The southern limit of the Depression corresponds to the energetic reliefs of San Juan de la Peña (1552 m) and Oroel Rock (1769 m), modeled on conglomerates of the Campodarbe Formation.

The pre-Pyrenean outer ranges are in the Huescan foothills and constitute the southernmost unit of the Pyrenees; formed by predominantly calcareous materials, reach heights between 1500 and 2000 meters. The Sierra de Guara, one of the most important mountain ranges of the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees, stands out; its summit, the Guara Peak, reaches 2077 metres.[6] The Mallos de Riglos, near the town of Ayerbe, stand out for their beauty.

Depression of the Ebro

It extends a wide plain, after passing the foothills, corresponding to the Depression of the Ebro. To the southwest is the Sierra de Alcubierre ranges (811 m) one of the typical limestone plateaus of the Depression.

The depression of the Ebro is a tectonic pit filled with sedimentary materials, accumulated in the Tertiary age in horizontal series. In the center, fine materials such as clays, plasters and limestones were deposited. To the south of the Ebro have been the limestone plateaus of Borja and of Zaragoza.

Sistema Ibérico

Moncayo desde Tarazona
Moncayo Massif seen from Tarazona. Moncayo, with its height of 2314.3 m, is the maximum summit of the Sistema Ibérico mountainous chain.

The Aragonese Sistema Ibérico is divided between the provinces of Zaragoza and Teruel. It is a set of hills without a clear structural unit, which can be divided into two zones: Sistema Ibérico del Jalón and Sistema Ibérico turolense. In the first, the Moncayo stands out with 2314 m, formed by Paleozoic quartzites and slates, partly covered by Mesozoic limestones; to the southeast of the Moncayo the Sistema Ibérico descends of height. The second is formed by elevated terrain (from 1000 to 2000 m in general), but flattened and massive. To the southwest of the depression the summits of the Sierra de Albarracín range are reached above 1800 m, southeast the 2000 m are reached in the Sierra de Javalambre range and finally we arrive at the Sierra de Gúdar range (2024 m) transition to Maestrazgo.

Climate and vegetation

Although the climate of Aragon can be considered, in general, as a continental Mediterranean climate, its irregular orography creates several climates or microclimates throughout the entire community. From the High mountain climate of the central Pyrenees to the north, with perpetual ice (glaciers), to the steppe or semi-desert zones, such as the Monegros, passing through the intense Continental climate of the Teruel-Daroca area.

The main characteristics of the Aragonese climate are:[7]

  • The aridity, product of a situation of bucket fitted between the Pyrenean mountain ranges of the north and the Sistema Ibérico to the south, that makes the rains discharge in these high foothills and creates a central situation of absence of precipitations and contrasts of temperatures, with very prolonged extreme seasons with very cold winters and hot summers, and of transition—spring and autumn—short and variable, all inherent to the continental climate specific to the Iberian Peninsula.
Desierto de los Monegros
Monegros site, of arid climate and extreme temperatures.
  • The irregularity of the rains due to the component Mediterranean climate, with alternating dry and wet years.
  • The air currents that are encased in the middle Ebro Valley from northwest to southeast (cierzo), which stands out for its intensity and frequency, and from southeast to northwest (heat index).

Average temperatures are very dependent on height. In the Ebro Valley the winters are relatively moderate, although the frosts are very common and the thermal sensation can decrease a lot with the cierzo, temperatures in summer can reach near the 40 °C. In mountain areas winters are long and rigorous, average temperatures can be up to 10 °C lower than in the valley.

The two most important winds of Aragon are the cierzo of the north and the heat index of levant. The first is a very cold and dry wind that crosses the Ebro Valley from northwest to southeast and that can present great strength and speed. The second is a warm wind, more irregular and smooth coming from the south-east.

The vegetation follows the oscillations of relief and climate. There is a great variety, be it wild vegetation or human crops. In the high areas you can find forests (pines, firs, beech trees, oaks), bushes and meadows, while the areas of Ebro Valley evergreen oak and juniper are the most numerous trees, apart from the lands exploited for agricultural use.

Hydrography

Basilica del Pilar-sunset
The Ebro river on its way through Zaragoza.

Most Aragonese rivers are tributaries of the Ebro, which is the strongest in Spain and divides the community in two. Of the tributaries of the left bank of the river, that is to say the rivers originating in the Pyrenees, the Aragón river stands out, which was born in Huesca but ends at the community of Navarre, the Gállego and the Cinca, which joins the Segre just before emptying into the Ebro at the height of Mequinenza. On the right bank, the Jalón, Huerva and Guadalope stand out.

In the stream bed of the Ebro river, near the limit with Catalonia, the Mequinenza Reservoir, of 1530 hm3 and a length of about 110 km; it is popularly known as the "Sea of Aragon".

Special mention in the hydrography deserve the small Pyrenean mountain lakes called ibones. These lakes, of great scenic beauty, have their origin in the last glaciation and are usually found above 2000 m.

It should be noted that the Autonomous Community belongs to three hydrographic confederations, the aforementioned Ebro, the Tagus (which is born in the Sierra de Albarracín range) and the Júcar which has as its main river in this community the Turia.

Protected Spaces

Circo de Soaso
Circo glaciar de Soaso, in the Ordesa Valley, of the Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park.

In Aragon, protected natural spaces are managed through the Red Natural de Aragón, an entity created in 2004 to protect all elements with ecological, landscape and cultural value and at the same time coordinate and establish common standards that contribute to their conservation and sustainable use. In this entity are integrated national parks, natural parks, nature reserves, biosphere reserves and other protected natural areas that have been declared by the autonomous community, the Ramsar Convention or the Natura 2000.[8]

Within the protected areas is the only national park of Aragon: the Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park, the second national park created in Spain, in 1918, it is found in the Pyrenees in the comarca of Sobrarbe, occupies an area of 15608 ha, apart of the 19679 ha of the peripheral area of protection. At the moment it also enjoys other figures of Protection like the Biosphere Reserve of Ordesa-Viñamala and is cataloged as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.[9]

In addition there are other 4 natural parks: the Moncayo Natural Park with an extension of 11144 ha, the Sierra y Cañones de Guara Natural Park with 47453 ha and 33286 ha of peripheral area of protection, the Posets-Maladeta Natural Park with 33440.6 ha and 5920.2 ha of peripheral area of protection, and the Valles Occidentales Natural Park with 27073 ha and 7335 ha of peripheral area of protection.

There are also three nature reserves, five natural monuments and three protected landscapes.[10]

History

Aragon, occupying the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula has served as a bridge between the Mediterranean Sea, the peninsular center and the coasts of the Cantabrian Sea. The human presence in the lands that today form the autonomous community date back several millennia, but the current Aragon, like many of the current historical nationalities, were formed during the Middle Ages.

Prehistory

Paleolítico en Aragón
Paleolithic in Aragon.

The oldest testimonies of human life in the lands that today make up Aragon go back to the time of the glaciations, in the Pleistocene, some 600000 years ago. This population left the Acheulean industry that found its best weapons in the hand axes of flint or the cleavers of quartzite. In the Upper Palaeolithic appeared two new cultures: Solutrean and Magdalenian. The Epipaleolithic was centered in Lower Aragon, occupying the epoch between the 7th and the 5th millennium.

In the first half of the 5th millennium BCE, Neolithic remains are found in the Huescan Outer Ranges and in Lower Aragon. The Eneolithic was characterized in the province of Huesca presenting two important megalithic nuclei: the Pre-Pyrenees of the Outer Ranges and the High Pyrenean valleys.

The Late Bronze Age begins in Aragon around 1100 BCE with the arrival of the Urnfield culture. They are Indo-European people, with an alleged origin in Central Europe, who incinerate their dead by placing the ashes in a funeral urn. There are examples in the Cave del Moro of Olvena, the Masada del Ratón in Fraga, Palermo and the Cabezo de Monleón in Caspe.

From the metallurgical point of view there seems to be a boom given the increase in foundry molds that are located in the populations.

The Iron Age is the most important, since throughout the centuries it is the true substratum of the Aragonese historical population. The arrival of Central Europeans during the Bronze Age by Pyrenees until reaching the Lower Aragon area, supposed an important ethnic contribution that prepared the way to the invasions of Iron Age.

Ancient history

Murallaromanadezaragoza
The remains of the Roman walls of Zaragoza.
WLM14ES - Zaragoza Exposición sobre Augusto 00006 -
Bust of Augustus found in Tarazona.

The Mediterranean contributions represented a commercial activity that will constitute a powerful stimulus for the iron metallurgy, promoting the modernization of the tools and the indigenous armament, replacing the old bronze with the iron. There is presence of Phoenician, Greek and Etruscan products.

In the 6th century BCE there are six groups with different social organization: products Vascones, Suessetani, Sedetani, Iacetani, Ilergetes and Citerior Celtiberians. They are Iberized groups with a tendency towards stability, fixing their habitat in durable populations, with dwellings that evolve towards more enduring and stable models. There are many examples in Aragon, among which Cabezo de Monleón in Caspe, Puntal of Fraga, Roquizal del Rullo or Loma de los Brunos. The type of social organization was based on the family group, consisting of four generations. Self-sufficient societies in which the greater part of the population was dedicated to agricultural and livestock activities. In the Iberian scope the power was monarchical, exercised by a king; there was a democratic assembly with participation of the male population. There were visible social differentiations and established legal-political statutes.

The Romans arrived and progressed easily into the interior. In the territorial distribution that Rome made of Hispania, the current Aragon was included in the Hispania Citerior. In the year 197 BCE, Sempronius Tuditanus is the praetor of the Citerior and had to face a general uprising in their territories that ended with the Roman defeat and the own death of Tuditanus. In view of these facts the Senate sent the consul Marcus Porcius Cato with an army of 60000 men. The indigenous peoples of the area were rebelling, except for the Ilergetes who negotiated peace with Cato. There were different uprisings of the Iberian peoples against the Romans, in 194 BCE sees a general uprising with elimination of half of the Roman army, in 188 BCE Manlius Acidinus Fulvianus, praetor of the Citerior, must confront in Calagurris (Calahorra) with the Celtiberians, in the 184 BCE Terentius Varro did it with the Suessetani, to those who took the capital, Corbio. In the 1st century BCE Aragon was the scene of the civil war to seize the power of Rome where the governor Quintus Sertorius made Osca (Huesca) the capital of all the territories controlled by them.

Syd 1358
Denarius silver from Huesca.

Already in the 1st century BCE, the today Aragonese territory became part of the province Tarraconensis and there was the definitive romanization of it creating roads and consolidating ancient Celtiberian and Iberian cities such as Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza), Turiaso (Tarazona), Osca (Huesca) or Bilbilis (Calatayud).

In the middle of the 3rd century the decay of the Roman Empire began. Between the years 264 and 266 the Franks and the Alemanni, two Germanic peoples who passed through the Pyrenees and came to Tarazona, which they sacked. In the agony of the Empire groups of bandits emerged who were dedicated to pillage. The Ebro Valley was ravaged in the 5th century by several gangs of evildoers called Bagaudae.

Middle Ages

Estancias testero norte aljaferia
The Aljafería, of the 11th century, was residence of the Banu Hud kings of the Taifa of Saraqusta.

After the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, the current area of Aragon was occupied by the Visigoths, forming the Visigothic Kingdom.

In the year 714 the muslims conquered the central area of Aragon, converting to Islam the ancient Roman cities such as Saraqusta (Zaragoza) or Wasqa (Huesca). It was at this time that an important Muladi family was formed, the Banu Qasi (بنو قاسي), their domains were located in the Ebro Valley between the 8th and 10th centuries. After the disappearance of the Caliphate of Córdoba at the beginning of the 11th century, the Taifa of Zaragoza arose, one of the most important Taifas of Al-Andalus, leaving a great artistic, cultural and philosophical legacy.

The name of Aragon is documented for the first time during the Early Middle Ages in the year 828, when the small County of Aragon of Frankish origin, would emerge between the rivers that bear its name, the Aragón river, and its brother the Aragón Subordán river.

Castillo de Loarre 2006
Castle of Loarre was built and expanded to serve as a frontier advance towards Muslim territories. It is one of the most important intact Romanesque castles in Europe.
Monasterio Antiguo de San Juan de la Peña - CS 22082009 160730 45635
Royal Monastery of San Juan de la Peña. In its Royal Pantheon a good number of kings of Aragon and some kings of Navarre are buried.

That County of Aragon would be linked to the Kingdom of Pamplona until 1035, and under its wing it would grow to form a dowry of García Sánchez III of Pamplona to the death of the king Sancho "the Great", in a period characterized by Muslim hegemony in almost the entire Iberian Peninsula. Under the reign of Ramiro I of Aragon would be extended borders with the annexation of the counties of Sobrarbe and Ribagorza (year 1044), after having incorporated populations of the historical comarca of Cinco Villas.

In 1076, on the death of Sancho IV of Pamplona, Aragon incorporated part of the Navarrese kingdom into its territories while Castile did the same with the western area of the former domains of Sancho "the Great". During the reigns of Sancho Ramírez and Peter I of Aragon and Pamplona, the kingdom extended its borders to the south, established threatening fortresses on the capital of Zaragoza in El Castellar and Juslibol and took Huesca, which became the new capital.

This leads to the reign of Alfonso I of Aragon that would conquer the flat lands of the middle Ebro Valley for Aragon: Ejea de los Caballeros, Valtierra , Calatayud, Tudela and Zaragoza, the capital of the Taifa of Saraqusta. At his death the nobles would choose his brother Ramiro II of Aragon, who left his religious life to assume the royal scepter and perpetuate the dynasty, which he achieved with the dynastic union of the House of Aragon with the owner of the County of Barcelona in 1137, year in which the union of both patrimonies would give rise to the Crown of Aragon and would add the forces that to its they would make the conquests of the Kingdom of Majorca and the Kingdom of Valencia possible. The Crown of Aragon would become the hegemonic power of the Mediterranean, controlling territories as important as Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia or Naples.

The monarch was known as King of Aragon and also held the titles of King of Valencia, King of Majorca (for a time), Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier, and (temporarily) Duke of Athens and Neopatria. Each of these titles gave him sovereignty over the specific region, and the titles changed as territories were lost and won.

According to Aragonese law, the monarch had to swear allegiance to the Kingdom's laws before being accepted as king. Like other Pyrenean and Basque realms, the Aragonese justice and decision making system was based on Pyrenean consuetudinary law, the King was considered primus inter pares ('first among equals') within the nobility. A nobleman with the title "Chustizia d'Aragón"[11] acted as ombudsman and was responsible for ensuring that the King obeyed the Aragonese laws. An old saying goes, "en Aragón antes de Rey hubo Ley" ("in Aragon Law came before King"), similar to the saying in Navarre, "antes fueron Leyes que Reyes", with much the same meaning.

The subsequent legend made the Aragonese monarchy eligible and created a phrase of coronation of the king that would be perpetuated for centuries:

We, who are worth as much as you we make you our King and Lord, as long as you keep our fueros and liberties, and if not, not.

— The Chustizia d'Aragón
Aragonese Empire 1443
The Crown of Aragon in the middle of the 15th century.

This situation would be repeated in the Commitment of Caspe (1412), which avoids a war that had dismembered the Crown of Aragon when a good handful of aspirants to the throne emerged after the death of Martin of Aragon a year after the death of his first-born, Martin I of Sicily. Ferdinand I of Aragon is the chosen one, of the Castilian House of Trastámara, but also directly connected with the Aragonese king Peter IV of Aragon, through his mother Eleanor of Aragon.

Aragon is already a large-scale political entity: the Crown, the Cortes, the Deputation of the Kingdom and the Foral Law constitute its nature and its character. The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon with Isabella I of Castile, celebrated in 1469 in Valladolid, derived later in the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, creating the bases of the Modern State.

Early Modern Age ca 1500-1789

The Early Modern Age was marked by increasing tension between the power of the Spanish Monarchy and those of the regions. The appointment of a Castilian as Viceroy in 1590, contrary to the agreement all Royal officials be Aragonese caused widespread unrest; when the Madrid authorities attempted to arrest the Aragonese writer and politician Antonio Perez in May 1591, it caused street violence in Zaragossa and a revolt known as the Alterations of Aragon.[12] The unrest was largely confined to Zaragossa and quickly suppressed, with Perez going into exile. Philip then ordered a reduction in the proportion of taxes retained by the Generality of Aragon to lessen their capacity to raise an army against him.[13]

Aragonia Regnum
Aragonia Regnum, map of the Blaeu based on that of João Baptista Lavanha published circa 1640.

The decay of independent institutions meant political activity focused instead on the preservation of Aragonese history, culture and art. The Archive of the Kingdom of Aragon preserved legal documents and records from the Justiciar and the Palace of Deputation or Parliament, unfortunately largely destroyed by the French in the battles of 1809. Debates on the causes of the 1590/91 revolt became a contest between opposing views of history that arguably persist in modern Spain.

The new emphasis on Aragonese history led to the creation of the position of Chronicler or Historian of Aragon; its holders included Jerónimo Zurita y Castro, the De Argensola brothers, Bartolomé and Lupercio, Juan Costa and Jerónimo Martel. Much of the work produced by Aragonese writers challenged Philip II's version of events and were censored by the central government. In retaliation, the Generality of Aragon ordered the work of Castilian historian Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas to be burned and commissioned Vicencio Blasco de Lanuza to write an alternative. His 'History of Aragon' was published in two volumes, 1616 and 1619 respectively; the urgency shows the importance placed on responding to Herrera. Other works commissioned at this time for the same purpose include a History of the Aragonese Deputation by Lorenzo Ibáñez de Aoiz and a detailed cartography of the Kingdom of Aragon by João Baptista Lavanha.

In 1590/91, the Spanish monarchy was at the height of its strength but during the 17th century Spanish power declined for a number of reasons.[14] Famine, disease and almost continuous warfare, largely in the Spanish Netherlands drained money, energy and men and weakened the economy; it is estimated the population of Spain fell nearly 25% between 1600-1700.

War and economic decline inevitably led to increases in taxes, with predictable results; the refusal of the Catalan Cortes to contribute their share of the 1626 Union of Arms eventually led to a full-scale revolt in 1640.[15] While Aragon itself remained relatively peaceful, it had to be treated with care by the Madrid government; during the reign of Charles II from 1665-1700, it provided his half-brother John of Austria with a power base in his battle for control of government with the Queen Regent Mariana of Austria.

During the 1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession, Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia and Majorca supported the Austrian claimant Charles. The victory of Philip V accelerated the trend towards greater centralisation; the Nueva Planta decrees of 1707 abolished the fueros and Aragonese political structures with their powers transferred to the Deputation of the Kingdom in Madrid; Aragon and Valencia were brought into the system in 1712, Catalonia and Majorca following in 1767.[16]

1790 - 1936

Gobierno Político de Aragón
1820 Emblem of the Political Government of Aragon under the Liberal Triennium (1820).

The French invasion of 1808 that made Joseph Bonaparte King led to the outbreak of the Guerra de la Independencia Española or War of Independence in May. Zaragoza was largely destroyed in February 1809 during the Second Siege of Zaragoza, bringing a halt to its economic development. The 1812 Constitution proposed a number of reforms, including the creation of provincial territories and dividing Aragon into the four provinces of Calatayud, Teruel, Soria and Guadalajara. However, these reforms were delayed by Ferdinand VII's refusal to accept the constitution and finally implemented in 1822 during the 1820-23 Trienio Liberal. When Ferdinand was restored by French Bourbon forces in 1823, he abolished the Constitution along with the provincial reforms. When he died in 1833, the provincial division of 1833 divided Aragon into its current three provinces.

Santa Engracia - Lejeune
French troops storm the Abbey of Santa Engracia, February 1809, painted by Lejeune.

Throughout the 19th century, Aragon was a stronghold of the Carlists, who offered to restore the fueros and other rights associated with the former Kingdom of Aragon. This period saw a massive exodus from the countryside into the larger cities of Aragon such as Huesca, Zaragoza, Teruel or Calatayud and other nearby regions, such as Catalonia or Madrid.

The history of Aragon in the first half of the 20th century was similar to that of the rest of Spain; the building of infrastructure and reforms made by Miguel Primo de Rivera led to a brief economic boom, with new civil and individual liberties during the Second Spanish Republic. In June 1936, a draft Statute of Autonomy of Aragon was presented to the Cortes Generales but the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War prevented the development of this autonomist project.

1936 to present

During the 1936-39 civil war, Aragon was divided between the two sides. The Eastern Area which was closer to Catalonia was run by the Republican Regional Defence Council of Aragon, while the larger or Western Area was controlled by the Nationalists. Some of the most important battles were fought in Aragon, including Belchite, Teruel and Ebro. After the defeat of the Republic in April 1939, Aragon and the rest of Spain was governed by the Francoist dictatorship.

Calle de Belchite
Belchite town, destroyed during the Battle of Belchite became a symbol of the Spanish Civil War.

During the 1960s an exodus and a depopulation of the rural zones towards the industrial zones like the provincial capitals, other areas of Spain, besides other European countries was triggered. In 1964, one of the so-called Development Poles was created in Zaragoza.

In the 1970s a period of transition as in the rest of the Country was experienced, after the extinction of the previous regime, with the recovery of democratic normality and the creation of a new constitutional framework.

It began to demand an own political autonomy, for the Aragonese historical territory; sentiment that was reflected in the historic manifestation of April 23 of 1978 that brought together more than 100000 aragoneses through the streets of Zaragoza. Not having plebiscited, in the past, affirmatively a draft Statute of autonomy (second transitory provision of the constitution) and not making use of the difficult access to autonomy by Article 151 whose aggravated procedure required, apart from the initiative of the process autonomic follow the steps of article 143, which was ratified by three quarters of the municipalities of each of the affected provinces that represent at least the majority of the electoral census, and that this initiative was approved by referendum by the affirmative vote of the majority absolute of the electors of each province, Aragon acceded to the self-government by the slow way of article 143 obtaining lower competence top, and less self-management of resources, during more than 20 years.

The August 10 of 1982, was approved by the Cortes Generales the Aragon's autonomy statute, signed by the then president of the Government, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, and sanctioned by His Majesty Juan Carlos I of Spain.

The May 7 of 1992 a Special Commission of the Aragonese Corts, elaborated a reformed text that was approved by the Aragonese Corts and by the Spanish Cortes. Again, a small statutory reform in the year 1996 extended the competence framework, forcing a definitive comprehensive review for several years, a new statutory text was approved in 2007, by majority but without reaching total unanimity.

In the 1990s the Aragonese society increases a significant qualitative step in the quality of life due to the economic progress of the State at all levels.

At the beginning of the 21st century, a significant increase in infrastructures was established, such as the arrival of the High Speed Train (AVE), the construction of the new dual carriageway Somport-Sagunto and the promotion of the two airports in the Autonomous Community, Zaragoza and Huesca-Pirineos. At the same time, large technological projects are being undertaken, such as the Walqa Technology Park and the implementation of a telematic network throughout the community.

Expo 2008 Zaragoza 0
General view of the Expo 2008 from the Torre del Agua.

In 2007 the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon was reformed again -which was approved by a broad consensus in the Aragonese Corts, having the support of the PSOE, the PP, the PAR and the IU, whereas CHA abstained- granting the Autonomous Community the recognition of historical nationality (since the Organic Law of 1996 reform of the statute, it had the condition of nationality[17]), includes a new title on the Administration of Chustizia and another on the rights and duties of the Aragoneses and guiding principles of public policies, the possibility of creating an own tax agency in collaboration with that of the State, and also the obligation to public authorities to ensure to avoid transfers from watersheds such as transfer of the Ebro, among many other modifications of the Statute of Autonomy.

The designation of Zaragoza as the venue for the 2008 International Exhibition, whose thematic axis was Water and Sustainable development, represented a series of changes and accelerated growth for the autonomous community. In addition, two anniversaries were celebrated that same year, the bicentennial of Sieges of Zaragoza of the War of Independence against the Napoleonic invasion, occurred in 1808 and the centenary of the Hispano-French Exposition of 1908 that it supposed as a modern event, to demonstrate the cultural and economic thrust of Aragon and at the same time serve to strengthen ties and staunch wounds with the French neighbors after the events of the Napoleonic Wars of the previous century.

Demographics

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1787623,055—    
1857880,643+41.3%
1900912,711+3.6%
1910952,743+4.4%
1920997,154+4.7%
19301,031,559+3.5%
19401,058,806+2.6%
19501,094,002+3.3%
19601,105,498+1.1%
19701,152,708+4.3%
19811,213,099+5.2%
19911,221,546+0.7%
20011,204,215−1.4%
20111,344,509+11.7%
20171,313,581−2.3%
Source: INE

As of 2015, half of Aragon's population, 50.45%, live in the capital city of Zaragoza. Huesca is the only other city in the region with a population greater than 50000.

The majority of Aragonese citizens, 71.8%, live in the province of Zaragoza. 17.1% live in the province of Huesca, and 11.1% in the province of Teruel.[18] The population density of the region is the second lowest in Spain after Castilla-La Mancha: only 26.8/km². The most densely populated areas are around the valley of the river Ebro, particularly around Zaragoza, and in the Pyrenean foothills, while the areas with the fewest inhabitants tend to be those that are higher up in the Pyrenean mountains, and in most of the southern province of Teruel.

Only four cities have a population of more than 20000: Zaragoza 700000, Huesca 50000, Teruel 35000, and Calatayud 20000.

Languages

Aragon languages
Distribution of local languages in Aragon. Red: Aragonese, Purple: Catalan, Yellow: Spanish. Spanish is spoken in all of Aragon, and is the only official language

Spanish is the native language in most of Aragon, and it is the only official language, understood and spoken by virtually everyone in the region. In addition to it, the Aragonese language continues to be spoken in several local varieties in the mountainous northern counties of the Pyrenees, particularly in western Ribagorza, Sobrarbe, Jacetania and Somontano; it is enjoying a resurgence of popularity as a tool for regional identity. In the easternmost areas of Aragon, along the border with Catalonia, varieties of the Catalan language are spoken, including the comarcas of eastern Ribagorza, La Litera, Bajo Cinca, Bajo Aragón-Caspe, Bajo Aragón and Matarraña. The strip-shaped Catalan-speaking area in Aragon is often called La Franja.

Territorial division

Aragon is divided into three provinces from north to south, named after their capitals: Huesca, Zaragoza and Teruel. The provinces are further divided into 33 comarcas, three of which are in more than one province. There are a total of 732 municipalities in the region.

Culture

Jota aragonesa
Jota musicians and dancers.
Indumentaria tradicional fragatina
The Fragatina costume historical of Fraga

Some medieval monuments of Teruel and Zaragoza are protected by UNESCO as part of the World Heritage Sites Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon.

The traditional dance of Aragon is known as jota and is one of the faster Spanish dances. It is also the most widespread in Aragon and the exact style and music depend on the area.

There are other less popular dances named "paloteaos" similar to the sword/stick dances of other regions.

The music to one local dance, "The Dance of Majordomos" of Benasque, was so enjoyed by Rafael del Riego on a visit to the town that he ordered it to be copied resulting in the "Hymn of Riego" .

Typical Aragonese instruments include the stringed drum or "Chicotén", bagpipes such as the "gaita de boto", oboes such as the "Dulzaina", and small flutes like the "Chiflo". Some instruments have been lost, such as the "trompa de Ribagorza", although there have been efforts to reconstruct them. In contrast to other Pyrenean regions, the "Chicotén" and "Chiflo" never have stopped being played.[19]

The Carnival of Bielsa[20] (Huesca) has ancient origins and includes a group of men carrying long sticks, wearing skirts, cowbells and boucard/goat-like horns and skins with black-painted faces called "Trangas" symbolising "virility" who surround another man wearing skins playing the part of a bear called "l'onso". In Aragonese mythology the bear carried souls between the world of the living and the world of the dead. Trangas dance with young females named "madamas" symbolising "purity" and wearing colourful dresses. Other traditional figures include a horse rider named "Caballé".

Cuisine

With its lush Pyrenean pastures, lamb, beef, and dairy products are, not surprisingly, predominant in Aragonese cuisine. Also of note is its ham from Teruel; olive oil from Empeltre and Arbequina; longaniza from Graus; rainbow trout and salmon, boar, truffles and wild mushrooms from the upper river valleys of the Jacetania, Gallego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza regions; and wines from Cariñena, Somontano, Calatayud, and Campo de Borja; and fruit, especially peaches, from its fertile lower valleys. The region also features a unique local haggis, known as chireta, several interesting seafood dishes, including various crab pastes, which developed from an old superstition that crabs help prevent illness, and sweets such as "Adoquines del Pilar" and "Frutas de Aragón". There are also other sweets like "Tortas de alma" from Teruel and "Trenza de Almudevar" or "Castañas de Huesca" from Huesca.

Economy

Aragon is among the richest autonomous regions in Spain, with GDP per capita above the nation's average. The traditional agriculture-based economy from the mid-20th century has been greatly transformed in the past several decades and now service and industrial sectors are the backbone of the economy in the region.

The well-developed irrigation system around the Ebro has greatly supported the productive agriculture. The most important crops include wheat, barley, rye, fruit and grapes. Livestock-breeding is essential especially in the northern areas, where the lush meadows provide excellent conditions for sheep and cattle. The main livestock are cattle, 334600; sheep, 2862100; pigs, 3670000; goats, 78000; and poultry, 20545000.[21]

The chief industrial centre is the capital Zaragoza, where the largest factories are located. The largest plant is the Opel automotive plant with 8730 employees and production of 200000 per year. It supports many related industries in the area. Other large plants in the city include factories for trains and household appliances. Mining of iron ore and coal is developed to the south, near Ojos Negros. Electricity production is concentrated to the north where numerous hydro power plants are located along the Pyrenean rivers and in the 1150 MW Teruel Power Plant. There is an aluminium refinery in the town of Sabiñánigo. The main centres of electronics industry are Zaragoza, Huesca and Benabarre. Chemical industry is developed in Zaragoza, Sabiñánigo, Monzón, Teruel, Ojos Negros, Fraga, Benabarre and others.

The transport infrastructure has been greatly improved. There are more than[data missing] of motorways which run from Zaragoza to Madrid, Teruel, Basque country, Huesca and Barcelona. The condition of the other roads is also good. As of 2016 there are 899008 cars in Aragon.[3] Through the territory of the province runs the new high-speed railway between Madrid and Barcelona with siding from Zaragoza to Huesca, which is going to be continued to the French border. There is an International Airport at Zaragoza, as well as several smaller airports at Huesca, Caudé, Santa Cilia de Jaca and Villanueva de Gállego.

The unemployment rate stood at 11.6% in 2017 and was lower than the national average.[22]

Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
unemployment rate
(in %)
5.5 5.3 7.3 13.1 15.0 17.1 18.7 21.4 20.2 16.3 14.7 11.6

Government and politics

Current political organization

As an autonomous community of Spain, Aragon has an elected regional parliament (Spanish: Cortes de Aragón, Aragonese: Cortz d'Aragón, Catalan: Corts d'Aragó) with 67 seats. It meets in the Aljafería, a Moorish palace in the capital city, Zaragoza. The Parliament chooses a President for the Diputación General de Aragón or Aragon Government, for a four-year term. The current president (since July 2015) is Javier Lambán of the PSOE. Nationally, Aragon elects 13 Deputies and 14 Senators to the Cortes Generales.

In addition to the Spanish-based political parties, there are a number of Aragón-based parties, such as the Chunta Aragonesista, a left-wing Aragonese nationalist party, and the Aragonese Party, more conservative. Chunta Aragonesista had a seat in Spain's national Congress of Deputies from 2000 to 2008, while the centrist Aragonese Party has three national senators, who are in coalition with the ruling People's Party.[23]

In a 2011 regional government survey, 47.6% of the population wanted greater autonomy for Aragon, while 35.2% were satisfied with its current level of autonomy. A total of 6% wanted an end to autonomy and 3.2% wanted full independence.[24]

Historic

Aragon in the Middle Ages was the hub of the wider Crown of Aragon. The Crown was represented in the region from 1517 by a viceroy.

In 1479, King Ferdinand II of Aragon married Isabella I of Castile, a kingdom covering much of the rest of modern Spain. However, until the Nueva Planta decrees of 1707, Aragon maintained its own separate laws and institutions.

Media

Aragon has media set-ups in television, radio and numerous newspapers.

Television

On 21 April 2006, regional television broadcasts in Aragon officially began with the launch of Aragón TV. The law which established the CARTV (Aragon Corporation Radio and Television) dated from 1987, but various political disputes delayed the project for several legislatures.

During the years that Aragon had no public television, several media groups sought to supplement their absence. For one TVE-Aragon, taking the Territorial Centre in Zaragoza, produced several programs and educational activities with the Aragonese town. As for private groups, there were several projects. The most widely accepted for many years had been Antena Aragón, which came to be regarded as regional television. This channel was created in 1998 and disappeared in 2005 shortly after having to leave the Media Production Centre (CPA), as this was built by the DGA for future public television host Aragon. With the push for the creation of public television, Antena Aragón merged with RTVA (Radio Television Aragonesa) belonging to the Herald Group. Merging RTVA Antena Aragón and led to channel ZTV (Zaragoza Television). Moreover, Antena 3 Televisión aired for several years, and off to Aragon, a news report fully Aragonese, having a central issue in the Pinares de Venecia in Zaragoza, within the premises of the Theme Park of Zaragoza.

Aragón TV was launched in 2006 after spending a season broadcasting a letter and a loop with images of Aragonese villages and audio of regional radio programs.

Radio

Aragon Radio, began broadcasting on 18 August 2005 at 5PM with the sound of drums and drums of Calanda and a group song Zaragoza "The Fish". Estimates of its audience range from 20 000 listeners, according to the latest EMG, to 70000, according to private findings. The channel has regional news bulletins every hour from 7AM to midnight and coverage of sports.

Sport

Nowadays SD Huesca is the best team in Aragon because it is the only team of the region in La Liga (Football First Division), reaching this achievement for the first time in its history in the season 2017/2018.

Grada Norte La Romareda
La Romareda, home ground of Real Zaragoza.

However, Aragon's most successful football club ever is Real Zaragoza. The club was founded in 1932 and spent 58 seasons in First DIvision, having played at its current ground, La Romareda, since 1957. Real Zaragoza have won six Copa del Rey titles from 1964 to 2004,[25] and the 1995 European Cup Winners' Cup. There are plenty of smaller clubs in the region, like CD Teruel.

Skiing is popular in the Pyrenean north of Aragon, at resorts such as Formigal and Candanchú.[26] The Aragonese city of Jaca in the Pyrennes bid to host the Winter Olympics from 2002 to 2014.[27] Zaragoza was considering a bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics,[28][29] but dropped it in 2011 to strengthen the chance of Barcelona winning the games.[30]

The Ciudad del Motor de Aragón, also known as Motorland Aragón, is a motorsport race track located near Alcañiz in Aragon. It is home to the Aragon motorcycle Grand Prix.

Notable people from Aragon

Up to the 19th century

20th and 21st centuries

Image gallery

Alquézar - vista de la Colegiata

Collegiate Church of Santa María la Mayor in Alquézar

Capilla Mayor de la Cripta de Santa Maria del Perdon

Gothic murals of the Crypt of Santa María del Perdón of the Church of San Esteban in Sos del Rey Católico

Puerta Baja, Daroca, Zaragoza, España, 2014-01-08, DD 07

Puerta Baja gate in Daroca

151 Ambista d'a ilesia de Santa María d'Uncastiello dende a ilesia de San Chuan

Church of Santa María in Uncastillo

Ciudadela Jaca Vista Aerea

Citadel of Jaca in Jaca

See also

References

  1. ^ "LEY 10/2009, de 22 de diciembre, de uso, protección y promoción de las lenguas propias de Aragón" (PDF). Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
  2. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. ^ a b c d "Aragon Basic Data, 2017" (PDF). aragon.es. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-03-17. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
  4. ^ jiriarte (2010-07-16). "Aragon". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  5. ^ "PIB de las Comunidades Autónomas" [GDP of the Autonomous Communities]. datosmacro.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  6. ^ "folleto_guara_fr_en.pdf" (PDF). Sierra de Guara. 2018-03-17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-03-17. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  7. ^ José María Cuadrat Prats, "El clima de Aragón", in J. L. Peña, L. A. Longares and M. Sánchez (editions), Geografía Física de Aragón. Aspectos generales y temáticos, Zaragoza, University of Zaragoza and Fernando el Católico Institution, pp. 15-26. 2004.
  8. ^ Natural 2000 of Aragon Government of Aragón.
  9. ^ Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park Government of Aragon.
  10. ^ Spaces integrated into the Natural 2000 of Aragon Government of Aragon.
  11. ^ "El Justicia de Aragón". Eljusticiadearagon.com. 2007-02-27. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
  12. ^ Zagorin, Perez (1982). Rebels and Rulers, 1500-1660: Volume 2, Provincial Rebellion. Cambridge University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 052128712X.
  13. ^ Pérez Gascón, Jesús. "The Aragonese Rebellion of 1591". Academia.edu. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  14. ^ Storrs, Christopher. [gale.cengage.co.uk/images/SpainChristopherStorrs.pdf "The Decline of Spain in the Seventeenth Century"] Check |url= value (help) (PDF). State Papers Online. Gale;Cengage Learning. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  15. ^ Zagorin, Perez (1982). Rebels and Rulers, 1500-1660: Volume 2, Provincial Rebellion. Cambridge University Press. pp. 34–37. ISBN 052128712X.
  16. ^ Vives Vi, Jaime (1969). An Economic History of Spain. Princeton University Press. p. 591. ISBN 0691051658. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  17. ^ State Agency Official State Gazette (December 31, 1996). "Organic Law 5/1996, of December 30, of Reform of the Organic Law 8/1982, of August 10, of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, modified by the Organic Law 6/1994, of March 24, of reform of said Statute". Documento BOE-A-1996-29115. Retrieved February 17, 2015.
  18. ^ "Cifras completas". Archived from the original on 2007-02-03.
  19. ^ Alberto Turón Lanuza. "El Web de la Música Tradicional Aragonesa". Arafolk. Archived from the original on 2012-06-21. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
  20. ^ "Carnabal de la Balle de Bielsa". Carnaval de Bielsa. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
  21. ^ "Gobierno de Aragón". Portal.aragob.es. Archived from the original on 2009-08-13. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  22. ^ "Regional Unemployment by NUTS2 Region". Eurostat.
  23. ^ Grupos Parlamentarios | Senado de España
  24. ^ Barómetro de Opinión de Invierno 2011 - Aragón_hoy
  25. ^ Spain - List of Cup Finals Archived January 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Season start Aragón – Ski season opening Aragón – Season begin Aragón
  27. ^ Jaca to bid for 2014 Winter Games
  28. ^ Juegos Olímpicos Zaragoza Pirineos 2022 « Candidatura a los JJOO de Invierno de 2022 (No Oficial) Archived June 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza.Zaragoza Turismo. Candidatura Olimpica 2022 Archived January 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Barcelona is now Spain's sole candidate for the 2022 Winter Olympics | News | Homepage | The website of the Barcelona city Archived January 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.

Bibliography

  • Argensola, Lupercio; The events in Aragon, 1590 and 1591;
  • Argensola, Lupercio; Popular alterations of Zaragoza, 1591;
  • Costa, Juan; Annals;
  • De Aoiz, Lorenzo Ibáñez; Ceremonial and brief relation of all the charges and ordinary things of the Deputation of the Kingdom of Aragon; published 1611;
  • De Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio; History of the things that happened in this Kingdom;
  • De Lanuza, Vicencio Blasco; Secular and Ecclesiastical histories of Aragon; Volume 1 published 1616, Volume 2 1619;
  • Lavanha, João Baptista; Cartography of the Kingdom of Aragon; published 1611.
  • Zurita y Castro, Jerónimo; Anales de la Corona de Aragón; multi-volume history published between 1562 and 1580;

External links

Alfonso V of Aragon

Alfonso the Magnanimous KG (also Alphonso; Catalan: Alfons; 1396 – 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), Sicily (as Alfonso I) and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416, and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death. He was one of the most prominent figures of the early Renaissance and a knight of the Order of the Dragon.

Catherine of Aragon

Catherine of Aragon (Spanish: Catalina; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England from June 1509 until May 1533 as the first wife of King Henry VIII; she was previously Princess of Wales as the wife of Henry's elder brother Arthur.

The daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, Catherine was three years old when she was betrothed to Arthur, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the English throne. They married in 1501, but Arthur died five months later. She held the position of ambassador of the Aragonese Crown to England in 1507, the first female ambassador in European history. Catherine subsequently married Arthur's younger brother, the recently ascended Henry VIII, in 1509. For six months in 1513, she served as regent of England while Henry VIII was in France. During that time the English won the Battle of Flodden, an event in which Catherine played an important part with an emotional speech about English courage.By 1525, Henry VIII was infatuated with Anne Boleyn and dissatisfied that his marriage to Catherine had produced no surviving sons, leaving their daughter, the future Mary I of England, as heir presumptive at a time when there was no established precedent for a woman on the throne. He sought to have their marriage annulled, setting in motion a chain of events that led to England's schism with the Catholic Church. When Pope Clement VII refused to annul the marriage, Henry defied him by assuming supremacy over religious matters. In 1533 their marriage was consequently declared invalid and Henry married Anne on the judgement of clergy in England, without reference to the Pope. Catherine refused to accept Henry as Supreme Head of the Church in England and considered herself the King's rightful wife and queen, attracting much popular sympathy. Despite this, she was acknowledged only as Dowager Princess of Wales by Henry. After being banished from court, she lived out the remainder of her life at Kimbolton Castle, and died there on 7 January 1536. English people held Catherine in high esteem, and her death set off tremendous mourning.The controversial book The Education of a Christian Woman by Juan Luis Vives, which claimed women have the right to an education, was commissioned by and dedicated to her in 1523. Such was Catherine's impression on people that even her enemy, Thomas Cromwell, said of her, "If not for her sex, she could have defied all the heroes of History." She successfully appealed for the lives of the rebels involved in the Evil May Day, for the sake of their families. Catherine also won widespread admiration by starting an extensive programme for the relief of the poor. She was a patron of Renaissance humanism, and a friend of the great scholars Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More.

Catholic Monarchs

The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, being both descended from John I of Castile; on marriage they were given a papal dispensation to deal with consanguinity by Sixtus IV. They married on October 19, 1469, in the city of Valladolid; Isabella was eighteen years old and Ferdinand a year younger. It is generally accepted by most scholars that the unification of Spain can essentially be traced back to the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. Some newer historical opinions propose that under their rule, what later became Spain was still a union of two crowns rather than a unitary state, as to a large degree Castile and Aragon remained separate kingdoms, with most of their own separate institutions, for decades to come. The court of Ferdinand and Isabella was constantly on the move, in order to bolster local support for the crown from local feudal lords.

The title of "Catholic King and Queen" was bestowed on Ferdinand and Isabella by Pope Alexander VI in 1494, in recognition of their defense of the Catholic faith within their realms.

"Catholic monarchs" or "kings" can also be used in a generic sense (e.g., "the Pope had authority over Catholic monarchs..."); the particular or generic use can be distinguished from the context.

Ciudad del Motor de Aragón

The Ciudad del Motor de Aragón, also known as Motorland Aragón, is a 5.344 km (3.321 mi) motorsport race track located in Alcañiz, Spain.

The circuit has been designed by well-known German architect Hermann Tilke in conjunction with the British architectural firm Foster + Partners. Formula One driver and Ferrari test driver Pedro de la Rosa was a technical and sporting consultant on the project.The facility has been designed to incorporate three main zones – a technology park, a sports area and a leisure and culture area. The technology park will feature research and educational institutes related to the motor industry, the sports area will include the racing circuit (with multiple layouts), a karting track and various gravel circuits, whilst the leisure and culture section will feature a hotel, business centre and shopping facilities.

It was announced on 26 May 2008 that the circuit will host a round of the World Series by Renault in 2009, the first international championship to race at the venue. The event has returned to Aragón every year since, until the end of the championship in 2015. Renault Sport Technologies had access to the circuit for thirty days per year for testing and promotional events. When the World Series by Renault championship was discontinued at the end of 2015 and was relaunched in 2016 as Formula V8 3.5, the circuit continued to be part of the schedule. The race remained on the championship for the 2017 season, at the end of which the championship was discontinued.

On 18 March 2010, Motorland Aragón was announced as a replacement for the Balatonring on the 2010 MotoGP calendar. Aragón was already in place as a reserve event and replaces the Hungarian race which was postponed because of overrunning construction work. This made the Aragon motorcycle Grand Prix the fourth Spanish race on the calendar. In March 2011 Dorna Sports signed a contract with the circuit to make it a permanent entry on the main calendar until at least 2016. On 19 May 2010, it was announced that the circuit will hold a round of the Superbike World Championship from 2011, with a three-year deal being agreed.The circuit was used as part of stage seven of the 2012 Vuelta a España.

Crown of Aragon

The Crown of Aragon (; Aragonese: Corona d'Aragón, Catalan: Corona d'Aragó, Spanish: Corona de Aragón) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name.

In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.

Crown of Castile

The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715.

The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic.

The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556.

In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain.

Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians.

"King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.

Ferdinand II of Aragon

Ferdinand II (Aragonese: Ferrando; Catalan: Ferran; Basque: Errando; Spanish: Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic (Spanish: el Católico), was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy." As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, and her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth; had the child survived, the personal union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile would have ceased.

Ferdinand had a role in inaugurating the first European encounters in the future Americas, since he and Isabella sponsored the first voyage of Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), in 1492. That year was the final victory in the war with Granada which defeated the last Muslim state in Iberia and all of Western Europe. This brought to a close the centuries-long Christian reconquest of Iberia. For that Christian victory, Pope Alexander VI, born in the Kingdom of Valencia, awarded the royal couple the title of Catholic Monarchs. At Ferdinand's death Joanna's son, Ferdinand's grandson, Charles I, who was co-ruler in name over all the several Iberian kingdoms except for Portugal, succeeded him, making Charles the first King of Spain. However, during the regency of Ferdinand, many called him the King of Spain as distinct from his daughter Joanna, “queen of Castile”.

James I of Aragon

James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276; King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276; and Valencia from 1238 to 1276. His long reign—the longest of any Iberian monarch—saw the expansion of the House of Aragon and House of Barcelona in three directions: Languedoc to the north, the Balearic Islands to the southeast, and Valencia to the south. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. He renounced northward expansion and taking back the once Catalan territories in Occitania and vassal counties loyal to the County of Barcelona, lands that were lost by his father Peter II of Aragon in the Battle of Muret during the Albigensian Crusade and annexed by the Kingdom of France, and then decided to turn south. His great part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. One of the main reasons for this formal renunciation of most of the once Catalan territories in Languedoc and Occitania and any expansion into them is the fact that he was raised by the Knights Templar crusaders, who had defeated his father fighting for the Pope alongside the French, so it was effectively forbidden for him to try to maintain the traditional influence of the Count of Barcelona that previously existed in Occitania and Languedoc.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the European kings. James compiled the Llibre del Consolat de Mar, which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He was an important figure in the development of the Catalan language, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets.

Joanna of Castile

Joanna (6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555), known historically as Joanna the Mad (Spanish: Juana la Loca), was Queen of Castile from 1504, and of Aragon from 1516. Modern Spain evolved from the union of these two crowns. Joanna was married by arrangement to Philip the Handsome, Archduke of the House of Habsburg, on 20 October 1496. Following the deaths of her brother, John, Prince of Asturias, in 1497, her elder sister Isabella in 1498, and her nephew Miguel in 1500, Joanna became the heir presumptive to the crowns of Castile and Aragon. When her mother Queen Isabella I of Castile died in 1504, Joanna became Queen of Castile, while her father, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, proclaimed himself 'Governor and Administrator of Castile'. In 1506 Archduke Philip became King of Castile jure uxoris, initiating the rule of the Habsburgs in Spain, and died that same year. Despite being the ruling Queen of Castile, she had little effect on national policy during her reign as she was declared insane and imprisoned in Tordesillas under the orders of her father, who ruled as regent until his death in 1516, when she inherited his kingdom as well. From 1516, when her son Charles I ruled as king, she was nominally co-monarch but remained imprisoned until her death.

John II of Aragon

John II (Catalan: Joan II, Aragonese: Chuan II and Basque: Joanes II), called the Great (el Gran) or the Faithless (el Sense Fe) (29 June 1398 – 20 January 1479), was the King of Navarre through his wife (jure uxoris) from 1425 and the King of Aragon in his own right from 1458 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John was also King of Sicily from 1458-1468.

Kingdom of Aragon

The Kingdom of Aragon (Aragonese: Reino d'Aragón, Catalan: Regne d'Aragó, Latin: Regnum Aragonum, Spanish: Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain. It should not be confused with the larger Crown of Aragon, that also included other territories — the Principality of Catalonia (which included the County of Barcelona and the other Catalan Counties), the Kingdom of Valencia, the Kingdom of Majorca, and other possessions that are now part of France, Italy, and Greece — that were also under the rule of the King of Aragon, but were administered separately from the Kingdom of Aragon.

In 1479, upon John II of Aragon’s death, the crowns of Aragon and Castile were united to form the nucleus of modern Spain. The Aragonese lands, however, retained autonomous parliamentary and administrative institutions, such as the Corts, until the Nueva Planta decrees, promulgated between 1707 and 1715 by Philip V of Spain in the aftermath of the War of the Spanish Succession, finally put an end to it.

Kingdom of Castile

The Kingdom of Castile (; Spanish: Reino de Castilla, Latin: Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state located on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Its name comes from the host of castles constructed in the region. It began in the 9th century as the County of Castile (Condado de Castilla), an eastern frontier lordship of the Kingdom of León. During the 10th century its counts increased their autonomy, but it was not until 1065 that it was separated from León and became a kingdom in its own right. Between 1072 and 1157 it was again united with León, and after 1230 this union became permanent. Throughout this period the Castilian kings made extensive conquests in southern Iberia at the expense of the Islamic principalities. Castile and León, with their southern acquisitions, came to be known collectively as the Crown of Castile, a term that also came to encompass overseas expansion.

List of Aragonese monarchs

This is a list of the kings and queens of Aragon. The Kingdom of Aragon was created sometime between 950 and 1035 when the County of Aragon, which had been acquired by the Kingdom of Navarre in the tenth century, was separated from Navarre in accordance with the will of King Sancho III (1004–35). In 1164, the marriage of the Aragonese princess Petronila (Kingdom of Aragon) and the Catalan count Ramon Berenguer IV (County of Barcelona) created a dynastic union from which what modern historians call the Crown of Aragon was born. In the thirteenth century the kingdoms of Valencia, Majorca and Sicily were added to the Crown, and in the fourteenth the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica. The Crown of Aragon continued to exist until 1713 when its separate constitutional systems (Catalan Constitutions, Aragon Fueros, and Furs of Valencia) were swept away in the Nueva Planta decrees at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession.

List of Spanish monarchs

This is a list of Spanish monarchs, that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the modern sense of the word. The forerunners of the monarchs of the Spanish throne were the following:

Kings of the Visigoths

Kings of Asturias

Kings of Navarre

Kings of León

Kings of Galicia

Kings of Aragon

Kings of CastileThese seven lineages were eventually united by the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon (king of the Crown of Aragon) and Isabella I of Castile (queen of the Crown of Castile). Although their kingdoms continued to be separate, with their personal union they ruled them together as one dominion. Ferdinand also conquered the southern part of Navarre and annexed it to what was to become Spain. Isabella left her kingdom to her daughter Joanna of Castile. Ferdinand served as her regent during her insanity; though rebuffed by the Castilian nobility and replaced by Joanna's husband Philip the Handsome, he resumed his regency after Philip's death. In 1516, after Ferdinand II's death, his daughter Joanna inherited the kingdom of Aragon, but was kept prisoner at Tordesillas as insane. As Joanna's son, the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, did not want to be merely a regent, he was proclaimed king of Castile and Aragon jointly with his mother in Brussels. Subsequently, Castilian and Aragonese Cortes alleged oath to him as co-king with his mother. Upon her death, he became sole King of Castile and Aragon, and the thrones were thereafter united permanently.

Louis Aragon

Louis Aragon (French: [lwi aʁaɡɔ̃], 3 October 1897 – 24 December 1982) was a French poet, who was one of the leading voices of the surrealist movement in France, who co-founded with André Breton and Philippe Soupault the surrealist review Littérature. He was also a novelist and editor, a long-time member of the Communist Party and a member of the Académie Goncourt.

Pyrenees

The Pyrenees (; Spanish: Pirineos [piɾiˈneos]; French: Pyrénées [piʁene]; Aragonese: Pirineus; Catalan: Pirineus [piɾiˈnɛws]; Occitan: Pirenèus; Basque: Pirinioak [piˈɾinioˌak]) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea (Cap de Creus).

For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between Spain and France, with the microstate of Andorra sandwiched in between. The Principality of Catalonia alongside with the Kingdom of Aragon in the Crown of Aragon, Occitania and the Kingdom of Navarre have historically extended on both sides of the mountain range, with smaller northern portions now in France and larger southern parts now in Spain.The demonym for the noun "Pyrenees" in English is Pyrenean.

Reconquista

The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for "reconquest") is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1491. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest (Columbus got royal support in Granada in 1492, months after its conquest), and the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.

Traditional historiography has marked the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga (718 or 722), the first known victory in Iberia by Christian military forces since the 711 military intervention in Iberia of combined Arab-Berber forces. In that small battle, a group led by the nobleman Pelagius defeated a Muslim patrol in the mountains of northern Iberia and established the independent Christian Kingdom of Asturias. The taifas of al-Andalus tried to prevent the Christian threats from the north by paying them parias (a form of tribute). After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian forces in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south.

After 1491, the entire peninsula was controlled by Christian rulers. The conquest was followed by the Alhambra Decree (1492) which expelled Jews who would not convert to Christianity from Castile and Aragon, and a series of edicts (1499–1526) which forced the conversions of the Muslims in Spain, although later a significant part of them was expelled from the Iberian Peninsula.The concept of Reconquista, consolidated in Spanish historiography in the second half of the 19th century, was associated with the development of a Spanish national identity, emphasizing nationalistic and romantic, and occasionally, colonialist, aspects.

Sea captain

A sea captain, ship's captain, captain, master, or shipmaster, is a high-grade licensed mariner who holds ultimate command and responsibility of a merchant vessel. The captain is responsible for the safe and efficient operation of the ship and its people and cargo, including its seaworthiness, safety and security, cargo operations, navigation, crew management, and legal compliance.

Zaragoza

Zaragoza (, Spanish: [θaɾaˈɣoθa]; also called Saragossa in English) is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the Huerva and the Gállego, roughly in the center of both Aragon and the Ebro basin.

On 1 September 2010 the population of the city of Zaragoza was 701,090, within its administrative limits on a land area of 1,062.64 square kilometres (410.29 square miles), ranking fifth in Spain. It is the 32nd most populous municipality in the European Union. The population of the metropolitan area was estimated in 2006 at 783,763 inhabitants. The municipality is home to more than 50 percent of the Aragonese population.

The city lies at an elevation of 199 metres (653 feet) above sea level.

Zaragoza hosted Expo 2008 in the summer of 2008, a world's fair on water and sustainable development. It was also a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2012.

The city is famous for its folklore, local gastronomy, and landmarks such as the Basílica del Pilar, La Seo Cathedral and the Aljafería Palace.

Together with La Seo and the Aljafería, several other buildings form part of the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Fiestas del Pilar are among the most celebrated festivals in Spain.

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