Arable land

Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.[1] In Britain, it was traditionally contrasted with pasturable land such as heaths which could be used for sheep-rearing but not farmland.

A quite different kind of definition is used by various agencies concerned with agriculture. In providing statistics on arable land, the FAO and the World Bank[2] use the definition offered in the glossary accompanying FAOSTAT: "Arable land is the land under temporary agricultural crops (multiple-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens and land temporarily fallow (less than five years). The abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included in this category. Data for ‘Arable land’ are not meant to indicate the amount of land that is potentially cultivable."[3] A more concise definition appearing in the Eurostat glossary similarly refers to actual, rather than potential use: "land worked (ploughed or tilled) regularly, generally under a system of crop rotation."[4]

040719 172 dorset marnhull2
Modern mechanised agriculture permits large fields like this one in Dorset, England.

Cultivation of the land

Cultivation of the land is an important process to make land arable by loosening and tilling (breaking up) of the soil.[5]

Arable land area

Arable land percent world
World map of arable land, percentage by country (2006)[6]

According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations the world's arable land amounted to 1,407 M ha, out of a total 4,924 M ha land used for agriculture, as for year 2013.[7]

Arable land area (1000 km2)[8][9]
Rank Country or region 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
 World 13,866 13,873 13,880 13,962 13,958
1  India 1,579 1,578 1,575 1,574 1,562
2  United States 1,631 1,605 1,598 1,602 1,551
3  Russia 1,216 1,218 1,200 1,215 1,197
 European Union 1,091 1,089 1,074 1,074 1,083
4  China 1,086 1,100 1,114 1,116 1,065
5  Brazil 702 704 703 719 726
6  Australia 440 475 426 477 471
7  Canada 443 438 434 430 459
8  Argentina 351 338 372 380 392
9  Nigeria 370 340 360 360 350
10  Ukraine 325 325 325 325 325

Arable land (hectares per person)

Chvojnica hills near Unin
Fields in the region of Záhorie in Western Slovakia
Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de La Blanca, Cardejón, España, 2012-09-01, DD 02
A field of sunflowers in Cardejón, Spain

Non-arable land

KerbauJawa
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia
Beverley Minster from West Pasture
A pasture in the East Riding of Yorkshire in England

Agricultural land that is not arable according to the FAO definition above includes:

  • Permanent crop – land that produces crops from woody vegetation, e.g. orchardland, vineyards, coffee plantations, rubber plantations, and land producing nut trees;
  • Meadows and pastures – land used as pasture and grazed range, and those natural grasslands and sedge meadows that are used for hay production in some regions.

Other non-arable land includes land that is not suitable for any agricultural use.

Land that is not arable, in the sense of lacking capability or suitability for cultivation for crop production, has one or more limitations e.g. lack of sufficient fresh water for irrigation, stoniness, steepness, adverse climate, excessive wetness with impracticality of drainage, excessive salts, among others.[10] Although such limitations may preclude cultivation, and some will in some cases preclude any agricultural use, large areas unsuitable for cultivation are agriculturally productive. For example, US NRCS statistics indicate that about 59 percent of US non-federal pasture and unforested rangeland is unsuitable for cultivation, yet such land has value for grazing of livestock.[11] In British Columbia, Canada, 41 percent of the provincial Agricultural Land Reserve area is unsuitable for production of cultivated crops, but is suitable for uncultivated production of forage usable by grazing livestock.[12] Similar examples can be found in many rangeland areas elsewhere.

Land incapable of being cultivated for production of crops can sometimes be converted to arable land. New arable land makes more food, and can reduce starvation. This outcome also makes a country more self-sufficient and politically independent, because food importation is reduced. Making non-arable land arable often involves digging new irrigation canals and new wells, aqueducts, desalination plants, planting trees for shade in the desert, hydroponics, fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer, pesticides, reverse osmosis water processors, PET film insulation or other insulation against heat and cold, digging ditches and hills for protection against the wind, and greenhouses with internal light and heat for protection against the cold outside and to provide light in cloudy areas. This process is often extremely expensive. An alternative is the Seawater Greenhouse which desalinates water through evaporation and condensation using solar energy as the only energy input. This technology is optimized to grow crops on desert land close to the sea.

(Note: The use of artifices does not make land arable. Rock, still remains rock, and shallow less than 6 feet turnable soil is still considered NONE toilable (IE: None arable). The use of artifice is an open air none recycled water hydroponics relationship. The below described circumstances are not in perspective, have limited duration, and have a tendency to accumulate trace materials in soil that either there or elsewhere cause de-oxination. IE: Use of fast amounts of fertilizer in the United States that end up devastating rivers, water ways and river endings due accumulation of none degradable toxins and Nitrogen bearing molecules that remove oxygen and cause none aerobic processes to form.)

Some examples of infertile non-arable land being turned into fertile arable land are:

  • Aran Islands: These islands off the west coast of Ireland, (not to be confused with the Isle of Arran in Scotland's Firth of Clyde), were unsuitable for arable farming because they were too rocky. The people covered the islands with a shallow layer of seaweed and sand from the ocean. Today, crops are grown there, even though, the islands are still considered non-arable.
  • Israel: The construction of desalination plants along Israel's coast allowed agriculture in some areas that were formerly desert. The desalination plants, which remove the salt from ocean water, have created a new source of water for farming, drinking, and washing.
  • Slash and burn agriculture uses nutrients in wood ash, but these expire within a few years.
  • Terra preta, fertile tropical soils created by adding charcoal.

Some examples of fertile arable land being turned into infertile land are:

  • Droughts like the 'dust bowl' of the Great Depression in the U.S. turned farmland into desert.
  • Rainforest deforestation: The fertile tropical forests are converted into infertile desert land. For example, Madagascar's central highland plateau has become virtually totally barren (about ten percent of the country), as a result of slash-and-burn deforestation, an element of shifting cultivation practiced by many natives.
  • Each year, arable land is lost due to desertification and human-induced erosion. Improper irrigation of farm land can wick the sodium, calcium, and magnesium from the soil and water to the surface. This process steadily concentrates salt in the root zone, decreasing productivity for crops that are not salt-tolerant.

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "arable, adj. and n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2013.
  2. ^ The World Bank. Agricultural land (% of land area) http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/AG.LND.AGRI.ZS Archived 17 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ FAOSTAT. [Statistical database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations] Glossary. http://faostat3.fao.org/mes/glossary/E Archived 1 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Eurostat. Glossary: Arable land. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Glossary:Arable_land Archived 7 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Cultivation Archived 20 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  6. ^ Arable land in this map refers to a definition used by the US CIA – land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest
  7. ^ "FAOSTAT Land Use module". Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  8. ^ a b "FAOSTAT Land Use module". Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  9. ^ "Arable Land Area". The Helgi Library. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  10. ^ United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1961. Land capability classification. Agriculture Handbook 210. 21 pp.
  11. ^ NRCS. 2013. Summary report 2010 national resources inventory. United States Natural Resources Conservation Service. 163 pp.
  12. ^ Agricultural Land Commission. Agriculture Capability and the ALR Fact Sheet. http://www.alc.gov.bc.ca/alc/DownloadAsset?assetId=72876D8604EC45279B8D3C1B14428CF8&filename=agriculture_capability__the_alr_fact_sheet_2013.pdf

External links

Agricultural expansion

Agricultural expansion describes the growth of agricultural land (arable land, pastures, etc.) in the 21st century as a direct consequence of human overpopulation with an estimated 10 to 11 billion humans by end of this century and the required food and energy security. It is foreseen that most nonagricultural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of the world will be affected adversely (habitat loss, land degradation). The intensified food and biofuel production will particularly affect tropical regions.

Most modern agriculture relies on intensive methods. Further expansion of the predominant farming types that rest on a small number of highly productive crops has led to a significant loss of biodiversity on a global scale already.

In the light of the already occurring and potential massive ecological effects, the need for sustainable practices is more urgent than ever.

The FAO predicts that global arable land use will continue to grow from a 1.58 billion hectares (3.9×109 acres) in 2014 to 1.66 billion hectares (4.1×109 acres) in 2050, with most of this growth projected to result from developing countries. At the same time, arable land use in developed countries is likely to continue its decline.A well-known example of already ongoing agricultural expansion is the proliferation of palm oil production areas or the land conversion/deforestation for soy bean production in South America. Today's land grabbing activities are often a consequence of the strive for agricultural land by growing economies.

Agricultural land

Agricultural land is typically land devoted to agriculture, the systematic and controlled use of other forms of life—particularly the rearing of livestock and production of crops—to produce food for humans. It is thus generally synonymous with both farmland or cropland, as well as pasture or rangeland.

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and others following its definitions, however, also use agricultural land or agricultural area as a term of art, where it means the collection of:

"arable land" (a.k.a. cropland): here redefined to refer to land producing crops requiring annual replanting or fallowland or pasture used for such crops within any five-year period

"permanent cropland": land producing crops which do not require annual replanting

permanent pastures: natural or artificial grasslands and shrublands able to be used for grazing livestockThis sense of "agricultural land" thus includes a great deal of land not devoted to agricultural use. The land actually under annually-replanted crops in any given year is instead said to constitute "sown land" or "cropped land". "Permanent cropland" includes forested plantations used to harvest coffee, rubber, or fruit but not tree farms or proper forests used for wood or timber. Land able to be used for farming is called "cultivable land". Farmland, meanwhile, is used variously in reference to all agricultural land, to all cultivable land, or just to the newly restricted sense of "arable land". Depending upon its use of artificial irrigation, the FAO's "agricultural land" may be divided into irrigated and non-irrigated land.

In the context of zoning, agricultural land or agriculturally-zoned land refers to plots that are permitted to be used for agricultural activities, without regard to its present use or even suitability. In some areas, agricultural land is protected so that it can be farmed without any threat of development. The Agricultural Land Reserve in British Columbia in Canada, for instance, requires approval from its Agricultural Land Commission before its lands can be removed or subdivided.

Agriculture in Armenia

Armenia has 2.1 million hectares of agricultural land, 72% of the country's land area. Most of this, however, is mountain pastures, and cultivable land is 480,000 hectares (452,900 hectares arable land, 27,300 hectares in orchards and vineyards), or 16% of the country's area. In 2006, 46% of the work force was employed in agriculture (up from 26% in 1991), and agriculture contributed 21% of the country's GDP. In 1991 Armenia imported about 65 percent of its food.

Agriculture in Eritrea

Agriculture is the main economic activity in Eritrea. 80% of the Eritrean workforce are employed in agriculture. Agriculture makes up 11 percent of the wider economy's value. Eritrea has 565,000 hectares (1,396,000 acres) of arable land and permanent crops.

Arrhenatherum elatius

Arrhenatherum elatius, with the common names false oat-grass, tall oat-grass, tall meadow oat, onion couch and tuber oat-grass, is a perennial species of grass, common in the temperate regions of Europe.

This bunchgrass is often used as an ornamental grass.

It is native to Europe but can be found elsewhere as an introduced species. It is found especially in prairies, at the side of roads and in uncultivated fields. The bulbous variety can be a weed of arable land. It is palatable grass for livestock and is used both as forage (pasture) and fodder (hay and silage); it has high amounts of phosphorus and calcium in its tissues.Two subspecies have been described:

Arrhenatherum elatius subsp. elatius, the more common variety.

Arrhenatherum elatius var. bulbosum (also called Arrhenatherum tuberosum), onion couch or tuber oat-grass, distinguished by the presence of corms at the base of the stem, by which it propagates. Occurs in vegetated shingle and arable land.

Baitarani River

The Baitarani River or River Baitarani is one of six major rivers of Odisha, India. Venerated in popular epics and legends, the Baitarani River is a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Most of the potentially arable land in the area is not under cultivation. The coastal plain of Odisha has the name of "Hexadeltaic region" or the "Gift of Six Rivers". These deltas divide the coastal plain into three regions from north to south. The Baitarani, the Mahanadi and the Brahmani rivers form the Middle Coastal Plain, with evidence of past "back bays" and present lakes.

Field (agriculture)

In agriculture, a field is an area of land, enclosed or otherwise, used for agricultural purposes such as cultivating crops or as a paddock or other enclosure for livestock. A field may also be an area left to lie fallow or as arable land.

Many farms have a field border, usually composed of a strip of shrubs and vegetation, used to provide food and cover necessary for the survival of wildlife. It has been found that these borders may lead to an increased variety of animals and plants in the area, but also in some cases a decreased yield of crops.

Geography of Hungary

With a land area of 93,030 square km, Hungary is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It measures about 250 km from north to south and 524 km from east to west. It has 2,106 km of boundaries, shared with Austria to the west, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia to the south and southwest, Romania to the southeast, Ukraine to the northeast, and Slovakia to the north.

Hungary's modern borders were first established after World War I when, by the terms of the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, it lost more than 71% of what had formerly been the Kingdom of Hungary, 58.5% of its population, and 32% of the Hungarians. The country secured some boundary revisions from 1938 to 1941: In 1938 the First Vienna Award gave back territory from Czechoslovakia, in 1939 Hungary occupied Carpatho-Ukraine. In 1940 the Second Vienna Award gave back Northern Transylvania and finally Hungary occupied the Bácska and Muraköz regions during the Invasion of Yugoslavia. However, Hungary lost these territories again with its defeat in World War II. After World War II, the Trianon boundaries were restored with a small revision that benefited Czechoslovakia.

Most of the country has an elevation of less than 200 m. Although Hungary has several moderately high ranges of mountains, those reaching heights of 300 m or more cover less than 2% of the country. The highest point in the country is Kékes (1,014 m) in the Mátra Mountains northeast of Budapest. The lowest spot is 77.6 m above sea level, located in the south of Hungary, near Szeged.

The major rivers in the country are the Danube and Tisza. The Danube is navigable within Hungary for 418 kilometers. The Tisza River is navigable for 444 km in the country. Less important rivers include the Drava along the Croatian border, the Rába, the Szamos, the Sió, and the Ipoly along the Slovakian border. Hungary has three major lakes. Lake Balaton, the largest, is 78 km long and from 3 to 14 km wide, with an area of 600 square km . Hungarians often refer to it as the Hungarian Sea. It is Central Europe's largest freshwater lake and an important recreation area. Its shallow waters offer good summer swimming, and in winter its frozen surface provides excellent opportunities for winter sports. Smaller bodies of water are Lake Velence (26 square km) in Fejér County and Lake Fertő (Neusiedler See—about 82 square km within Hungary), and the artificial Lake Tisza.

Hungary has three major geographic regions (which are subdivided to seven smaller ones): the Great Alföld, lying east of the Danube River; the Transdanubia, a hilly region lying west of the Danube and extending to the Austrian foothills of the Alps; and the North Hungarian Mountains, which is a mountainous and hilly country beyond the northern boundary of the Great Hungarian Plain.

The country's best natural resource is fertile land, although soil quality varies greatly. About 70% of the country's total territory is suitable for agriculture; of this portion, 72% is arable land. Hungary lacks extensive domestic sources of energy and raw materials needed for industrial development.

Geography of Slovakia

Slovakia is a landlocked Central European country with mountainous regions in the north and flat terrain in the south.

Gmina Kamionka

Gmina Kamionka is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Lubartów County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. Its seat is the village of Kamionka, which lies approximately 10 kilometres (6 mi) west of Lubartów and 26 km (16 mi) north of the regional capital Lublin. It lies on the generally flat Lubartów plain.

The gmina covers an area of 111.85 square kilometres (43.2 sq mi), and as of 2006 its total population is 6,433 (6,448 in 2015).

Injil District

Injil is a district of Herat Province in northwestern Afghanistan. It surrounds Herat City and borders Kushk District to the north, Karukh District to the east, Guzara District to the south, and Zinda Jan District to the west. The population of Injil District is 237,800 (as of 2012), which includes the following ethnic groups: 55% Tajik, 40% Pashtun, 4% Hazara and 1% Turkmen.The headquarters or center of Injil District is also known as Injil. The Hari River flows on the southern border of the district, shared with Guzara District. Most parts of the district are plains and low mountains. Water is not as much of a problem as in other regions. The arable land is in use and irrigated. Agriculture is the main source of income in the district.

Kohsan District

Kohsan is a district of Herat province in northwestern Afghanistan. It borders the nation of Iran to the west, Gulran District to the north, and Ghurian District to the south and east. The population of Kosan District is 52,900 (as of 2012), which includes the following ethnic groups: 59.4% Pashtun, 35.3% Tajik, 5.1% Balouch, and 0.2% Turkmen.The administrative center of Kohsan District is the small town of Kohsan. The district is located about 116 kilometres (3 hours drive) west of Herat city and is mainly a desert, with patches of irrigated lands. Islam Qala, one of the official border crossings between Afghanistan and Iran, is located in this district. The Hari River flows through Kohsan District and is also not far from the district center. The drought is a serious problem for the agriculture, which is the main source of income. Almost 60% of the formerly arable land is not in use. The health services and the education have improved since 2002.

List of floods in Pakistan

The following is a list of floods in Pakistan.

In 2003, Sindh province was badly affected when above normal monsoon rainfall caused flooding in the province; urban flooding also hit Karachi where two days of rainfall of 284.5 millimetres (11.20 in) created havoc in the city, while Thatta district was the worst hit where 404 millimetres (15.9 in) rainfall caused flash floods in the district. At least 484 people died and some 4,476 villages in the province were affected.

In 2007, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and coastal Balochistan were badly affected due to monsoon rainfall. Sindh and coastal Balochistan were affected by Cyclone Yemyin in June and then torrential rains in July and August, while Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa was affected by melting glaciers and heavy rainfall in July and August. At least 130 people died and 2,000 were displaced in Khyber-Pakhtunkwain in July and 22 people died in August, while 815 people died in Balochistan and Sindh due to flash floods.

In 2010, almost all of Pakistan was affected when massive flooding caused by record breaking rains hit Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. The number of individuals affected by the flooding exceeds the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. At least 2,000 people died in this flood and almost 20 million people were affected by it.

In September 2011, at least 361 people were killed, some 5.3 million people and 1.2 million homes affected as well 1.7 million acres of arable land inundated when massive floods swept across the province of Sindh as a result of monsoon rains (see 2011 Sindh floods).

In September 2012, more than 100 people died, and thousands of homes destroyed, with thousands of acres of arable land affected when intense rainfall battered Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Southern Punjab and Upper Sindh. As a result of monsoon rains (see 2012 Pakistan Floods).

In August 2013, more than 80 people died (see 2013 Afghanistan–Pakistan floods).

In September 2014 Due to massive rain in Jammu and Kashmir as well as in Punjab Constituted flood situation in River Chanab and River Jhelum.

Small-scale agriculture

Small-scale agriculture has been practiced ever since the Neolithic Revolution. More recently it is an alternative to factory farming or more broadly, intensive agriculture or unsustainable farming methods that are prevalent in primarily first world countries. Environmental Health Perspectives has noted that "Sustainable agriculture is not merely a package of prescribed methods. More important, it is a change in mind set whereby agriculture acknowledges its dependence on a finite natural resource base--including the finite quality of fossil fuel energy that is now a critical component of conventional farming systems." Small-scale agriculture includes a number of sustainable agriculture practices such as:

organic farming, which may follow rules and regulations set by International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM)

permaculture, which provides a holistic methodology for farm design

arable land use, arable land (from Latin arare, to plough ) is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. David Ricardo incorporated the idea of arable land into economic theory.

non-arable land use

pastoral, pastoral refers to the lifestyle of shepherds and pastoralists, moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability of water and feed.

rainfed agriculture

biodynamic agriculture was developed by Rudolf Steiner, which consists of using herbal and homeopathic preparations for the cow dung/manure that is used extensively on the crops for fertilizer.The methods of food sustainability and economics are hotly debated. This is a question between agricultural economics and the draining of the largely unaccounted natural capital.

The Parable of Arable Land

The Parable of Arable Land is the first studio album by Red Krayola, then known as The Red Crayola. Self-described as a "Free Form Freak-Out", the songs on the album introduce mainstay Mayo Thompson's signature style of abstract lyrics wed to minimalist (and often avant-garde) melodies and rhythms. The album is also notable for instrumental cameos by label mate and 13th Floor Elevators frontman Roky Erickson.

Tumbes swallow

The Tumbes swallow (Tachycineta stolzmanni) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.

It is found in northwestern Peru and far southwestern Ecuador.

Its natural habitats are dry savanna, coastal saline lagoons, and arable land.

Umling Gewog

Umling Gewog (Dzongkha: ཨུམ་གླིང་) is a gewog (village block) of Sarpang District, Bhutan.Umling Geog is situated in the central Southern foothills of Sarpang Dzongkhag, bordering Assam, India in the

South, and Chuzagang Geog in the West, Tareythang Geog in the East and Zhemgang Dzongkhag in the North.

Its total geographical area is approximately 122 km2 out of which 1480 acres is an arable land. It has undulated terrain with an elevation ranging from 190m to 400m above sea level. It has warm and humid climatic condition in winter and hot and rainy climatic conditions in summer.

It is approximately 33 km away from the Dungkhag headquarters (Gelephu) and is connected with the farm road which is inaccessible in the monsoon season due to heavy downpour. It has a total population of 3129 with almost hundred percent people dependent upon agriculture.Arecanut and ginger are grown as principal cash crop while paddy and maize are cultivated as main crop by the farmers. Beside farmers also rear domestic animals like cows, oxen, goats, sheep, etc. which ultimately add to their livelihood.

Until 2011 Local Government election, the Geog had eight Chiwogs, namely: Chhuborthang, Daangling, Doongmin, Gaden, Lingar, Rijoog, Tashithang and Thongjazor and was merged into five Chiwogs, namely: Daangling, Doongmin, Gaden, Rijoog and Tashithang after the first LG Election. The Geog is administratively headed by Gelephu Dungkhag and subsequently by Sarpang Dzongkhag.

Wheeler End

Wheeler End is a hamlet in the parish of Piddington and Wheeler End, in Buckinghamshire, England. The hamlet is located close to the main A40 between West Wycombe and Stokenchurch.

The hamlet name refers to the Wheeler family, who lived here. They were once the main brewers of High Wycombe. The hamlet itself however, is much older, dating back to the Anglo-Saxon period.

Wheeler End is a collection of terraced houses and free standing properties surrounding the village common. The Common and most of the arable land surrounding the properties in the hamlet are owned by the West Wycombe Estates of Sir Edward Dashwood, Bt. There are no shops in Wheeler End, the nearest shops being either in West Wycombe or in Lane End. There is one public house in Wheeler End, The Chequers Inn.

Zemen

Zemen (Bulgarian: Земен) is a town in Pernik Province, western Bulgaria. Located near the Pchelina Reservoir on the banks of the Struma River, it is the administrative centre of Zemen Municipality.

The old name of Zemen was Belovo; it was renamed to Zemen in 1925. The new name was initially only given to the railway station nearby, but it was soon carried over to the village itself. The present name commemorates the medieval castle of Zemlangrad, which was located in the Struma gorge in the vicinity of Zemen. The fortress was first mentioned in the 11th-century Tale of Isaiah as ЗЄМЛЬНЬ ГРАД and as ЗЄМЛЪНЬ in a 15th-16th century Serbian chronicle. The toponym is derived from the Bulgarian word for "land" (земя, zemya) and refers, according to the locals, to the only arable land in the rocky surrounding area.Proclaimed a town in 1974, Zemen is famous for the medieval Zemen Monastery located on its outskirts. The population of the town is mostly Bulgarian Orthodox.

Arable land (hectares per person)[8]
Country Name 2013
Afghanistan 0.254
Albania 0.213
Algeria 0.196
American Samoa 0.054
Andorra 0.038
Angola 0.209
Antigua and Barbuda 0.044
Argentina 0.933
Armenia 0.150
Aruba 0.019
Australia 1.999
Austria 0.160
Azerbaijan 0.204
Bahamas, The 0.021
Bahrain 0.001
Bangladesh 0.049
Barbados 0.039
Belarus 0.589
Belgium 0.073
Belize 0.227
Benin 0.262
Bermuda 0.005
Bhutan 0.133
Bolivia 0.427
Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.264
Botswana 0.125
Brazil 0.372
British Virgin Islands 0.034
Brunei Darussalam 0.012
Bulgaria 0.479
Burkina Faso 0.363
Burundi 0.115
Cabo Verde 0.108
Cambodia 0.275
Cameroon 0.279
Canada 1.306
Cayman Islands 0.003
Central African Republic 0.382
Chad 0.373
Channel Islands 0.026
Chile 0.074
China 0.078
Colombia 0.036
Comoros 0.086
Congo, Dem. Rep. 0.098
Congo, Rep. 0.125
Costa Rica 0.049
Côte d'Ivoire 0.134
Croatia 0.206
Cuba 0.278
Curaçao
Cyprus 0.070
Czech Republic 0.299
Denmark 0.429
Djibouti 0.002
Dominica 0.083
Dominican Republic 0.078
Ecuador 0.076
Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.031
El Salvador 0.120
Equatorial Guinea 0.151
Eritrea
Estonia 0.480
Ethiopia 0.160
Faroe Islands 0.062
Fiji 0.187
Finland 0.409
France 0.277
French Polynesia 0.009
Gabon 0.197
Gambia, The 0.236
Georgia 0.119
Germany 0.145
Ghana 0.180
Gibraltar
Greece 0.232
Greenland 0.016
Grenada 0.028
Guam 0.006
Guatemala 0.064
Guinea 0.259
Guinea-Bissau 0.171
Guyana 0.552
Haiti 0.103
Honduras 0.130
Hong Kong SAR, China 0.000
Hungary 0.445
Iceland 0.374
India 0.123
Indonesia 0.094
Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.193
Iraq 0.147
Ireland 0.242
Isle of Man 0.253
Israel 0.035
Italy 0.113
Jamaica 0.044
Japan 0.033
Jordan 0.032
Kazakhstan 1.726
Kenya 0.133
Kiribati 0.018
Korea, Dem. People's Rep. 0.094
Korea, Rep. 0.030
Kosovo
Kuwait 0.003
Kyrgyz Republic 0.223
Lao PDR 0.226
Latvia 0.600
Lebanon 0.025
Lesotho 0.119
Liberia 0.116
Libya 0.274
Liechtenstein 0.070
Lithuania 0.774
Luxembourg 0.115
Macao SAR, China
Macedonia, FYR 0.199
Madagascar 0.153
Malawi 0.235
Malaysia 0.032
Maldives 0.010
Mali 0.386
Malta 0.021
Marshall Islands 0.038
Mauritania 0.116
Mauritius 0.060
Mexico 0.186
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 0.019
Moldova 0.510
Monaco
Mongolia 0.198
Montenegro 0.013
Morocco 0.240
Mozambique 0.213
Myanmar 0.203
Namibia 0.341
Nauru
Nepal 0.076
Netherlands 0.062
New Caledonia 0.024
New Zealand 0.123
Nicaragua 0.253
Niger 0.866
Nigeria 0.197
Northern Mariana Islands 0.019
Norway 0.159
Oman 0.010
Pakistan 0.168
Palau 0.048
Panama 0.148
Papua New Guinea 0.041
Paraguay 0.696
Peru 0.136
Philippines 0.057
Poland 0.284
Portugal 0.107
Puerto Rico 0.017
Qatar 0.007
Romania 0.438
Russian Federation 0.852
Rwanda 0.107
Samoa 0.042
San Marino 0.032
São Tomé and Príncipe 0.048
Saudi Arabia 0.102
Senegal 0.229
Serbia 0.460
Seychelles 0.001
Sierra Leone 0.256
Singapore 0.000
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Slovak Republic 0.258
Slovenia 0.085
Solomon Islands 0.036
Somalia 0.107
South Africa 0.235
South Sudan
Spain 0.270
Sri Lanka 0.063
St. Kitts and Nevis 0.092
St. Lucia 0.016
St. Martin (French part)
St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.046
Sudan 0.345
Suriname 0.112
Swaziland 0.140
Sweden 0.270
Switzerland 0.050
Syrian Arab Republic 0.241
Tajikistan 0.106
Tanzania 0.269
Thailand 0.249
Timor-Leste 0.131
Togo 0.382
Tonga 0.152
Trinidad and Tobago 0.019
Tunisia 0.262
Turkey 0.270
Turkmenistan 0.370
Turks and Caicos Islands 0.030
Tuvalu
Uganda 0.189
Ukraine 0.715
United Arab Emirates 0.004
United Kingdom 0.098
United States 0.480
Uruguay 0.682
Uzbekistan 0.145
Vanuatu 0.079
Venezuela, RB 0.089
Vietnam 0.071
Virgin Islands (U.S.) 0.010
West Bank and Gaza 0.011
Yemen, Rep. 0.049
Zambia 0.243
Zimbabwe 0.268
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