Arab Lictor Youth

Arab Lictor Youth (Arabic: شباب الليتوريو العربShabāb Al-Līttūriw Al-ʿArab, Italian: Gioventù Araba del Littorio, abbreviated G.A.L.) was a fascist youth organization for Arab youth in Italian Libya.

GAL-Arab Lictor Youth in uniforms
GAL members in uniform

History

GAL was founded by the Italian Governor-General in Libya, Italo Balbo, in October 1935.[1] GAL functioned as the Libyan counterpart of the Italian Lictor Youth (GIL).[2] GAL was divided into Aftal (organizing children up to twelve years of age, similar to the Opera Nazionale Balilla movement in Italy) and Sciubban (organizing youngsters between thirteen and eighteen years of age). GAL was mainly based in the larger cities along the Mediterranean coast.[1] GAL contingents marched at virtually all parades [3] and festivals held in Libya at the time.[2]

The organization provided pre-military and cultural education to Libyan Arab youth. These training programmes became an important part of the educational system during fascist rule in Libya, preparing young Libyans for military service in the Italian armed forces.[4][5] GAL also had sports activities; it was one of two sports organization in Libya at the time which was open to Muslims.[6] The sporting activities of the organization were led by Ramadan Alì.[7] As per ideological indoctrination, there is little evidence to suggest that the organization was particularly successful in instilling fascist ideological doctrine amongst the Libyan youth.[2]

Having had at least one year of membership in GAL was one of the conditions for Libyan Muslims seeking "Cittadinanza Italiana Speciale" (Italian Special citizenship, created for indigenous Libyans only within Italian Libya; they could not migrate to Italy proper).[8] There was also a corresponding movements for adults, the Muslim Association of the Lictor (a referent of the National Fascist Party).[9]

Bibliography

  • Del Boca, Angelo. Gli italiani in Libia. Vol. 1: Tripoli bel suol d'Amore. Milano, Mondadori, 1997.
  • Smeaton Munro, Ion. Through Fascism to World Power: A History of the Revolution in Italy. Ayer Publishing. Manchester (New Hampshire), 1971. ISBN 0-8369-5912-4

References

  1. ^ a b Munzi, Massimiliano. L'epica del ritorno: archeologia e politica nella Tripolitania italiana. Saggi di storia antica, 17. Roma: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 2001. 83
  2. ^ a b c Segrè, Claudio G. Italo Balbo: A Fascist Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. p. 328
  3. ^ "Original Video of 1937 with GAL parade (in Italian)". Archived from the original on 2015-10-24. Retrieved 2019-05-12.
  4. ^ McLaren, Brian. Architecture and Tourism in Italian Colonial Libya: An Ambivalent Modernism. Studies in modernity and national identity. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005. p. 101
  5. ^ Kotschnig, Walter M.. Review: The School in Colonial Expansion
  6. ^ Scego, Igiaba.Apartheid italico Archived July 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Gabrielli, Gianluca. L'attività sportiva nelle colonie italiane durante il fascismo.
  8. ^ Tironi, Stefano. La comunità ebraica tripolina tra la Libia e Roma
  9. ^ Storia del Ventennio Fascista

See also

Ethiopian Lictor Youth

Ethiopian Lictor Youth (Italian: Gioventù Etiopica del Littorio, abbreviated G.E.L.) was a fascist youth organization in Ethiopia.

Fascism in Africa

Fascism in Africa refers to the phenomenon of fascist parties and movements that were active in Africa.

Glossary of Fascist Italy

This is a list of words, terms, concepts, and slogans in the Italian language and Latin language which were specifically used in Fascist Italian monarchy and Italian Social Republic.

Some words were coined by Benito Mussolini and other Italian Fascists. Other words and concepts were borrowed and appropriated, and other terms were already in use in Italy. Finally, some are taken from Italy's cultural tradition.

Italian Libya

Italian Libya (Italian: Libia Italiana; Arabic: ليبيا الإيطالية‎, Lībyā al-Īṭālīya) was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy located in North Africa, in what is now modern Libya. Italian Libya was formed from the Italian colonies of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania that were taken by the Kingdom of Italy from the Ottoman Empire in 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912. The unified colony was established in 1934 by governor Italo Balbo, with Tripoli as the capital.

The territory of Italian Libya was also called Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI), both before and after its unification. In 1923, indigenous rebels associated with the Senussi Order organized the Libyan resistance movement against Italian settlement in Libya. The rebellion was totally put down by Italian forces in 1932, after the so-called "pacification campaign", which resulted in the deaths of a quarter of Cyrenaica's population.

During World War II, Italian Libya became the setting for the North African Campaign. Although the Italians were defeated there by the Allies in 1943, many of the Italian settlers still remained in Libya. Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty, Italy officially relinquished all claims to Libya, which was administrated by the United Kingdom and France until its independence in 1951.

Muslim Association of the Lictor

The Muslim Association of the Lictor (Italian: Associazione Musulmana del Littorio, AML) was created in 1939 as the Muslim branch of the National Fascist Party of Italy. It was found mainly and largely in Italian Libya. It was dissolved by the Allies during the invasion of Italy in 1943.

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