Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea,[1] on the southwest by the Somali Sea,[2] and on the east by India. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft). The Gulf of Aden in the west connects the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf.

The Arabian Sea has been crossed by many important marine trade routes since the third or second millennium BCE. Major seaports include Kandla Port, Okha Port, Mumbai Port, Nhava Sheva Port (Navi Mumbai), Mormugão Port (Goa), New Mangalore Port and Kochi Port in India, the Port of Karachi, Port Qasim, and the Gwadar Port in Pakistan, Chabahar Port in Iran and the Port of Salalah in Salalah, Oman. The largest islands in the Arabian Sea include Socotra (Yemen), Masirah Island (Oman), Lakshadweep (India) and Astola Island (Pakistan).

Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea - n22e70
Arabian Sea map
Coordinates14°N 65°E / 14°N 65°ECoordinates: 14°N 65°E / 14°N 65°E
TypeSea
Part ofIndian Ocean
Basin countriesIndia, Iran, Maldives, Oman, Pakistan, Somalia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
Max. width2,400 km (1,500 mi)
Surface area3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi)
Max. depth4,652 m (15,262 ft)
IslandsAstola island, Basavaraja Durga Island, Lakshadweep, Piram Island, Pirotan, Socotra

Geography

Arabian Sea - October 2012
Arabian Sea from space

The Arabian Sea's surface area is about 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,130 sq mi).[3] The maximum width of the Sea is approximately 2,400 km (1,490 mi), and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft). The biggest river flowing into the Sea is the Indus River.

The Arabian Sea has two important branches — the Gulf of Aden in the southwest, connecting with the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb; and the Gulf of Oman to the northwest, connecting with the Persian Gulf. There are also the gulfs of Khambhat and Kutch on the Indian Coast.

PeriplusAncientMap
17th century map depicting the locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

The countries with coastlines on the Arabian Sea are Somalia, Yemen, Oman, Pakistan, India and the Maldives. There are several large cities on the sea's coast including Male, Kavaratti, Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari), Colachel, Kovalam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Kochi, Kozhikode, Kannur, Kasaragod, Mangalore, Bhatkal, Karwar, Vasco, Panjim, Malvan, Ratnagiri, Alibag, Mumbai, Daman, Valsad, Surat, Bharuch, Khambhat, Bhavnagar, Diu, Somnath, Mangrol, Porbandar, Dwarka, Okha, Jamnagar, Kandla, Gandhidham, Mundra, Koteshwar, Keti Bandar, Karachi, Ormara, Pasni, Gwadar, Chabahar, Muscat, Duqm, Salalah, Al Ghaydah, Aden, Bargal, and Hafun.

Bekalfortbeach
Beach at Bekal Fort, Kerala
Ormara West Beach
Ormara beach, west side of the city

Limits

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Arabian Sea as follows:[4]

Alternative names

The Arabian Sea historically and geographically has been referred to by many different names by Arabian and European geographers and travellers, including Indian Sea, Persian Sea,[5] Sindhu Sagar,[6] Arabbi Samudra,[6] Erythraean Sea,[5] Sindh Sea, and Akhzar Sea.

Trade routes

The Arabian Sea has been an important marine trade route since the era of the coastal sailing vessels from possibly as early as the 3rd millennium BCE, certainly the late 2nd millennium BCE through the later days known as the Age of Sail. By the time of Julius Caesar, several well-established combined land-sea trade routes depended upon water transport through the Sea around the rough inland terrain features to its north.

Periplous of the Erythraean Sea
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

These routes usually began in the Far East or down river from Madhya Pradesh with transshipment via historic Bharuch (Bharakuccha), traversed past the inhospitable coast of today's Iran then split around Hadhramaut into two streams north into the Gulf of Aden and thence into the Levant, or south into Alexandria via Red Sea ports such as Axum. Each major route involved transhipping to pack animal caravan, travel through desert country and risk of bandits and extortionate tolls by local potentates.

This southern coastal route past the rough country in the southern Arabian Peninsula (Yemen and Oman today) was significant, and the Egyptian Pharaohs built several shallow canals to service the trade, one more or less along the route of today's Suez canal, and another from the Red Sea to the Nile River, both shallow works that were swallowed up by huge sand storms in antiquity. Later the kingdom of Axum arose in Ethiopia to rule a mercantile empire rooted in the trade with Europe via Alexandria.

Major ports

Container terminal
The Kochi Port located on the south-west coast of India is the nearest Indian port to the international shipping routes, as well as one of the largest and busiest ports serving the Arabian Sea. Seen here is the International Container Transshipment Terminal, the only such facility in India.

The Port of Karachi is Pakistan's largest and busiest seaport. It is located between the Karachi towns of Kiamari and Saddar.

The Gwadar Port is a warm-water, deep-sea port situated at Gwadar in Balochistan, Pakistan at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, about 460 km west of Karachi and approximately 75 km (47 mi) east of Pakistan's border with Iran. The port is located on the eastern bay of a natural hammerhead-shaped peninsula jutting out into the Arabian Sea from the coastline.

Port of Salalah in Salalah, Oman is also a major port in the area. The International Task Force often uses the port as a base. There is a significant number of warships of all nations coming in and out of the port, which makes it a very safe bubble. The port handled just under 3.5m teu (twenty-foot equivalent unit, a measure used for capacity in container transportation) in 2009.[7]

Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai is the largest port in the Arabian Sea, and the largest container port in India. Major Indian ports in the Arabian Sea are Mundra Port, Kandla Port, Nava Sheva, Kochi Port, Mumbai Port, and Mormugão.[8][9]

Islands

There are several islands in the Arabian Sea, with the most important ones being Lakshadweep Islands (India), Socotra (Yemen), Masirah (Oman) and, Astola Island (Pakistan).

The Lakshadweep Islands (formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands) is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea region of Arabian Sea, 200 to 440 km (120 to 270 mi) off the south western coast of India. The archipelago is a Union Territory and is governed by the Union Government of India. The islands form the smallest Union Territory of India: their total surface area is just 32 km2 (12 sq mi). The lagoon area covers about 4,200 km2 (1,600 sq mi), the territorial waters area 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi) and the exclusive economic zone area 400,000 km2 (150,000 sq mi).The islands are the northernmost of the Lakshadweep-Maldives-Chagos group of islands.

Astola Island, also known as Jezira Haft Talar in Balochi, or 'Island of the Seven Hills', is a small, uninhabited island in the northern tip of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan's territorial waters.

Socotra satview
Landsat view over Socotra, a Yemeni island.

Socotra also spelled Soqotra is the largest island, being part of a small archipelago of four islands. It lies some 240 km (150 mi) east of the Horn of Africa and 380 km (240 mi) south of the Arabian Peninsula.

Masirah is an island off the East coast of Oman.

Dead zone

The dead zone is an area in the Gulf of Oman that is completely depleted of oxygen, as a result of which it does not support marine life. It is the world's largest-known dead zone with an area larger than that of Scotland.[10]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Banse, Karl, and Charles R. McClain. "Winter blooms of phytoplankton in the Arabian Sea as observed by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner." Marine Ecology Progress Series (1986): 201-211.
  2. ^ Pham, J. Peter. "Putting Somali piracy in context." Journal of Contemporary African Studies 28.3 (2010): 325-341.
  3. ^ Arabian Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
  5. ^ a b "The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea". washington.edu.
  6. ^ a b "Kamat's Potpourri: The Arabian Sea". kamat.com.
  7. ^ Salalah’s versatility beats the slump Archived October 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Port of Salalah
  8. ^ "TRAFFIC HANDLED AT MAJOR PORTS (LAST 7 YEARS)" (PDF). shipping.gov.in.
  9. ^ "WORLD PORT RANKINGS" (PDF). aapa.files.cms-plus.com. 2009.
  10. ^ "World's largest 'dead zone' discovered, and it's not in the Gulf of Mexico". nola.com.

References

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Arabian Sea" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

External links

Media related to Arabian Sea at Wikimedia Commons

Arabian Sea Country Club

The Arabian Sea Country Club (A.S.C.C.L.), is a recreational club with a golf course and several other sporting facilities, located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

The Country Club is the collective result of a group of companies, spearheaded by former test cricketer Javed Burki. The 18 hole, par 72 golf course has been designed by K. Okada San of Taisei Corporation of Japan. The Clubhouse and other facilities were designed by Architect Asad I. A. Khan and constructed through the management of Zaeem Lutfi and FMCL. The Arabian Sea Country Club has a golf course along with an elaborate Swimming Pool Complex, Sauna, Jacuzzi Steam bath and Fitness Centre. The club also has an international standard cricket ground which is currently used as a venue for some domestic matches.

Beaches in Karnataka

Karnataka's coastline called Karavali stretches 320 km (200 mi) between Mangalore in Dakshina Kannada district and Karwar in Uttara Kannada district. Bhatkal is the main centre with around eight beaches . The coastline of Karnataka is along the eastern shore of Arabian Sea.Karnataka's coastline spans across 3 districts Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada.

Daman and Diu

Daman and Diu (locally , Portuguese: Damão e Diu) is a union territory in western India. With an area of 112 km2, it is the smallest federal division of India on the mainland. The territory comprises two distinct regions—Daman and Diu—that are geographically separated by the Gulf of Khambhat. The state of Gujarat and the Arabian Sea border the territory. A Portuguese colony since the 1500s, the territories were annexed by India in 1961. It was ruled by Kolis.

Gulf of Aden

The Gulf of Aden, formerly known as the Gulf of Berbera, is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west. In the northwest, it connects with the Red Sea through the Bab-el-Mandeb strait, and in the southeast, it connects with the Indian Ocean through the Guardafui Channel.The waterway is part of the important Suez Canal shipping route between the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Sea in the Indian Ocean, with 21,000 ships crossing the gulf annually.

Gulf of Khambhat

The Gulf of Khambhat, also known as the Gulf of Cambay, is a bay on the Arabian Sea coast of India, bordering the state of Gujarat. The Gulf of Khambhat is about 200 km (120 mi) long, about 20 km (12 mi) wide in the north and up to 70 km (43 mi) wide in the south. Major rivers draining Gujarat are the Narmada, Tapti, Mahi and Sabarmati that form estuaries in the gulf.It divides the Kathiawar Peninsula from the south-eastern part of Gujarat.There are plans to construct a 30-kilometre (19 mi) dam, Kalpasar Project, across the gulf.

Gulf of Oman

The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (Arabic: خَلِيج عُمَان‎ khalīj ʿumān; Persian: دریای عمان‎ daryâ-ye omân) is a gulf that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf. It borders Iran and Pakistan on the north, Oman on the south, and the United Arab Emirates on the west.

Indus River Delta

The Indus River Delta (Urdu: سندھ ڈیلٹا‎, Sindhi: سنڌو ٽِڪور‎), forms where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea, mostly in the Southern Sindh province of Pakistan with a small portion in the Kutch Region of the Western tip of India. The delta covers an area of about 41,440 km² (16,000 square miles), and is approximately 210 km (130 mi) across where it meets the sea. The active part of the delta is 6,000 km2 in area (2,300 sq mi). The climate is arid, the region only receives between 25 and 50 centimetres (9.8 and 19.7 in) of rainfall in a normal year. The delta is home to the largest arid mangrove forests in the world, as well as many birds, fish and the Indus Dolphin.

Since the 1940s, the delta has received less water as a result of large-scale irrigation works capturing large amounts of the Indus water before it reaches the delta. The result has been catastrophic for both the environment and the local population. As a result, the 2010 Pakistan floods were considered "good news" for the ecosystem and population of the river delta as they brought much needed fresh water.The population of the active part of the delta was estimated at 900,000 in 2003. Most of the population depends on agriculture and fishing. Mangrove forests provide fuel wood. Many former settlements in the delta have been abandoned as result of lack of water in the Indus and the encroaching Arabian Sea.

Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves

The Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves are a large mangrove ecoregion on the Arabian Sea coast of Sindh Province, Pakistan. The Indus River Delta forms a vast alluvial fan composed of mud flats interspersed with channels and fringed with mangrove forests. Much of the forested area has been destroyed and the remaining parts are threatened.

Kali River (Karnataka)

The Kali River or Kali nadi is a river flowing through Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state in India. The river rises near Diggi, a small village in Uttar Kannada district. The river is the lifeline to some 4 lakh people in the Uttara Kannada district and supports the livelihoods of tens of thousands of people including fishermen on the coast of Karwar. There are many dams built across this river for the generation of electricity. One of the important dams build across Kali river is the Supa Dam at Ganeshgudi. The river runs 184 kilometers before joining Arabian Sea.

Significant and picturesque, the Sadashivgad fort is now a popular tourist destination located by the coastal highway Kali river bridge, which has been built above the confluence of the river and the Arabian Sea.

The National Highway NH-17 continues on the Kali Bridge built over Kali River and the road continues to split the Sadashivgad granite rock hill to connect Karnataka to Goa.

Kochi

Kochi ([koˈtʃːi ] (listen)), also known as Cochin ( KOH-chin), is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea. It is part of the district of Ernakulam in the state of Kerala and is often referred to as Ernakulam. Kochi is the most densely populated city in Kerala. As of 2011, it has a corporation limit population of 677,381 within an area of 94.88 km² and a total urban population of more than of 2.1 million within an area of 440 km², making it the largest and the most populous metropolitan area in Kerala. Kochi city is also part of the Greater Cochin region and is classified as a Tier-II city by the Government of India. The civic body that governs the city is the Kochi Municipal Corporation, which was constituted in the year 1967, and the statutory bodies that oversee its development are the Greater Cochin Development Authority (GCDA) and the Goshree Islands Development Authority (GIDA).Called the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the west coast of India from the 14th century onward, and maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era. Occupied by the Portuguese in 1503, Kochi was the first of the European colonies in colonial India. It remained the main seat of Portuguese India until 1530, when Goa was chosen instead. The city was later occupied by the Dutch and the British, with the Kingdom of Cochin becoming a princely state. Kochi ranks first in the total number of international and domestic tourist arrivals in Kerala. The city was ranked the sixth best tourist destination in India according to a survey conducted by the Nielsen Company on behalf of the Outlook Traveller magazine. Kochi was one of the 28 Indian cities among the emerging 440 global cities that will contribute 50% of the world GDP by the year 2025, in a 2011 study done by the McKinsey Global Institute. In July 2018, Kochi was ranked the topmost emerging future megacity in India by global professional services firm JLL.Kochi is known as the financial, commercial and industrial capital of Kerala. It has the highest GDP as well as the highest GDP per capita in the state. The city is home to the Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy and is the state headquarters of the Indian Coast Guard with an attached air squadron, named Air Squadron 747. Commercial maritime facilities of the city include the Port of Kochi, an International Container Transshipment Terminal, the Cochin Shipyard, offshore SPM of the BPCL Kochi Refinery and the Kochi Marina. Kochi is also home for the Cochin Stock Exchange, International Pepper Exchange, Marine Products Export Development Authority, Coconut Development Board, companies like HMT, Apollo Tyres and Synthite, petrochemical companies like the FACT, TCC, IREL, Petronet LNG, Merchem, HOCL and Kochi Refineries, electrical companies like TELK, and V-Guard and industrial parks like the Cochin Special Economic Zone, Smart City, Infopark and Kinfra Hi-Tech Park. Kochi is home for the High Court of Kerala and Lakshadweep, Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory (NPOL), Indian Maritime University, Sree Sankaracharya Sanskrit University and the Cochin University of Science and Technology. Kochi is also home to Kerala's National Law School, the National University of Advanced Legal Studies.

Kochi has been hosting India's first art biennale, the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, since 2012, which attracts international artists and tourists.

Korapuzha

Korapuzha, also known as Elathur River, is a short river of 40 km (25 mi), with a drainage area of 624 km2 (241 sq mi), flowing through the Kozhikode district of Kerala state in India. It is formed by the confluence of two streams, Akalapuzha and Punoor puzha which originate in the mountains of Wayanad district. The Korapuzha empties into the Arabian Sea at Elathur. The river and its main tributaries become tidal as they near the Arabian Sea. There is heavy boat traffic over the last 25 km (16 mi) of its course. It forms part of the West Coast Inland Navigation System.

List of ports and harbours of the Indian Ocean

This is a list of ports and harbours of the Indian Ocean.

North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone

In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, tropical cyclones can form throughout the year on either side of India. On the east side is the Bay of Bengal, and on the west side is the Arabian Sea.

Paradise Point, Pakistan

Paradise Point, on the Arabian Sea, is a beach in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Paradise Point is a sandstone rock promontory which once had a natural arch.

The beach has attractions for families and tourists, including beachside horse and camel rides, amusement parks, restaurants, and swimming in the Arabian Sea. Paradise Point Beach is accessible through Mauripur Road (formerly Hawkes Bay Road) or the Mubarak Goth Road from Karachi. Nathiagali Beach is located west of Paradise Point Beach.Other beaches close to the city include Sandspit Beach, Hawke's Bay, and Clifton Beach.

Pre-1975 North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons

The years before 1975 featured the pre-1975 North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons. Each season was an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian tropical cyclone season has no bounds, but they tend to form between April and December, peaks in May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean. Below are the most significant cyclones in the time period. Because much of the North Indian coastline is near sea level and prone to flooding, these cyclones can easily kill many with storm surge and flooding. These cyclones are among the deadliest on earth in terms of numbers killed.

Ratnagiri

Ratnagiri is a port city on the Arabian Sea coast in Ratnagiri District in the southwestern part of Maharashtra, India. The district is a part of Konkan division of Maharashtra. It is world famous for alphonso mango as it got GI (geographical identification) tag by ministry of commerce of government of india in the year 2018 and also for kokum it also got GI (geographical identification) tag.

Thane Creek

Thane Creek is an inlet in the shoreline of the Arabian Sea that isolates the city of Mumbai from the Indian mainland. It comprises the area between Mumbra Retibunder and the Mankhurd-Vashi Bridge. The creek is divided into two parts. The first part lies between Ghodbunder and Thane, a section from where the Ulhas river flows from the north of Mumbai Island to meet the Arabian Sea on the west. The second part of the waterway lies between the city of Thane and the Arabian Sea at Trombay / Uran, before the Gharapuri islands.

Thane creek has been formed due to seismic fault lying below it which runs from Uran to Thane

In antiquity, Thane served as the capital of the Sheelahar kingdom, and was a large functional port for trade with the Arabian peninsula, along with other ports, such as Ghodbunder and Nagla Bunder. The region of the Thane Creek has been recognized as an Important Bird Area by the Bombay Natural History Society, as it is home to various avian species. In particular, it harbors populations of flamingos and several other migratory and wading birds.

Wāḳwāḳ

Wāḳwāḳ (Wāḳ Wāḳ, Wāḳ al-Wāḳ, al-Wāḳwāḳ; Arabic: الواق واق al-Waqwaq) is the name of an island, or possibly more than one island, in medieval Arabic geographical and imaginative literature.Ibn Khordadbeh mentions Waqwaq twice: "East of China are the lands of Waqwaq, which are so rich in gold that the inhabitants make the chains for their dogs and the collars for their monkeys of this metal. They manufacture tunics woven with gold. Excellent ebony wood is found there. And again: Gold and ebony are exported from Waqwaq." Michael Jan de Goeje offered an etymology that interpreted it as a rendering of a Cantonese name for Japan. Gabriel Ferrand identified it with Madagascar, Sumatra or Indonesia.

Wāḳwāḳ is referred to in a number of sources, it is generally an island far away.

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