Arabic Braille (Arabic: بِرَيْل عَرَبِيَّة, birayl ʿarabīyah) is the braille alphabet for the Arabic language. It descends from a braille alphabet brought to Egypt by an English missionary prior to 1878, so the letter assignments generally correspond to English Braille and to the same romanization as in other braille systems, like Greek and Russian. However, there were once multiple standards, some of which (such as Algerian Braille) were unrelated to Egyptian Braille. A unified Arabic Braille was adopted in the 1950s as part of the move toward international braille, and it is the standard throughout the Arab world. Other Arabic-based alphabets have braille systems similar to Arabic Braille, such as Urdu and Persian Braille, but differ in some letter and diacritic assignments.
Arabic Braille is read from left to right, following the international convention. Numbers are also left to right, as in printed Arabic.
abjad ca. 1950
Arabic braille includes numerous abbreviations, some marked by dot 4 or dot 5 (the comma), which are not described here. A conference in Saudi Arabia in 2002 set up a unified braille standard for Arabic, but as of 2013 not all countries had signed up; those not adopting the standard include some Arab countries but also non-Arab Muslim countries such as Iran, Malaysia, and Indonesia.
Although short-vowel letters are not diacritics in Arabic Braille, they are optional and generally omitted, just as in print Arabic.
Shaddah comes before the consonant; sukun and the vowels after.
There are some differences in quotation marks, brackets, and underlining between traditional and unified Arabic braille conventions.
The Abjad numerals, also called Hisab al-Jummal (Arabic: حِسَاب الْجُمَّل, ḥisāb al-jummal), are a decimal numeral system in which the 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet are assigned numerical values. They have been used in the Arabic-speaking world since before the eighth century when Arabic numerals were adopted. In modern Arabic, the word ʾabjadīyah (أبجدية) means 'alphabet' in general.
In the Abjad system, the first letter of the Arabic alphabet, ʾalif, is used to represent 1; the second letter, bāʾ, is used to represent 2, etc. Individual letters also represent 10s and 100s: yāʾ for 10, kāf for 20, qāf for 100, etc.
The word ʾabjad (أبجد) itself derives from the first four letters (A-B-J-D) of the Semitic alphabet, including the Phoenician alphabet, Aramaic alphabet, Hebrew alphabet and other scripts for Semitic languages. These older alphabets contained only 22 letters, stopping at taw, numerically equivalent to 400. The Arabic Abjad system continues at this point with letters not found in other alphabets: thāʾ= 500, etc.Algerian Braille
Algerian Braille was a braille alphabet used to write the Arabic language in Algeria. It is apparently obsolete.In Algerian Braille, the braille letters are assigned in numeric order to the Arabic alphabet; standard Arabic Braille on the other hand uses a completely different assignment, following international norms based on the order of the French alphabet. For example, the fifth braille letter, ⠑, is used in Algerian Braille for ج j, the fifth letter of the Algerian/Arabic alphabet. In most braille alphabets today, ⠑ is used for e, the fifth letter of the French/Latin alphabet, or for a letter that sounds like e, no matter where it occurs in those alphabets.
Algerian-type remapping was common in early braille adaptations, but was largely abandoned in favor of mutually understandable standards beginning with the unification French, English, German, and Egyptian Braille on the original French order in 1878.Arabic alphabet
The Arabic alphabet (Arabic: الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة al-ʾabjadīyah al-ʿarabīyah, or الْحُرُوف الْعَرَبِيَّة al-ḥurūf al-ʿarabīyah) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic. It is written from right to left in a cursive style and includes 28 letters. Most letters have contextual letterforms.
The Arabic alphabet is considered an abjad, meaning it only uses consonants, but it is now considered an "impure abjad". As with other impure abjads, such as the Hebrew alphabet, scribes later devised means of indicating vowel sounds by separate vowel diacritics.Braille pattern dots-124
The Braille pattern dots-124 ( ⠋ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the two top dots and middle left dot raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with both top dots and the upper-middle left dot raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+280b, and in Braille ASCII with F.Braille pattern dots-136
The Braille pattern dots-136 ( ⠥ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the top left and both bottom dots raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with the top left and both lower-middle dots raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+2825, and in Braille ASCII with U.Braille pattern dots-15
The Braille pattern dots-15 ( ⠑ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the top left and middle right dots raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with the top left and right upper-middle dots raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+2811, and in Braille ASCII with E.Braille pattern dots-2
The Braille pattern dots-2 ( ⠂ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the middle-left dot raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with its mid-high left dot raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+2802, and in Braille ASCII with the number "1".Braille pattern dots-23
The Braille pattern dots-23 ( ⠆ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the middle and bottom left dots raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with the two middle-left dots raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+2806, and in Braille ASCII with the number "2".Braille pattern dots-2346
The Braille pattern dots-2346 ( ⠮ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the top right, middle left, and both bottom dots raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with the top right, upper-middle left, and both lower-middle dots raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+282e, and in Braille ASCII with an exclamation mark: !.Braille pattern dots-235
The Braille pattern dots-235 ( ⠖ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with dots raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+2816, and in Braille ASCII with the number 6.Braille pattern dots-24
The Braille pattern dots-24 ( ⠊ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the top right and middle left dots raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with the top right and upper-middle dots raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+280a, and in Braille ASCII with I.Braille pattern dots-3
The Braille pattern dots-3 ( ⠄ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the bottom left dot raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with the middle-bottom left dot raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+2804, and in Braille ASCII with an apostrophe.Braille pattern dots-356
The Braille pattern dots-356 ( ⠴ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the middle right and both bottom dots raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with the upper-middle right and both lower-middle dots raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+2834, and in Braille ASCII with the number 0.Braille pattern dots-6
The Braille pattern dots-6 ( ⠠ ) is a 6-dot braille cell with the bottom right dot raised, or an 8-dot braille cell with the lower-middle right dot raised. It is represented by the Unicode code point U+2820, and in Braille ASCII with a comma:, .French Braille
French Braille is the original braille alphabet, and the basis of all others. The alphabetic order of French has become the basis of the international braille convention, used by most braille alphabets around the world. However, only the 25 basic letters of the French alphabet plus w have become internationalized; the additional letters are largely restricted to French Braille and the alphabets of some neighboring European countries.International uniformity of braille alphabets
The goal of braille uniformity is to unify the braille alphabets of the world as much as possible, so that literacy in one braille alphabet readily transfers to another. Unification was first achieved by a convention of the International Congress on Work for the Blind in 1878, where it was decided to replace the mutually incompatible national conventions of the time with the French values of the basic Latin alphabet, both for languages that use Latin-based alphabets and, through their Latin equivalents, for languages that use other scripts. However, the unification did not address letters beyond these 26, leaving French and German Braille partially incompatible, and as braille spread to new languages with new needs, national conventions again became disparate. A second round of unification was undertaken under the auspices of UNESCO in 1951, setting the foundation for international braille usage today.National Museum (Oman)
The National Museum of the Sultanate of Oman, established by royal decree in 2013 and opened July 30, 2016, is the Sultanate's flagship cultural institution, showcasing the nation’s heritage from the earliest human settlement in the Oman Peninsula some two million years ago through to the present day. As a national institution with global outreach, the museum is dedicated to ensuring that Oman’s cultural heritage is understood and appreciated not only within the Sultanate, but also internationally. Further, it aims to provide opportunities for cultural expression, innovation, and the transfer of traditional skills and knowledge from one generation to the next.The museum is located in the heart of Muscat in a purpose-designed building. The total area of the building is 13,700 square metres (147,000 sq ft), including 4,000 square metres (43,000 sq ft) allocated for 14 permanent galleries – The Land and the People Gallery, Maritime History Gallery, Arms and Armour Gallery, Aflaj Gallery, Currency Gallery, Prehistory and Ancient History Galleries, Splendours of Islam Gallery, Oman and the World Gallery, Intangible Heritage Gallery and Renaissance Gallery, among others. A further 400 square metres (4,300 sq ft) are allocated for temporary exhibitions.
The National Museum houses 5,466 objects and offers 43 digital immersive experiences, a fully equipped Learning Centre, conservation facilities, an ultra-high definition cinema, and discovery areas for children. It features an integrated infrastructure for special needs and is the first museum in the Middle East to adopt Arabic Braille script for the visually impaired. The museum contains a voluminous collection of prehistoric metallic artefacts It also houses the region’s first open-plan museum storage concept, where visitors can learn about the various processes that artefacts go through before they are put on display.Persian Braille
Persian Braille is the braille alphabet for the Persian language. It is largely compatible with Arabic Braille, which may be found (in uncontracted form) within Persian Braille texts. There are a few additional letters.Persian Braille is read from left to right, following the international convention. Numbers are also left to right, rather than switching direction as they do in printed Arabic.Urdu Braille
According to Unesco (2013), there are different braille alphabets for Urdu in India and in Pakistan. The Indian alphabet is based on national Bharati Braille, while the Pakistani alphabet is based on Persian Braille.
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aSociolinguistically not Arabic