Aquifer storage and recovery

Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is the direct injection of surface water supplies such as potable water, reclaimed water (i.e. rainwater), or river water into an aquifer for later recovery and use. The injection and extraction is often done by means of a well. In areas where the rainwater can not percolate the soil or where it is not capable of percolating it fast enough (i.e. urban areas) and where the rainwater is thus diverted to rivers, rainwater ASR could help to keep the rainwater within an area. ASR is used for municipal, industry and agriculture use.

ASR use in the United States

Colorado

The first ASR well with a downhole control valve was installed in Highlands Ranch, CO in 1992 for Centennial Water and Sanitation District.[1] Since then, over 40 ASR wells have been installed for many different municipalities. These wells range in depths from 1,000 ft (300 m) to 3,000 ft (910 m) below ground surface, with injection rates commonly between 100 US gal (380 l; 83 imp gal) and 500 US gal (1,900 l; 420 imp gal) per minute (gpm) per well.

Florida

The use of ASR in Florida has been examined to determine potential benefits for the Everglades and other Florida water systems under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). An estimate of 333 ASR wells would be implemented as part of CERP and used to store, treat and supply excess surface water to the Everglades and other systems of water during dry periods. [2][3]

Controversy

Doubts remain about the benefit of introducing ASR in such large capacity to Florida due to a predominantly karst geography. Current or potential problems include: (1) poor recovery due to mixing of the injected fresh water with the existing brackish to saline water in the aquifer; (2) pre-existing quality of water introduced to ASR; and (3) potential risk of resulting water quality due to mixing of injected freshwater and existing aquifer.[4]

Oregon

The first agriculture ASR wells were put into service in Oregon in the autumn of 2006 and have injected well over 3,000 acre feet (3,700,000 m3) of water during the winter and spring flood flow times using artificial recharge (AR) of flood water as their water source. This shallow recharged water is then recovered as potable water and injected into the deep basalt aquifer.

During the injection process, electrical energy can be generated by the head pressure of the water flowing back into the aquifer. This stored water is recovered during late summer and early autumn for irrigation needs.

Both of these well types use a down-hole control valve. ASR can also be used to re-inject water used by HVAC systems to maintain the ground water levels and store the thermal differences from summertime cooling for winter time heating. Industry can also capture cold winter waters and store it for summertime use and avoid the need for cooling water in the summer for industrial processes. This may also free up short supplies of summer time water for other beneficial uses. This reinjection process may also avoid the cost of surface disposal and avoid the increased thermal load to the rivers and streams during the summer air conditioning season.[5]

Texas

The Texas cities of El Paso, Kerrville and San Antonio use ASR, providing water resources to these water-vulnerable communities.[6] A University of Florida report ranked daily per-capita water availability for 225 large urban areas across the U.S.[7] The study weighed fresh water available to cities from naturally occurring and constructed sources such as reservoirs, aquifers and imports. Of the cities reviewed, San Antonio ranked last, or most vulnerable, and El Paso ranked as 10th-worst, though other Texas cities made the list.[6]

San Antonio stores drinking water in its Carrizo ASR facility, which contains more than 91,000 acre-feet of water and has a maximum capacity of 120,000 acre-feet.[6]

A 2010 Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) survey of Texas water utilities found four primary objections to ASR in other parts of Texas: legal and physical limitations, the quality of the recovered water, cost-effectiveness and the potential for other pumpers to capture the utility’s stored water.[6]

ASR use in Australia

Cooke Reserve wetland
Newly constructed wetland for final stage treatment of urban stormwater runoff for an ASR scheme in western Adelaide, South Australia[8]

In South Australia, the City of Salisbury in northern Adelaide has since 1994 played a pioneering role in establishing the viability of the capture and treatment of urban stormwater runoff within artificial wetlands, and injecting the treated water into Tertiary aquifers in winter, for later use by industry, and for irrigation of city parks and school playing fields in summer.[9] In 2009 the capacity of the Salisbury ASR schemes was around 5 gigalitres per annum (expected to rise to 14 GL by 2014)[10] and this success has led to other local government areas across Adelaide undertaking similar ASR projects.

ASR use in Europe

In Spain, the SubSol ASR project is active[11] and in the Netherlands, there is the COASTAR project.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Baski Flow Control Valves, ASR Valves". www.baski.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
  2. ^ "Aquifer Storage and Recovery". South Florida Water Management District.
  3. ^ "Aquifer Storage and Recovery Regional Study" (PDF). U.S. Army Corp of Engineers.
  4. ^ "Review of Aquifer Storage and Recovery in the Floridan Aquifer System of Southern Florida". U.S. Geological Survey.
  5. ^ Kent Madison (2008). "Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR)". 3R Valve. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
  6. ^ a b c d Texas Water Report: Going Deeper for the Solution Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts. Retrieved 2/11/14.
  7. ^ Water availability ranking for 225 urban areas in the United States. Environmental Hydrology Laboratory at the University of Florida. Retrieved 2/11/14.
  8. ^ City of Charles Sturt > Major Projects > Water Proofing the West Accessed 23 March 2014.
  9. ^ City of Salisbury > Environment > Wetlands and Water Archived March 25, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Accessed 22 March 2014.
  10. ^ Haines, S. (2009): Towards Water Sensitive Cities City of Salisbury. Accessed 22 March 2014.
  11. ^ SubSol
  12. ^ COASTAR

External links

Adelaide Botanic Garden

The Adelaide Botanic Garden is a 51-hectare (130-acre) public garden at the north-east corner of the Adelaide city centre, in the Adelaide Park Lands. It encompasses a fenced garden on North Terrace (between the old Royal Adelaide Hospital site and the National Wine Centre) and behind it the Botanic Park (adjacent to the Adelaide Zoo). The Adelaide Botanic Garden and adjacent State Herbarium, together with the Wittunga and Mt Lofty Botanic Gardens, are administered by the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium of South Australia, a State Government statutory authority.

Airshed

An airshed is a part of the atmosphere that behaves in a coherent way with respect to the dispersion of emissions. It typically forms an analytical or management unit. Also: a geographic boundary for air-quality standards.

Alternatively - an airshed is a geographical area where local topography and meteorology limit the dispersion of pollutants away from the area.

Aquifer

An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt). Groundwater can be extracted using a water well. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology. Related terms include aquitard, which is a bed of low permeability along an aquifer, and aquiclude (or aquifuge), which is a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer, pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer.

Clean Water Services

Clean Water Services is the water resources management utility for more than 600,000 residents in urban Washington County, Oregon and small portions of Multnomah County, Oregon and Clackamas County, Oregon, in the United States. Clean Water Services operates four wastewater treatment facilities, constructs and maintains flood management and water quality projects, and manages flow into the Tualatin River to improve water quality and protect fish habitat. They are headquartered in Hillsboro.

Cocoa, Florida

Cocoa is a city in Brevard County, Florida. The population was 17,140 at the 2010 United States Census. It is part of the Palm Bay–Melbourne–Titusville Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Groundwater recharge

Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process, where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater. Recharge is the primary method through which water enters an aquifer. This process usually occurs in the vadose zone below plant roots and, is often expressed as a flux to the water table surface. Groundwater recharge also encompasses water moving away from the water table farther into the saturated zone. Recharge occurs both naturally (through the water cycle) and through anthropogenic processes (i.e., "artificial groundwater recharge"), where rainwater and or reclaimed water is routed to the subsurface.

Kansas Geological Survey

The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), a research and service division of the University of Kansas, is charged by statute with studying and providing information on the geologic resources of Kansas. The KGS has no regulatory authority and does not take positions on natural resource issues.

Research at the KGS focuses primarily on energy, water, and the environment and addresses natural resource challenges facing the state of Kansas. The KGS also generates new information about the state's geology and develops tools and techniques for studying the state's surface and subsurface through its geophysics and mapping programs. Primary users of this information include local, State, and Federal agencies; oil and gas exploration companies; engineering companies and geotechnical consultants dealing with construction, environmental, and geologic hazard issues; educators; and private citizens wanting to learn more about the state's geology and resources.

The KGS is located in Lawrence on the west campus of the University of Kansas and has a Well Sample Library in Wichita. With a staff of 74 full-time employees and about 30 student employees, the KGS has an annual state-appropriated budget of approximately $5.9 million. Another $11.7 million in grants and contracts was awarded in fiscal year 2012. The KGS reports to the Vice Chancellor for Research and Graduate Studies at the University of Kansas and has a 12-member advisory council to provide review and guidance.

Monterey Peninsula Water Project

The Monterey Peninsula Water Project (MWPW) is a water management project seeking to meet water demands of Monterey residents. The major water source for Monterey is powered by the Carmel River, which is precipitation influenced and does not receive water perennially. In addition to the Carmel River, the Seaside Groundwater Basin is the only other form of water supply. Both watersheds have been protected under stiff regulation to significantly reduce water diversion, especially the Carmel River which has been severely affected by California's drought. The MPWP is the proposed answer to help meet current and future water demands, while dealing with these reductions from the Carmel River and Seaside Groundwater Basin. The main features of this project will include a desalination plant, slant wells that will draw water from underneath the sea floor along the coastline, and a 10-mile pipeline extending through the north part of Monterey to supply water to its residents. The goal throughout the planning of this new infrastructure is to protect ocean wildlife, while excess brine will be handled by the area's water pollution control agency. The total cost of this project is estimated to be 322 million dollars with 79 million coming from subsurface intake, 115 million from the desalination plant, and 128 million from the pipelines. The MPWP is divided into three main aspects which include desalination, aquifer storage and recovery, and groundwater replenishment.This project will involve multiple partnerships including the Monterey Peninsula Regional Water Authority (MPRWA), Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency, Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMP), and a governance committee of representatives from local and state authority known as the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC).

Morphettville Racecourse

Morphettville Racecourse is the main horse racing track for the Australian state of South Australia. It is situated in the Adelaide suburb of Morphettville, and is about 10 km from the Adelaide city centre. It is home to the South Australian Jockey Club.

Murwani Dam

Murwani Dam is a rock-fill embankment dam crossing wadi Murwani in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia. It is located about 100 km northeast of Jeddah.

The 263 mio. SR contract to build the dam was awarded to Yuksel Insaat Saudia Co Ltd., a subsidiary of the Turkish company Yüksel Holding AŞ. Work on the dam began in 2004. The dam was completed in April 2010.Main purpose of the dam is flood control, because of flash floods, which occur occasionally in the region (see also 2009 Jeddah floods).

Rain

Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.

The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts. If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) which can organize into narrow rainbands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation which forces moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall along the sides of mountains. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by downslope flow which causes heating and drying of the air mass. The movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.

The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Global warming is also causing changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions across eastern North America and drier conditions in the tropics. Antarctica is the driest continent. The globally averaged annual precipitation over land is 715 mm (28.1 in), but over the whole Earth it is much higher at 990 mm (39 in). Climate classification systems such as the Köppen classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Rainfall is measured using rain gauges. Rainfall amounts can be estimated by weather radar.

Rain is also known or suspected on other planets, where it may be composed of methane, neon, sulfuric acid, or even iron rather than water.

Resource

A resource is a main source or supply from which a benefit is produced and it has some utility. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability—they are classified into renewable and non-renewable resources.Examples of non renewable resources are coal ,crude oil natural gas nuclear energy etc. Examples of renewable resources are air,water,wind,solar energy etc. They can also be classified as actual and potential on the basis of level of development and use, on the basis of origin they can be classified as biotic and abiotic, and on the basis of their distribution, as ubiquitous and localized (private resources, community-owned resources, natural resources, international resources). An item becomes a resource with time and developing technology. Typically, resources are materials, energy, services, staff, knowledge, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth, proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well-being. From a human perspective a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism (see biological resource).The concept of resources has been developed across many established areas of work, in economics, biology and ecology, computer science, management, and human resources for example - linked to the concepts of competition, sustainability, conservation, and stewardship. In application within human society, commercial or non-commercial factors require resource allocation through resource management.

Seed bank

A seed bank (also seedbank or seeds bank) stores seeds to preserve genetic diversity; hence it is a type of gene bank. There are many reasons to store seeds. The genes that plant breeders need to increase yield, disease resistance, drought tolerance, nutritional quality, taste, etc. of crops. Another is to forestall loss of genetic diversity in rare or imperiled plant species in an effort to conserve biodiversity ex situ. Many plants that were used centuries ago by humans are used less frequently now; seed banks offer a way to preserve that historical and cultural value. Collections of seeds stored at constant low temperature and low moisture are guarded against loss of genetic resources that are otherwise maintained in situ or in field collections. These alternative "living" collections can be damaged by natural disasters, outbreaks of disease, or war. Seed banks are considered seed libraries, containing valuable information about evolved strategies to combat plant stress, and can be used to create genetically modified versions of existing seeds. The work of seed banks spans decades and even centuries. Most seed banks are publicly funded and seeds are usually available for research that benefits the public.

Surface nuclear magnetic resonance

Surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR), also known as magnetic resonance Sounding (MRS), is a geophysical technique specially designed for hydrogeology. It is based on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and measurements can be used to indirectly estimate the water content of saturated and unsaturated zones in the earth's subsurface. SNMR is used to estimate aquifer properties, including the quantity of water contained in the aquifer, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity.

Sustainable drainage system

Sustainable drainage systems (also known as SuDS, SUDS, or Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems) are a collection of water management practices that aim to align modern drainage systems with natural water processes. SuDS efforts make urban drainage systems more compatible with components of the natural water cycle such as storm surge overflows, soil percolation, and bio-filtration. These efforts hope to mitigate the effect human development has had or may have on the natural water cycle, particularly surface runoff and water pollution trends. SuDS have become popular in recent decades as our understanding of how urban development affects natural environments, as well as concern for climate change and sustainability, have increased. SuDS often use built components that mimic natural features in order to integrate urban drainage systems into the natural drainage systems or a site as efficiently and quickly as possible.

Water-sensitive urban design

Water-sensitive urban design (WSUD) is a land planning and engineering design approach which integrates the urban water cycle, including stormwater, groundwater and wastewater management and water supply, into urban design to minimise environmental degradation and improve aesthetic and recreational appeal. WSUD is a term used in the Middle East and Australia and is similar to low-impact development (LID), a term used in the United States; and Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS), a term used in the United Kingdom.

Water resources law

Water resources law (in some jurisdictions, shortened to "water law") is the field of law dealing with the ownership, control, and use of water as a resource. It is most closely related to property law, and is older than and distinct from laws governing water quality.

Water storage

Water storage is a broad term referring to storage of both potable water for consumption, and non potable water for use in agriculture. In both developing countries and some developed countries found in tropical climates, there is a need to store potable drinking water during the dry season. In agriculture water storage, water is stored for later use in natural water sources, such as groundwater aquifers, soil water, natural wetlands, and small artificial ponds, tanks and reservoirs behind major dams. Storing water invites a host of potential issues regardless of that waters intended purpose, including contamination through organic and inorganic means.

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