Arab League

The Arab League (Arabic: الجامعة العربيةal-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah), formally the League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربيةJāmiʿat ad-Duwal al-ʿArabīyah), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia. It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria.[3] Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members, but Syria's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian Civil War.[4]

The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries".[5]

Through institutions, such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific, and social programmes designed to promote the interests of the Arab world.[6][7] It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter, which outlines the principles for economic activities in the region.

Arab League of states establishment - Egypt 22-3-1945 22Millim stamp
Arab League of states establishment memorial stamp. Showing flags of the 8 establishing countries: Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom (North Yemen), Syrian Republic, Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Lebanese Republic

Each member state has one vote in the League Council, and decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic and social programs of its members and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defence measures. In March 2015, the Arab League General Secretary announced the establishment of a Joint Arab Force with the aim of counteracting extremism and other threats to the Arab States. The decision was reached while Operation Decisive Storm was intensifying in Yemen. Participation in the project is voluntary, and the army intervenes only at the request of one of the member states. The growing militarization of the region and the increase in violent civil wars as well as terrorist movements are the reason behind the creation of the JAF, financed by the rich Gulf countries.[8]

In the early 1970s, the Economic Council of the League of Arab States put forward a proposal to create the Joint Arab Chambers of Commerce across the European states. That led, under the decree of the League of Arab States no. K1175/D52/G, to the decision by the Arab governments to set up the Arab British Chamber of Commerce which was mandated to "promote, encourage and facilitate bilateral trade" between the Arab world and its major trading partner, the United Kingdom.

League of Arab States

جامعة الدول العربية
Jāmiʿat ad-Duwal al-ʿArabīyah
Emblem of the Arab League
Emblem
Location of the Arab League
Administrative centerCairo, Egypt a
Official languages
Demonym(s)Arabs
TypeRegional organization
Members
Leaders
Ahmed Aboul Gheit
Ali Al-Daqbaashi
 Sudan
LegislatureArab Parliament
Establishment
22 March 1945
Area
• Total area
13,132,327 km2 (5,070,420 sq mi)
Population
• 2015 estimate
423,000,000[2]
• Density
27.17/km2 (70.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate
• Total
$6.484 trillion (4th)
• Per capita
$9,347
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$3.526 trillion
• Per capita
$4,239
Currency
Time zoneUTC+0 to +4
  1. From 1979 to 1989, Tunis, Tunisia.
  2. Syrian Arab Republic suspended.

History

Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes and coordinating political aims.[9] Other countries later joined the league.[10] Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab population being uprooted as the state of Israel emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular protest in the Arab world), but a major participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the United Nations General Assembly, and Egypt intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman from accomplishing its objective.[11] It was followed by the creation of a mutual defence treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.[9][12]

Geography

Arab League members colored by joining date
Joining dates of member states; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.
     1940s      1950s      1960s      1970s

The Arab League member states cover over 13,000,000 km2 (5,000,000 sq mi) and straddles two continents: Africa and Asia. The area largely consists of arid deserts, such as the Sahara. Nevertheless, it also contains several highly fertile lands like the Nile Valley, the Jubba Valley and Shebelle Valley in the Horn of Africa, the Atlas Mountains in the Maghreb, and the Fertile Crescent that stretches over Mesopotamia and the Levant. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia and parts of the world's longest river, the Nile.

Membership

The Charter of the Arab League, also known as the Pact of the League of Arab States, is the founding treaty of the Arab League. Adopted in 1945, it stipulates that "the League of Arab States shall be composed of the independent Arab States that have signed this Pact."[13]

Initially, in 1945, there were only six members. Today, the Arab League has 22 members, including three African countries among the largest by area (Sudan, Algeria and Libya) and the largest country in the Middle East, (Saudi Arabia).

Five countries have observer status that entitles them to express their opinion and give advice but denies them voting rights.[14]

There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century. As of 2016, there are 22 member states:

and 5 observer states:

Libya was suspended on 22 February 2011, following the start of the Libyan Civil War.[16] The National Transitional Council, the partially recognised interim government of Libya, sent a representative to be seated at the Arab League meeting on 17 August to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya to the organisation.[17]

Syria was suspended on 16 November 2011. On 6 March 2013, the Arab League gave the Syrian National Coalition Syria's seat in the Arab League.[18] On 9 March 2014, secretary general Nabil al-Arabi said that Syria's seat would remain vacant until the opposition completes the formation of its institutions.[19]

Politics and administration

Arab Leage HQ 977
Headquarters of the Arab League, Cairo.
Israel-Palestine Diplomacy
  Recognition of both Israel and Palestinian State
  Recognition of Palestinian State only
Provinces - Arab League
Administrative divisions in the Arab League.

The Arab League is a political organization which tries to help integrate its members economically, and solve conflicts involving member states without asking for foreign assistance. It possesses elements of a state representative parliament while foreign affairs are often conducted under UN supervision.

The Charter of the Arab League[5] endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland while respecting the sovereignty of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League[20] and the committees[21] were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.[22]

Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism, the feuds among Arab rulers, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.

Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of Palestine the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration.[23] This was done by means of an annex that declared:[5]

Even though Palestine was not able to control her own destiny, it was on the basis of the recognition of her independence that the Covenant of the League of Nations determined a system of government for her. Her existence and her independence among the nations can, therefore, no more be questioned de jure than the independence of any of the other Arab States. [...] Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab League consider that in view of Palestine's special circumstances, the Council of the League should designate an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work until this country enjoys actual independence

At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council convened in East Jerusalem on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964. Palestine was shortly admitted in to the Arab League, represented by the PLO. Today, State of Palestine is a full member of the Arab League.

At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,[24] a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict. The initiative offered full normalisation of the relations with Israel. In exchange, Israel was required to withdraw from all occupied territories, including the Golan Heights, to recognise Palestinian independence in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees. The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. In July 2007, the Arab League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordanian and Egyptian foreign ministers, to Israel to promote the initiative. Following Venezuela's move to expel Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed Al-Tabtabaie proposed moving Arab League headquarters to Caracas, Venezuela.[25] On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab League, visited the Gaza Strip, the first visit by an official of the Arab League since Hamas' armed takeover in 2007.

In 2015, the Arab League voiced support for Saudi Arabian-led military intervention in Yemen against the Shia Houthis and forces loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who was deposed in the 2011 uprising.[26]

On 15 April 2018, in response to the Turkish invasion of northern Syria aimed at ousting U.S.-backed Syrian Kurds from the enclave of Afrin, the Arab League passed a resolution calling on Turkish forces to withdraw from Afrin.[27]

Summits

No. Date Host Country Host City
1 13–17 January 1964  Egypt Cairo
2 5–11 September 1964  Egypt Alexandria
3 13–17 September 1965  Morocco Casablanca
4 29 August 1967  Sudan Khartoum
5 21–23 December 1969  Morocco Rabat
6 26–28 November 1973  Algeria Algiers
7 29 October 1974  Morocco Rabat
8 25–26 October 1976  Egypt Cairo
9 2–5 November 1978  Iraq Baghdad
10 20–22 November 1979  Tunisia Tunis
11 21–22 November 1980  Jordan Amman
12 6–9 September 1982  Morocco Fes
13 1985  Morocco Casablanca
14 1987  Jordan Amman
15 June 1988  Algeria Algiers
16 1989  Morocco Casablanca
17 1990  Iraq Baghdad
18 1996  Egypt Cairo
19 27–28 March 2001  Jordan Amman
20 27–28 March 2002  Lebanon Beirut
21 1 March 2003  Egypt Sharm el-Sheikh
22 22–23 May 2004  Tunisia Tunis
23 22–23 March 2005  Algeria Algiers
24 28–30 March 2006  Sudan Khartoum
25 27–28 March 2007  Saudi Arabia Riyadh
26 29–30 March 2008  Syria Damascus
27 28–30 March 2009  Qatar Doha
28 27–28 March 2010  Libya Sirte
29 27–29 March 2012  Iraq Baghdad
30 21–27 March 2013  Qatar Doha[28]
31 25–26 March 2014  Kuwait Kuwait City[29]
32 28–29 March 2015  Egypt Sharm El Sheikh[30]
33 20 July 2016  Mauritania Nouakchott
34 23–29 March 2017  Jordan Amman[31]
35 15 April 2018  Saudi Arabia Dhahran
36 April 2019  Tunisia Tunis [32]

Military

The Joint Defence Council of the Arab League is one of the Institutions of the Arab League.[33] It was established under the terms of the Joint Defence and Economic Co-operation Treaty of 1950 to coordinate the joint defence of the Arab League member states.[34]

The Arab League as an Organization has no military Force, like the UN or EU, but at the 2007 summit, the Leaders decided to reactivate their joint defense and establish a peacekeeping force to deploy in South Lebanon, Darfur, Iraq, and other hot spots.

At a 2015 summit in Egypt, member nations agreed in principle to form a joint military force.[35]

Emergency summits

No. Date Host Country Host City
1 21–27 September 1970  Egypt Cairo
2 17–28 October 1976  Saudi Arabia Riyadh
3 7–9 September 1985  Morocco Casablanca
4 8–12 November 1987  Jordan Amman
5 7–9 June 1988  Algeria Algiers
6 23–26 June 1989  Morocco Casablanca
7 28–30 March 1990  Iraq Baghdad
8 9–10 August 1990  Egypt Cairo
9 22–23 June 1996  Egypt Cairo
10 21–22 October 2000  Egypt Cairo
11 7 January 2016  Saudi Arabia Riyadh
  • Two summits are not added to the system of Arab League summits:
    • Anshas, Egypt: 28–29 May 1946.
    • Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1958.
  • Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:
    • On 25 November 1981: the 5-hour meeting ended without an agreement on document.
    • On 6–9 September 1982.

Economic resources

The Arab League is rich in resources, such as enormous oil and natural gas resources in certain member states. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom and Etisalat have managed to compete internationally.

Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).[36] Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline, that will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. As of 2013, a significant difference in economic conditions exist between the developed oil states of Algeria, Qatar, Kuwait and the UAE, and developing countries like Comoros, Djibouti, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen.

OAPEC Members
OAPEC Members

The Arab League also includes great fertile lands in the southern part of Sudan. It is referred to as the food basket of the Arab World, the region's instability including the independence of South Sudan has not affected its tourism industry, that is considered the fastest growing industry in the region, with Egypt, UAE, Lebanon, Tunisia, and Jordan leading the way. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications.

Economical achievements within members have been low in the league's history, other smaller Arab Organizations have achieved more than the league has, such as the GCC, but lately several major economic projects that are promising are to be completed, the Arab Gas Pipeline is to end by the year 2010, Connecting Egyptian and Iraqi Gas to Jordan, Syria and Lebanon, and then to Turkey thus Europe, a free trade Agreement (GAFTA) is to be completed by 1 January 2008, making 95% of all Arab Products tax free of customs.

Transport

The Arab League is divided into five parts when it comes to transport, with the Arabian Peninsula and the Near East being entirely connected by air, sea, roads and railways. Another part of the League is the Nile Valley, made up of Egypt and Sudan. These two member states have started to improve the River Nile's navigation system to improve accessibility and thus foster trading. A new railway system is also set to connect the southern Egyptian city of Abu Simbel with the northern Sudanese city of Wadi Halfa and then to Khartoum and Port Sudan. The third division of the League is the Maghreb, where a 3,000 km stretch of railway runs from the southern cities of Morocco to Tripoli in Western Libya. The fourth division of the League is the Horn of Africa, whose member states include Djibouti and Somalia. These two Arab League states are separated by only ten nautical miles from the Arabian Peninsula by the Bab el Mandeb and this is quickly changing as Tarik bin Laden, the brother of Osama bin Laden, has initiated the construction of the ambitious Bridge of the Horns project, which ultimately aims to connect the Horn of Africa with the Arabian Peninsula via a massive bridge. The project is intended to facilitate and accelerate the already centuries-old trade and commerce between the two regions. The last division of the League is the isolated island of Comoros, which is not physically connected to any other Arab state, but still trades with other League members.

Literacy in Arab league countries

Arab literacy rate (2010)
Literacy rate in Arab World.

In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2010. It is also important to note that the Persian Gulf region has had an oil boom, enabling more schools and universities to be set up.

Rank Country Literacy rate
1  Qatar 97.3[37]
2  Palestine 96.5[37]
3  Kuwait 96.3[37]
4  Bahrain 95.7[37]
5  Jordan 95.4[37]
6  Saudi Arabia 94.4[37]
7  Lebanon 93.9[37]
8  United Arab Emirates 93.8[37]
9  Oman 91.1[37]
10  Libya 91[37]
11  Syria 86.4[37]
12  Iraq 85.7[37]
13  Tunisia 81.8[37]
14  Comoros 81.8[37]
15  Algeria 80.2[37]
16  Sudan 75.9[37]
17  Egypt 73.8[37]
18  Yemen 70.1[37]
19  Djibouti 70.0[38]
20  Morocco 68.5[37]
21  Mauritania 52.1[37]
22  Somalia 44–72[39]

Demographics

The Arab League is a culturally and ethnically one association of 22 member states, with the overwhelming majority of the League's population identified as Arab (on a cultural ethnoracial basis). As of July 1, 2013, about 359 million people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. The most populous member state is Egypt, with a population of about 91 million.[40] The least populated is the Comoros, with over 0.6 million inhabitants.

Rank Country Population Density (/km2) Density (sq mi) Notes
1  Egypt 97,075,300 101 262 [41]
2  Algeria 40,400,000 16 41 [42]
3  Iraq 37,202,572 80 207 [43]
4  Morocco 35,740,000 71 184 [42]
5  Sudan 39,578,828 16 41 [44]
6  Saudi Arabia 33,000,000 12 31 [42]
7  Yemen 27,584,213 45 117 [42]
8  Syria* 21,906,000 118 306 [42]
9  Tunisia 11,304,482 65 168 [45]
10  Somalia 14,317,996 18 47 [42]
11  Jordan 10,159,967 71 184 [42]
12  United Arab Emirates 9,269,612 99 256 [46]
13  Libya 6,293,253 3.8 9.8 [42][47]
14  Lebanon 6,006,668 404 1,046 [42]
15  Palestine 4,550,368 756 1,958 [48]
16  Oman 4,424,762 9.2 24 [42]
17  Mauritania 4,301,018 3.2 8.3 [42]
18  Kuwait 4,052,584 200 518 [42]
19  Qatar 2,641,669 154 399 [42]
20  Bahrain 1,425,171 1,646 4,263 [49]
21  Djibouti 942,333 37 96 [42]
22  Comoros 795,601 309 800 [42]
Total  Arab League 412,972,397 30.4 78.7
  • Syrian demographics are before the Syrian civil war.

Religion

Almost all of the Arab League's citizens adhere to Islam, with Christianity being the second largest religion. At least 15 million Christians combined live in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Sudan and Syria. In addition, there are smaller but significant numbers of Druze, Yazidis, Shabaks and Mandaeans. Numbers for nonreligious Arabs are generally not available, but research by the Pew Forum suggests around 1% of people in the MENA region are "unaffiliated".[50]

Linguistics

The official language of the Arab League is Literary Arabic, based on Classical Arabic. However, several Arab League member states have other co-official or national languages, such as Somali, Berber and Kurdish.

Culture

Sports

The Pan Arab Games are considered the biggest Arab sporting event, which brings together athletes from all the Arab countries to participate in a variety of different sports.

The Union of Arab Football Associations organises the Arab Nations Cup (for national teams) and the Arab Club Champions Cup (for clubs). Arab sport federations also exist for several games, include basketball, volleyball, handball, table tennis, tennis, squash and swimming.

See also

References

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  2. ^ total population 450 million, CIA Factbook estimates an Arab population of 533 million, see article text.
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External links

2002 Arab League summit

The Beirut Summit (also known as the Arab Summit Conference) was a meeting of the Arab League in Beirut, Lebanon in March 2002 to discuss the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. At the time Yassar Arafat, the leader of Palestine, was under house-arrest in his Ramallah compound. The Israeli forces confined him and prevented him from attending the Beirut Summit. The meeting became especially noteworthy for the adoption, by the Arab states attending, of a proposal offering a comprehensive peace between the Arab countries and Israel, called the Arab Peace Initiative.

2008 Arab League summit

The 2008 Arab League summit was held in Damascus on March 29, 2008. The summit was marred by inter-Arab differences, mainly over the political deadlock in Lebanon, with relations between Syria and the Saudi-Egypt coalition reaching an all-time low. Saudi Arabia and Egypt snubbed the summit by sending low-level representatives. Lebanon's majority government boycotted the summit

Ahmed Aboul Gheit

Ahmed Aboul Gheit (Arabic: أحمد أبو الغيط‎ [ˈæħmæd æbolˈɣeːtˤ], also: Abu al-Ghayt, Abu El Gheyt, etc.) (born 12 June 1942) is an Egyptian politician and diplomat who has been Secretary-General of the Arab League since July 2016. Aboul-Gheit served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt from 11 July 2004 to 6 March 2011. Previously he was Egypt's Permanent Representative to the United Nations. He was succeeded as Minister of Foreign Affairs by ICJ judge Nabil Elaraby in March 2011, following the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak. He was elected Secretary-General of the Arab League in March 2016, and his term commenced on 3 July 2016.

Amr Moussa

Amr Moussa (Arabic: عمرو محمد موسى‎, IPA: [ˈʕɑmɾe mæˈħæmmæd ˈmuːsæ], Amr Muhammad Moussa; born 3 October 1936) is an Egyptian politician and diplomat who was the Secretary-General of the Arab League, a 22-member forum representing Arab states, from 1 June 2001 to 1 June 2011. Previously he served in the government of Egypt as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1991 to 2001. On 8 September 2013, he was elected president of the committee of 50 that will amend the Egyptian constitution.

Arab League and the Arab–Israeli conflict

The Arab League was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan after independence in 1946), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined on 5 May 1945.

Since its formation the Arab League has promoted the Palestinian Arab cause in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, including the imposition of the Arab League boycott of Israel. The Arab League opposed the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine in 1947. On 15 May 1948, the then seven Arab League members coordinated an invasion of what was by then the former British Mandate, marking the start of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. In 1964, the Arab League created the Palestine Liberation Organization to operate within the territory of Israel. During the Six-Day War, the Arab League imposed an oil embargo, which lasted until the Khartoum Resolution in September 1967. The League members also agreed to continue the state of belligerency with Israel and not to negotiate a settlement to the conflict. The signing of the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty was condemned, and Egypt was suspended from the Arab League in 1979, which lasted until 1989. The Arab League on 15 November 1988 recognized the proclamation of the State of Palestine. The Palestine Liberation Organization and Israel signed the Oslo Accords in 1993 which led to the setting up of the Palestinian National Authority. The Arab League has not made any official statements either supporting the establishment of the Palestinian Authority or condemning it. In October 1994, Jordan signed the Israel–Jordan peace treaty with Israel, and it was not ostracized by the Arab League, as Egypt had been in 1979. In 2002, the Arab League endorsed a Saudi Arabian Arab Peace Initiative which called for full withdrawal by Israel "to the 1967 borders" in return for fully normalized relations.

Arab League boycott of Israel

The Arab League boycott of Israel is a strategy adopted by the Arab League and its member states to boycott economic and other relations between Arabs and the Arab states and Israel and specifically stopping all trade with Israel which adds to that country's economic and military strength. A secondary boycott was later imposed, to boycott non-Israeli companies that do business with Israel, and later a tertiary boycott involved the blacklisting of firms that that do business with other companies that do business with Israel.

An official organized boycott of the Yishuv (pre-state Jewish community in Palestine) was adopted by the Arab League in December 1945, and persisted against Israel after its establishment in 1948. The boycott was designed to weaken Jewish industry in Palestine and to deter Jewish immigration to the region. Although the boycott undoubtedly hurt Israel to some extent, it failed to cripple the country economically. Israel managed to build one of the strongest economies in the region, and managed to evade the boycott and clandestinely trade with the Arab and Muslim world through a number of countermeasures. The implementation of the boycott has varied over time among member states, and has since waned, with some states no longer applying the boycott.

Egypt (1979), the Palestinian Authority (1993), and Jordan (1994) signed peace treaties or agreements that ended their participation in the boycott of Israel. Mauritania, which never applied the boycott, established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1999. Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia do not enforce the boycott. In 1994, following the Oslo Peace Accords, the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) states, ended their participation in the Arab boycott against Israel. The move prompted a surge of investment in Israel, and resulted in the initiation of joint cooperation projects between Israel and Arab countries. In 1996, the GCC states recognized that total elimination of the boycott is a necessary step for peace and economic development in the region.While in its heyday, the Arab boycott had a moderate negative impact on Israel's economy and development, but also had significant negative effect on economic welfare in participating Arab countries, as the result of a deterioration in the foreign direct investment climate in the Arab world, and reduction in the volume of trade. In present days, the boycott is sporadically applied and ambiguously enforced, and therefore, no longer has significant effect on the Israeli or Arab economies. The boycott also negatively impacted other countries— particularly the United States during the Arab Oil Embargo in the 1970s.

Today, most Arab states, Syria being the exception, no longer attempt to enforce the secondary or tertiary boycotts. Syria, Lebanon, and Iran (though not an Arab state) are the only states which actively enforce the primary boycott.

Arab League monitors in Syria

On December 19, 2011, the Syrian government agreed to allow foreign observers from the Arab League to monitor Syria's progress in removing troops from protest areas, free political prisoners, and negotiate with dissidents. The mission was in accordance with the Arab League peace plan aimed to resolve the Syrian crisis. The monitors were dispatched and supported by the Arab League.

Arab League–European Union relations

The Arab League and European Union have shared relations since the EU's development into a more political power rather than an economical one. At the 19th summit of the Arab League in Saudi Arabia, Javier Solana attended the summit. He gave the EU's full support to the Arab League's Peace Initiative of 2002. At the summit, he addressed the Arab Leaders:

"once again we find ourselves together, the European Union and the Arab League, once again we have an opportunity to re-affirm our joint commitment to the values of civilisation that we share, more than ever Europeans and Arabs have to face common challenges, I am confident that we will find new ways to improve our cooperation"Following this summit, he had several meetings with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and the Arab League Secretary General Amr Moussa.

The real Organizational relations started in 2007, when the Arab League adopted a diplomacy of reaching out to other regional Organizations and Big Economic Partners, specially the EU, ASEAN, China, India, Japan and South American.

Arab League–Russia relations

Russia–Arab League relations include various contacts between the Russian Federation and the multi-state Arab organization. The Russian Federation maintains various contacts with the Arab League and plays a mediating role in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

Arab world

The Arab world (Arabic: العالم العربي‎ al-ʿālam al-ʿarabī; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي al-waṭan al-ʿarabī), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية al-ummah al-ʿarabīyyah), the Arabsphere or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League. These Arab states occupy North Africa and West Asia; an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast. The contemporary Arab world has a combined population of around 422 million inhabitants, over half of whom are under 25 years of age.In post-classical history, the Arab world was synonymous with the historic Arab empires and caliphates. Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire. The Arab League was formed in 1945 to represent the interests of Arab people and especially to pursue the political unification of the Arab countries; a project known as Pan-Arabism.

Arab–Pakistan relations

Pakistan–Arab relations refer to foreign relations between Pakistan and the various states of the Arab world which constitute the Arab League.

Council of Arab Economic Unity

The Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU) (Arabic: مجلس الوحدة الاقتصادي العربي) was founded by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen on May 30, 1964, following an agreement in 1957 by the Economic Council of the Arab League.

Headwater Diversion Plan (Jordan River)

The Headwater Diversion Plan was an Arab League plan to divert two of the three sources of the Jordan River, and prevent them from flowing into the Sea of Galilee, in order to thwart Israel's plans to use the water of the Hasbani and Banias in its National Water Carrier project for out of Basin irrigation. The plan was approved by the Arab League in 1964 but Israel prevented the project's development by conducting airstrikes in Syrian territory in April 1967.

La Goulette

La Goulette (Tunisian Arabic: حلق الوادي‎ Ḥalq el-Wād, Italian: La Goletta) is the port of Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. The Kasbah fortress was built in 1535 by Charles I of Spain but was captured by the Ottoman Turks in 1574. La Goulette is located at around 36°49′5″N 10°18′18″E.

The name derives from the "gullet", a channel where the city is located, not from the ship type schooner, called goélette, gulet, goleta or goletta in French, Turkish, Spanish and Italian.

La Goulette is linked to Tunis by the TGM railway.

List of Arab League countries by GDP (nominal)

This is a list of Arab League countries by gross domestic product at nominal values. Gross domestic product is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

The table below shows the nominal GDP and GDP per capita data for the 22 members of the Arab League. Most figures are from the International Monetary Fund based on statistics from 2018, and are shown in current US dollars. Figures from other sources are referenced and noted as such. The GDP figure for Syria is from 2014, and its GDP per capita figure is from 2016. Figures for Palestine and Somalia are from 2016.

Countries (or territories) outside the Arab League with roughly equivalent GDP and GDP per capita figures are shown alongside Arab League figures for comparison.

List of museums

This is a list of museums. A museum is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.

According to Museums of the World, there are about 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The International Council of Museums comprises 30,000 members in 137 countries.

Member states of the Arab League

The Arab League has 22 member states. It was founded in Cairo in March 1945 with six members: the Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Republic, and Transjordan (Jordan from 1949). North Yemen (later becoming Yemen) joined on 5 May 1945. Membership increased during the second half of the 20th century. Five countries have observer status.

Office of the Arab League, London

The Office of the Arab League in London (or, formally, the League of Arab States) is the diplomatic mission of the Arab League in the United Kingdom.

Rosetta

Rosetta (; Arabic: رشيد‎ Rašīd IPA: [ɾɑˈʃiːd]; French: Rosette [ʁo.zɛt]; Coptic: ⲣⲁϣⲓⲧ Rashit) is a port city of the Nile Delta, located 65 km (40 mi) east of Alexandria, in Egypt's Beheira governorate.

Founded around in the 9th century, Rosetta boomed with the decline of Alexandria following the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517, only to wane in importance after Alexandria's revival. During the 19th century, it was a popular British tourist destination, known for its charming Ottoman mansions, citrus groves and comparative cleanliness.

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