Aquaculture (ISSN 0044-8486) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on aquaculture, published by Elsevier. It was established in 1972. The journal Annual Review of Fish Diseases (ISSN 0959-8030), separately published from 1991 to 1996, was incorporated into Aquaculture following the cessation of its separate publication. Aquaculture is indexed by AGRICOLA, Animal Breeding Abstracts, Aquatic Sciences & Fisheries Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, BIOSIS Previews, CAB Abstracts, and Water Resources Abstracts.
Annalisa Marzano, FRHistS FSA, (born 1969 in New York) is an Italian-American archaeologist and academic. She is Professor of Ancient History at the University of Reading in England, specializing in Roman social and economic history.Australostichopus
Australostichopus mollis, formerly Stichopus mollis, commonly known as brown sea cucumber or Australasian sea cucumber, is a species of sea cucumber that has stimulated interest for its fishery potential in the Southern Hemisphere, and for its capability to reduce waste produced by aquaculture. It is the sole species in the genus Australostichopus. Despite its ecological role and abundance in New Zealand coastal waters, the scarcity of knowledge regarding A. mollis biology and ecology has hindered the development of a stable fishery industry. Importantly, A. mollis represents promising business potential within an important Asian market.. Recently its potential as a functional food has been evaluated, highlighting the nutritious componentsDither fish
The term dither fish refers to an arbitrary group of aquarium fish, commonly used by aquarists, to help reduce innate timidity and aggression as well as to promote normal social behaviour in the other fish housed within the same aquarium. Dither fish help reduce anxiety of some nervous species of fish by allowing the fearful species to see that it is safe to leave cover and eat the food that has been given to them. Commonly used dither fish are typical schooling species, such as some Danio, barb and tetra species, and are most often used in cichlid tanks. Dither fish are typically fish that swim around the top of a tank, a behavior that reassures more timid fish that no predators are nearby, and are found naturally in the same habitat as the other fish in the aquarium, thereby encouraging them to relax and engage in normal behaviour. This technique relies on the ability of cichlids in an aquarium to gauge environmental security by observing the behaviour of other fish species.Eutrophication
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients which induce excessive growth of plants and algae. This process may result in oxygen depletion of the water body. One example is the "bloom" or great increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased levels of nutrients. Eutrophication is almost always induced by the discharge of nitrate or phosphate-containing detergents, fertilizers, or sewage into an aquatic system.Mafia Raj
Mafia Raj (lit. mafia regime) refers to a criminalised nexus (or "mafia") of government officials, elected politicians, business interests and other entities (such as law-enforcement authorities, non-governmental organisations, trade unions or criminal organisations).In India (where the term originated) it can refer to cities, states, government departments, public sector businesses or entire sectors of the economy that are subject to these conditions. Due to the ability of these mafias to operate their illegal activities in a sustained fashion, sometimes openly and with the use of violent intimidation, terms like Goonda Raj (rule of the goons), Jungle Raj (law of the jungle) and Anarchy are used to refer to the same phenomenon.In the Indian and Pakistani media, the mafias are usually mentioned by the name of the economic sector in which they are involved. Terms such as coal mafia, timber mafia (sometimes forest mafia), contractor mafia (sometimes road construction mafia or road contract mafia) and land mafia are commonly used.
The state-owned coal mines of Bihar (now Jharkhand after the division of Bihar state) were among the first areas in India to see the emergence of a sophisticated mafia, beginning with the mining town of Dhanbad. It is alleged that the coal industry's trade union leadership forms the upper echelon of this arrangement and employs caste allegiances to maintain its power. Pilferage and sale of coal on the black market, inflated or fictitious supply expenses, falsified worker contracts and the expropriation and leasing-out of government land have allegedly become routine. A parallel economy has developed with a significant fraction of the local population employed by the mafia in manually transporting the stolen coal for long distances over unpaved roads to illegal mafia warehouses and points of sale.The coal mafia has had a negative effect on Indian industry, with coal supplies and quality varying erratically. Higher quality coal is sometimes selectively diverted, and missing coal is replaced with stones and boulders in railway cargo wagons. A human corpse has been discovered in a sealed coal wagon.In June 2012, the Bollywood epic Gangs of Wasseypur was released portraying the coal mafia in the area of Dhanbad. The movie received overwhelming response and was declared a hit. Another Bollywood movie Gunday was also loosely based upon coal mafia.OMICS Publishing Group
OMICS Publishing Group is a publisher of open access journals that is widely regarded as predatory. It started publishing its first journal in 2008. By 2015, it claimed over 700 journals, although about half of them were defunct.
Its subsidiaries include iMedPub LTD and Conference Series LLC LTD. Other organisations linked to OMICS are EuroSciCon Ltd, Allied Academies, Trade Science Inc, and Meetings International.OMICS has come under attack by numerous academics and the United States government over the validity of the peer review by OMICS journals, the appropriateness of its fees and marketing, and the apparent advertising of the names of scientists as journal editors or conference speakers without their knowledge or permission. The U.S. National Institutes of Health sent a cease-and-desist letter to OMICS in 2013, demanding it to discontinue with false claims of affiliation with U.S. government entities or employees. In August 2016 OMICS became the first academic publisher to be sued by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC), which alleged deceptive practices.
OMICS has responded to criticisms by avowing a commitment to open access publishing, claiming that detractors are traditional subscription-based publishers who feel threatened by their open access publishing model. It responded to the FTC suit by maintaining that their practices were legal and claiming that corporate interests were driving the suit. It has also threatened a prominent critic, Jeffrey Beall, with a US$1 billion lawsuit for defamation.Sturgeon
Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae. Their evolution dates back to the Triassic some 245 to 208 million years ago. The family is grouped into four genera: Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus and Pseudoscaphirhynchus. Four species may now be extinct. Two closely related species, Polyodon spathula (American paddlefish) and Psephurus gladius (Chinese paddlefish, possibly extinct) are of the same order, Acipenseriformes, but are in the family Polyodontidae and are not considered to be "true" sturgeons. Both sturgeons and paddlefish have been referred to as "primitive fishes" because their morphological characteristics have remained relatively unchanged since the earliest fossil record. Sturgeons are native to subtropical, temperate and sub-Arctic rivers, lakes and coastlines of Eurasia and North America.Sturgeons are long-lived, late-maturing fishes with distinctive characteristics, such as a heterocercal caudal fin similar to that of sharks, and an elongated spindle-like body that is smooth-skinned, scaleless and armored with 5 lateral rows of bony plates called scutes. Several species can grow quite large, typically ranging 7–12 feet (2-3½ m) in length. The largest sturgeon on record was a Beluga female captured in the Volga estuary in 1827, weighing 1,571 kg (3,463 lb) and 7.2 m (24 ft) long. Most sturgeons are anadromous bottom-feeders which migrate upstream to spawn but spend most of their lives feeding in river deltas and estuaries. Some species inhabit freshwater environments exclusively while others primarily inhabit marine environments near coastal areas, and are known to venture into open ocean.
Several species of sturgeon are harvested for their roe which is processed into caviar—a luxury food and the reason why caviar-producing sturgeons are among the most valuable of all wildlife resources. They are particularly vulnerable to overexploitation and other threats, including pollution and habitat fragmentation. Most species of sturgeon are considered to be at risk of extinction, making them more critically endangered than any other group of species.In art, a sturgeon is the symbol on the coat of arms for Saint Amalberga of Temse.Vibrio anguillarum
Vibrio anguillarum is a species of Gram-negative bacteria with a curved-rod shape and one polar flagellum. Classified under three biotypes (A,B, and C), before scientists discovered that different strains of Vibrio anguillarum could be differentiated using serotypes. Vibrio anguillarum are halophiles that prefer warmer temperatures and neutral pH conditions. Vibrio anguillarum are able to compete for iron before the host can absorb it through iron acquisition mechanisms. It is an important pathogen of cultured salmonid fish, and causes the disease known as vibriosis or red pest of eels. This disease has the ability to impact brackish water, marine water, and freshwater species and may greatly impact cultured salmonid fish. Vibriosis has been observed in salmon, bream, eel, mullet, catfish, oysters, tilapia, and shrimp amongst others. The bacteria is most prevalent in late summer in salt or brackish water and gene transmission is mainly horizontal. Infection in humans is most commonly through the skin, but also through the mouth via contaminated food or water. It is widely distributed across the world. Vibrio anguillarum are damaging to the economy of aquaculture sector and fishing industries.