Apulia

Apulia (/əˈpuːliə/ ə-POO-lee-ə; Italian: Puglia [ˈpuʎːa]; Neapolitan: Pùglia [ˈpuʝːə];[a] Albanian: Pulia; Ancient Greek: Ἀπουλία, translit. Apoulía) is a region in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, and the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers (7,469 sq mi), and its population is about four million.

It is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, and Basilicata to the southwest. Across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, and Montenegro. Its capital city is Bari.

Coordinates: 41°0′31″N 16°30′46″E / 41.00861°N 16.51278°E

Apulia

Puglia
Coat of arms of Apulia
Coat of arms
Apulia in Italy
CountryItaly
CapitalBari
Government
 • PresidentMichele Emiliano (PD)
Area
 • Total19,358 km2 (7,474 sq mi)
Population
(31-12-2016)
 • Total4,063,888
 • Density210/km2 (540/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
GDP/ Nominal€69.5[1] billion (2008)
GDP per capita€16,900[2] (2008)
NUTS RegionITF
Websitewww.regione.puglia.it

Geography

Apulia's coastline is longer than that of any other mainland Italian region. In the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic like a 'sperone' ("spur"), while in the south, the Salento peninsula forms the 'tacco' ("heel") of Italy's boot.[3] The highest peak in the region is Mount Cornacchia (1,152 meters above sea level) within the Daunian Mountains, in the north along the Apennines.

It is home to two national parks, the Alta Murgia National Park and Gargano National Park.[4]

Outside of national parks in the North and West, most of Apulia and particularly Salento is geographically flat with only moderate hills.

The climate is typically mediterranean with hot, dry and sunny summers and mild, rainy winters. Snowfall, especially on the coast is rare but has occurred as recently as January 2019 (following on from snow in March 2018 and January 2017). Apulia is among the hottest and driest regions of Italy in summer with temperatures sometimes reaching up to and above 40 °C in Lecce and Foggia.

The coastal areas, particularly on the Adriatic and in the southern Salento region are frequently exposed to winds of varying strengths and directions, strongly affecting local temperatures and conditions, sometimes within the same day. The Northerly Bora wind from the Adriatic can lower temperatures, humidity and moderate summer heat while the Southerly Sirocco wind from North Africa can raise temperatures, humidity and occasionally drop red dust from the Sahara. On some days in spring and autumn, it can be warm enough to swim in Gallipoli and Porto Cesareo on the Ionian coast while at the same time, cool winds warrant jackets and sweaters in Monopoli and Otranto on the Adriatic coast.

Murgia Sud Orientale gradino
Landscape of the Murge plateau

History

Castel del Monte BW 2016-10-14 12-26-11 r
Castel del Monte, built by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II between 1240 and 1250 in Andria
Ostuni
The medieval town of Ostuni

Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks.[5]

A number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte,[6] sometimes called the "Crown of Apulia".[7]

After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples (confusingly known also as the Kingdom of Sicily), and remained so until the unification of Italy in the 1860s. This kingdom was independent under the House of Anjou from 1282 to 1442, then was part of Aragon until 1458, after which it was again independent under a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara until 1501. As a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714. When Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves.[8] The coast of Apulia was occupied at times by the Turks and at other times by the Venetians.[9]

In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was "so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin".[10]

Economy

The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average and represents about 68.1% of the EU average.[11]

The share of gross value added by the agricultural and services sectors was above the national average in 2000. The region has industries specialising in particular areas, including food processing and vehicles in Foggia; footwear and textiles in the Barletta area, and wood and furniture in the Murge area to the west.[12]

Between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy.[13] Such growth, over several decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system.[14]

Apulia's thriving economy is articulated into numerous sectors boasting several leading companies: Aerospace (Sitael, Blackshape, Leonardo S.p.A.); Agriculture (Casillo Group, G.C. Partecipazioni), Automotive (Getrag, a subsidiary of Magna International); Food and Beverage (De Carlo, Divella, Quarta Caffé); Furniture (Natuzzi); ICT (Exprivia); Mechanics (Isotta Fraschini Motori, MERMEC); Publishing (Laterza), Tourism (Nicolaus tour).

Unemployment

The unemployment rate stood at 18.8% in 2017 and was higher than the national average.[15]

Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
unemployment rate
(in %)
12.6% 11.1% 11.6% 12.6% 13.5% 13.2% 15.7% 19.7% 21.5% 19.7% 19.4% 18.8%

Olive cultivars

There is an estimated 50 to 60 million olive trees in Puglia and the region accounts for 40% of Italy's olive oil production. There are four specific Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) covering the whole region.[16] Olive varieties include: Baresane, Biancolilla, Brandofino (Castiglione), Buscionetto (Biancolilla), Carolea, Cellina di Nardò, Cerasuola (Ogliara), Cerignola (Bella di Cerignola), Cima di Bitonto, Cima di Mola, Coratina,[17] also grown in Corning, CA., a 2018 Gold Medal New York International Olive Oil Competition (NYIOOC) winner,[18] Frantoio, Garganica, La Minuta, Leccino, Moresca, Nocellara Etnea, Nocellara Messinese, Ogliarola, Ogliarola Barese, Ogliara Messinese, Ottobratica, Peranzana that is produced as "Certified Ultra-Premium Extra Virgin Olive Oil",[19] Rotondella, Santagatese, Saracena, Tonda Iblea, and Verdello (subspecies of San Benedetto).[20][21]

Olive oil scandal

There has been an issue of marketed "extra pure" olive oil actually being imported from Spain, the Balkans, Turkey, and Tunisia. This includes the use of rectified lampante, being allowed due to a controversial 1995 law.[22][23]

Xylella fastidiosa disease

The olive oil industry in Puglia is under threat from the pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, a disease which inhibits the uptake of water and nutrients by the trees. The south-eastern part of Puglia is at the centre of the epidemic.

Transport

The region has a good network of roads, but the railway network is less comprehensive, particularly in the south.[12] The region is crossed northwest to southeast by the A14 highway (Bologna–Taranto), which connects the region capital, Bari, to Taranto, the second most populous city in the region. The A14 also connects Foggia and points further north along the Adriatic coast to Pescara, Ancona, Rimini and eventually, Bologna. The only other highway in the region is the A16 (Napoli–Canosa), which crosses the Italian peninsula east–west and links the region with Napoli.

There are two international airports, Karol Wojtyla Airport in Bari (IATA: BRI) and Brindisi Airport (IATA: BDS), which serves as the principal logistical hub for the United Nations Global Service Center headquartered in Brindisi. With the approval of a redevelopment project in 2018, the Grottaglie Airfield (IATA: TAR) will host a spaceport for the Italian Space Agency and Virgin Galactic.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1861 1,335,000—    
1871 1,440,000+7.9%
1881 1,609,000+11.7%
1901 1,987,000+23.5%
1911 2,195,000+10.5%
1921 2,365,000+7.7%
1931 2,508,000+6.0%
1936 2,642,000+5.3%
1951 3,220,000+21.9%
1961 3,421,000+6.2%
1971 3,583,000+4.7%
1981 3,872,000+8.1%
1991 4,032,000+4.1%
2001 4,021,000−0.3%
2011 4,091,000+1.7%
2017 4,063,888−0.7%
Source: ISTAT 2001

Emigration from the region's depressed areas to northern Italy and the rest of Europe was very intense in the years between 1956 and 1971. Subsequently, the trend declined as economic conditions improved, to the point where there was net immigration in the years between 1982 and 1985. Since 1986 the stagnation in employment has led to a new inversion of the trend, caused by a decrease in immigration.[24]

Government and politics

Since 1 June 2015, former judge and mayor of Bari Michele Emiliano of the Democratic Party has served as President.[25][26]

Culture

Cuisine

Cuisine plays an important role throughout Apulia. The key locally produced ingredients used there include olive oil, artichokes, tomatoes, aubergine, asparagus, and mushrooms.[27] In summer it is very common to use also the carosello, a variety of muskmelon which is often consumed in an immature state. Several PDO and PGI products are made in Apulia; among can be found some types of cheese like the Canestrato Pugliese PDO and Burrata di Andria PGI, of olive oil like the Collina di Brindisi PDO, Dauno PDO, Terra d'Otranto PDO, Terre Tarentine PDO and Terra di Bari PDO, some fruits and vegetables like the Arancia del Gargano PGI, Carciofo Brindisino PGI, Cipolla bianca di Margherita PGI, Clementine del Golfo di Taranto PGI, La Bella della Daunia PDO, Limone femminello del Gargano PGI, Patata novella di Galatina PGI and Uva di Puglia PGI. Moreover, also a type of bread, Pane di Altamura PDO and a legume called Lenticchia di Altamura PGI are present in the list.

Language

As with the other regions of Italy, the national language (since 1861) is Italian. However, because of its long and varied history, other historical languages have been used in this region for centuries. In isolated pockets of the southern part of Salento, a dialect of Greek called Griko is still spoken by a few thousand people.[28] In addition, rare dialects of the Franco-Provençal language called Faetar and the closely related Cellese are spoken by a dwindling number of individuals in the mountain villages of Faeto and Celle di San Vito, in the Province of Foggia.[29] The Arbëreshë dialect of the Albanian language has been spoken by a small community since refugees settled there in the 15th century.[30]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Also:
    Neapolitan:
    Barese: Púgghie [ˈpuɟːə]
    Foggiano: Puie
    Tarantino: Puje [ˈpuːjə]
    Sicilian:
    Salentino: Puia [ˈpuːja]
    Arpitan: Poulye [ˈpujə; ˈpuʎə]

References

  1. ^ "Regional gross domestic product by NUTS 2 regions - million". Eurostat. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  2. ^ EUROPA – Press Releases – Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London Archived February 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Introducing Puglia". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  4. ^ "Holiday guide to Puglia, southern Italy: the best towns, restaurants and hotels". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. 4 July 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  5. ^ Elizabeth A. Fisher, The Mycenaeans and Apulia. An Examination of Aegean Bronze Age Contacts with Apulia in Eastern Magna Grecia, Astrom, 1998
  6. ^ "Italy: Puglia". Rough Guides. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  7. ^ Heinz Götze, Castel Del Monte: Geometric Marvel of the Middle Ages (1998), p. 89
  8. ^ Asaolu, Richard Oluseyi (n.d.). Slavery:Abolition. Mainz: Pedia. p. 50. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  9. ^ Dursteler, Eric R., ed. (2013). A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. Leiden: Koninklejke. pp. 142–43. ISBN 978-9004252516. Retrieved 3 June 2017.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  10. ^ David Gilmour, The Pursuit of Italy: A History of a Land, Its Regions and their Peoples (2012), p. 24
  11. ^ "Eurostat". Greenreport. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. Retrieved 2010-08-02.
  12. ^ a b "Puglia - Economy". Portrait of the Regions. Eurostat. March 2004. Archived from the original on August 21, 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  13. ^ Massimo Monteduro, Pierangelo Buongiorno, Saverio Di Benedetto, Law and Agroecology: A Transdisciplinary Dialogue (2015), p. 176
  14. ^ Amílcar Soares, Maria João Pereira, Roussos Dimitrakopoulos! geoENV VI – Geostatistics for Environmental Application (2008), p. 191: "The approach highlighted the widespread degradation of water resources in the Apulian groundwater. ... Above all the rapid socio-economic growth over the last decades has caused severe stress to the Apulian hydrogeological system."
  15. ^ "Regional Unemployment by NUTS2 Region". Eurostat.
  16. ^ PDO status- Retrieved 2018-07-06
  17. ^ Coratina olive- Retrieved 2019-07-05
  18. ^ Coratina olives in Ca.- Retrieved 2018-07-05
  19. ^ Peranzana olive oil- Retrieved 2018-07-05
  20. ^ Apulia region cultivars- Retrieved 20180-7-05
  21. ^ Puglia olive cultivars- Retrieved 2018-07-05
  22. ^ Italian olive oil scandal- Retrieved 2-18-07-04
  23. ^ Scientific American: Italy's Olive Trees Didn't Have to Die- Retrieved 2018-07-05
  24. ^ "Eurostat". c.europa.eu. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
  25. ^ "Scheda Personale". Sito web Istituzionale della Regione Puglia (in Italian). Retrieved October 17, 2015.
  26. ^ "BIOGRAFIA" (PDF). CompletaMente.org (in Italian). Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  27. ^ Around Italy: A look at Apulia the cuisine at sacla.se, accessed 22 July 2016
  28. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code:ell". Ethnologue.com. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
  29. ^ Nagy, Naomi (2011). "A Multilingual Corpus to Explore Variation in Language Contact Situations" (PDF). Rassegna Italiana di Linguistica Applicata. 43 (1–2): 3. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  30. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code:aae". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 13 July 2016.

Further reading

See also: Bibliography of the history of Apulia (in Italian)

  • Desmond Seward, An Armchair Traveller's History of Apulia (Haus Publishing, 2013)
  • Stefania Mola, Apulia: the Cathedrals (Adda, 2008)
  • Francesco Carofiglio, Apulia, a Tourist's Guide to the Culture of Apulia (1988)
  • Susanna Gelmetti, Italian Country Cooking: Recipes from Umbria & Apulia (1996), ISBN 1872803229
  • Apulia: A Film Tourism Guide (Laterza, 2009, 246 pp)
  • Tessa Garton, Early Romanesque Sculpture in Apulia (Courtauld Institute, 1984)
  • "Apulia", Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York, 1910, OCLC 14782424
  • Roy Domenico (2002). "Apulia". Regions of Italy: a Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood. ISBN 0313307334.

External links

Media related to Apulia at Wikimedia Commons Apulia travel guide from Wikivoyage

A.S.D. Barletta 1922

A.S.D. Barletta 1922 is an Italian association football club located in Barletta, Apulia. Currently it plays in Serie D.

Barletta was played in professional league as Società Sportiva Barletta Calcio. in 2015 the club was expelled from 2015–16 Serie D, a new phoenix club, A.S.D. Barletta 1922, was admitted to 2015–16 Eccellenza on 6 August.

Andria

Andria (Italian pronunciation: [ˈandrja] (listen)) is a city and comune in Apulia (southern Italy). It is an agricultural and service center, producing wine, olives and almonds. It is the fourth-largest municipality in the Apulia region (behind Bari, Taranto, and Foggia) and the largest municipality of the Province of Barletta-Andria-Trani. It is known for the 13th-century Castel del Monte.

Bari

Bari (Italian pronunciation: [ˈbaːri] (listen); Barese: Bare [ˈbæːrə]; Latin: Barium; Ancient Greek: Βάριον, translit. Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy. It is the second most important economic centre of mainland Southern Italy after Naples and Palermo, a port and university city, as well as the city of Saint Nicholas. The city itself has a population of 326,799, as of 2015, over 116 square kilometres (45 sq mi), while the urban area has 750,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area has 1.3 million inhabitants.

Bari is made up of four different urban sections. To the north is the closely built old town on the peninsula between two modern harbours, with the Basilica of Saint Nicholas, the Cathedral of San Sabino (1035–1171) and the Hohenstaufen Castle built for Frederick II, which is now also a major nightlife district. To the south is the Murat quarter (erected by Joachim Murat), the modern heart of the city, which is laid out on a rectangular grid-plan with a promenade on the sea and the major shopping district (the via Sparano and via Argiro).

Modern residential zones surrounding the centre of Bari were built during the 1960s and 1970s replacing the old suburbs that had developed along roads splaying outwards from gates in the city walls. In addition, the outer suburbs developed rapidly during the 1990s. The city has a redeveloped airport named after Pope John Paul II, Karol Wojtyła Airport, with connections to several European cities.

Brindisi

Brindisi (Italian: [ˈbrindizi] (listen); Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Latin: Brundisium; Ancient Greek: Βρεντέσιον, translit. Brentésion; Messapic: Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.

Historically, the city has played an important role in trade and culture, due to its strategic position on the Italian Peninsula and its natural port on the Adriatic Sea. The city remains a major port for trade with Greece and the Middle East. Its industries include agriculture, chemical works, and the generation of electricity.

The city of Brindisi was the provisional government seat of the Kingdom of Italy from September 1943 to February 1944.

Castel del Monte, Apulia

Castel del Monte (Italian for "Castle of the Mountain"; Barese: Castídde d'u Monte) is a 13th-century citadel and castle situated on a hill in Andria in the Apulia region of southeast Italy. It was built during the 1240s by the Emperor Frederick II, who had inherited the lands from his mother Constance of Sicily. In the 18th century, the castle's interior marbles and remaining furnishings were removed. It has neither a moat nor a drawbridge and some considered it never to have been intended as a defensive fortress; however, archaeological work has suggested that it originally had a curtain wall. Described by the Enciclopedia Italiana as "the most fascinating castle built by Frederick II", the site is protected as a World Heritage Site. It also appears on the Italian version of the one cent Euro coin.

County of Apulia and Calabria

The County of Apulia and Calabria, later the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria, was a Norman country founded by William of Hauteville in 1042 in the territories of Gargano, Capitanata, Apulia, Vulture, and most of Campania. It became a duchy when Robert Guiscard was raised to the rank of duke by Pope Nicholas II in 1059.

The duchy was disestablished in 1130 when the last duke of Apulia and Calabria, Roger II of Sicily became King of Sicily. The title of duke was thereafter used intermittently as a title for the heir apparent to the Kingdom of Sicily.

Eccellenza Apulia

Eccellenza Apulia (Italian: Eccellenza Puglia) is the regional Eccellenza football division for clubs in the Southern Italian region of Apulia, Italy. It is competed among 18 teams, in one group. The winners of the Groups are promoted to Serie D. The club who finishes second also have the chance to gain promotion, they are entered into a national play-off which consists of two rounds.

Elections in Apulia

This page gathers the results of elections in Apulia.

Gallipoli, Apulia

Gallipoli (Ancient Greek: Καλλίπολις, translit. Kallípolis, lit. 'Beautiful City'; Salentino: Caḍḍìpuli) is a southern Italian town and comune in the province of Lecce, in Apulia. In 2014, it had a population of 31,862.

Lecce

Lecce (Italian: [ˈlettʃe] (listen) or locally [ˈlɛttʃe]; Salentino: Lècce; Griko: Luppìu, Latin: Lupiae, Ancient Greek: Λουπίαι, translit. Loupíai) is a historic city of 95,766 inhabitants (2015) in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Lecce, the second province in the region by population, as well as one of the most important cities of Apulia. It is the main city of the Salentine Peninsula, a sub-peninsula at the heel of the Italian Peninsula and is over 2,000 years old.

Because of the rich Baroque architectural monuments found in the city, Lecce is commonly nicknamed "The Florence of the South". The city also has a long traditional affinity with Greek culture going back to its foundation; the Messapians who founded the city are said to have been Cretans in Greek records. To this day, in the Grecìa Salentina, a group of towns not far from Lecce, the griko language is still spoken.

In terms of industry, the "Lecce stone"—a particular kind of limestone—is one of the city's main exports, because it is very soft and workable, thus suitable for sculptures. Lecce is also an important agricultural centre, chiefly for its olive oil and wine production, as well as an industrial centre specializing in ceramic production.

Vito Fazzi Medical Center is the biggest medical center in Apulia.

List of beaches in Italy

This is a list of beaches in Italy.

List of cities in Italy

The following is a list of Italian comuni (municipalities) with a population over 50,000. The table below contains the cities populations as of December 31, 2017, as estimated by the Italian Italian National Institute of Statistics, and the cities census population from the 2011 Italian Census.

List of railway stations in Apulia

This is the list of the railway stations in Apulia owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato.

Monopoli

Monopoli (Italian: [moˈnɔːpoli]; Monopolitano: Menòpele [məˈnɔːpələ]) is a town and municipality in Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Bari and region of Apulia. The town is roughly 156 square kilometres (60 sq mi) in area and lies on the Adriatic Sea about 40 kilometres (25 miles) southeast of Bari. It has a population of 49,246 (2014) and is important mostly as an agricultural, industrial and tourist centre.

Negroamaro

Negroamaro (seldom Negro amaro), is a red wine grape variety native to southern Italy. It is grown almost exclusively in Apulia and particularly in Salento, the peninsula which can be visualised as the “heel” of Italy. The grape can produce wines very deep in color. Wines made from Negroamaro tend to be very rustic in character, combining perfume with an earthy bitterness. The grape produces some of the best red wines of Apulia, particularly when blended with the highly scented Malvasia Nera, as in the case of Salice Salentino.

Otranto

Otranto (Italian pronunciation: [ˈɔːtranto]) (Salentino: Uṭṛàntu; Griko: Δερεντό, translit. Derentò; Ancient Greek: Ὑδροῦς, translit. Hudroûs; Latin: Hydruntum) is a town and comune in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), in a fertile region once famous for its breed of horses.

It is located on the east coast of the Salento peninsula. The Strait of Otranto, to which the city gives its name, connects the Adriatic Sea with the Ionian Sea and separates Italy from Albania. The harbour is small and has little trade.

The lighthouse Faro della Palascìa, at approximately 5 kilometres (3 miles) southeast of Otranto, marks the most easterly point of the Italian mainland.

About 50 kilometres (31 mi) south lies the promontory of Santa Maria di Leuca (so called since ancient times from its white cliffs, leukos being Greek for white), the southeastern extremity of Italy, the ancient Promontorium lapygium or Sallentinum. The district between this promontory and Otranto is thickly populated and very fertile.

Robert Guiscard

Robert Guiscard (, Modern French: [ɡiskaʁ]; c. 1015 – 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily. Robert was born into the Hauteville family in Normandy, went on to become Count of Apulia and Calabria (1057–1059), and then Duke of Apulia and Calabria and Duke of Sicily (1059–1085), and briefly Prince of Benevento (1078–1081) before returning the title to the Pope.

His sobriquet, in contemporary Latin Viscardus and Old French Viscart, is often rendered "the Resourceful", "the Cunning", "the Wily", "the Fox", or "the Weasel". In Italian sources he is often Roberto il Guiscardo or Roberto d'Altavilla (from Robert de Hauteville).

Ugento

Ugento (Salentino: Ušèntu) is a town and comune in the province of Lecce, Apulia, southern Italy. It has a small harbour on the Gulf of Taranto of the Ionian Sea.

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