The term apsis (Greek: ἁψίς; plural apsides /ˈæpsɪdiːz/, Greek: ἁψῖδες; "orbit") refers to an extreme point in the orbit of an object. It denotes either the points on the orbit, or the respective distance of the bodies. The word comes via Latin from Greek, there denoting a whole orbit, and is cognate with apse.[1] Except for the theoretical possibility of one common circular orbit for two bodies of equal mass at diametral positions (symmetric binary star), there are two apsides for any elliptic orbit, named with the prefixes peri- (from περί (peri), meaning 'near') and ap-/apo- (from ἀπ(ό) (ap(ó)), meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the body being orbited. All periodic orbits are, according to Newton's Laws of motion, ellipses: either the two individual ellipses of both bodies (see the two graphs in the second figure), with the center of mass (or barycenter) of this two-body system at the one common focus of the ellipses, or the orbital ellipses, with one body taken as fixed at one focus, and the other body orbiting this focus (see top figure). All these ellipses share a straight line, the line of apsides, that contains their major axes (the greatest diameter), the foci, and the vertices, and thus also the periapsis and the apoapsis (see both figures). The major axis of the orbital ellipse (top figure) is the distance of the apsides, when taken as points on the orbit, or their sum, when taken as distances.

The major axes of the individual ellipses around the barycenter, respectively the contributions to the major axis of the orbital ellipses are inverse proportional to the masses of the bodies, i.e., a bigger mass implies a smaller axis/contribution. Only when one mass is sufficiently larger than the other, the individual ellipse of the smaller body around the barycenter comprises the individual ellipse of the larger body as shown in the second figure. For remarkable asymmetry, the barycenter of the two bodies may lie well within the bigger body, e.g., the Earth–Moon barycenter is about 75% of the way from Earth's center to its surface. If the smaller mass is negligible compared to the larger, then the orbital parameters are independent of the smaller mass (e.g. for satellites).

  • For general orbits, the terms periapsis and apoapsis (or apapsis) are used. Pericenter and apocenter are equivalent alternatives, referring explicitly to the respective points on the orbits, whereas periapsis and apoapsis may also refer to the smallest and largest distances of the orbiter and its host.
  • For a body orbiting the Sun, the point of least distance is the perihelion (/ˌpɛrɪˈhiːliən/), and the point of greatest distance is the aphelion (/æpˈhiːliən/).[2]
  • The terms become periastron and apastron when discussing orbits around other stars.
  • For any satellite of Earth, including the Moon, the point of least distance is the perigee (/ˈpɛrɪdʒiː/) and greatest distance the apogee, from Ancient Greek Γῆ (), "land" or "earth".
  • For objects in lunar orbit, the point of least distance is sometimes called the pericynthion (/ˌpɛrɪˈsɪnθiən/) and the greatest distance the apocynthion (/ˌæpəˈsɪnθiən/). Perilune and apolune are also used.[3]

In orbital mechanics, the apsides technically refer to the distance measured between the barycenters of the central body and orbiting body. However, in the case of a spacecraft, the terms are commonly used to refer to the orbital altitude of the spacecraft above the surface of the central body (assuming a constant, standard reference radius).

Apogee (PSF)
The apsides refer to the farthest(1) and nearest(2) points of an orbiting body(1, 2) around its host(3).
(1) farthest(3) host(2) nearest
Periapsis apoapsis
Example of periapsis and apoapsis, with a smaller body (blue) around a larger body (yellow) in elliptic orbits around their center of mass (red +)

Mathematical formulae

Angular Parameters of Elliptical Orbit
Keplerian orbital elements: point F is at the pericenter, point H is at the apocenter, and the red line between them is the line of apsides.

These formulae characterize the pericenter and apocenter of an orbit:

Maximum speed, , at minimum (pericenter) distance, .
Minimum speed, , at maximum (apocenter) distance, .

While, in accordance with Kepler's laws of planetary motion (based on the conservation of angular momentum) and the conservation of energy, these two quantities are constant for a given orbit:

Specific relative angular momentum
Specific orbital energy


  • a is the semi-major axis:
  • μ is the standard gravitational parameter
  • e is the eccentricity, defined as

Note that for conversion from heights above the surface to distances between an orbit and its primary, the radius of the central body has to be added, and conversely.

The arithmetic mean of the two limiting distances is the length of the semi-major axis a. The geometric mean of the two distances is the length of the semi-minor axis b.

The geometric mean of the two limiting speeds is

which is the speed of a body in a circular orbit whose radius is .


The words "pericenter" and "apocenter" are often seen, although periapsis/apoapsis are preferred in technical usage.

Various related terms are used for other celestial objects. The '-gee', '-helion', '-astron' and '-galacticon' forms are frequently used in the astronomical literature when referring to the Earth, Sun, stars and the Galactic Center respectively. The suffix '-jove' is occasionally used for Jupiter, while '-saturnium' has very rarely been used in the last 50 years for Saturn. The '-gee' form is commonly used as a generic 'closest approach to planet' term instead of specifically applying to the Earth. During the Apollo program, the terms pericynthion and apocynthion (referencing Cynthia, an alternative name for the Greek Moon goddess Artemis) were used when referring to the Moon.[4] Regarding black holes, the term peri/apomelasma (from a Greek root) was used by physicist and science-fiction author Geoffrey A. Landis in a 1998 story,[5] before peri/aponigricon (from Latin) appeared in the scientific literature in 2002,[6] as well as peri/apobothron (from Greek bothros, meaning hole or pit).[7]

Terminology summary

The following suffixes are added to peri- and apo- to form the terms for the nearest and farthest orbital distances from these objects. For the Solar System objects, only the suffixes for the Earth and Sun are commonly used – the other suffixes are rarely used. Instead, the generic suffix of -apsis is used[8].

Objects in the Solar System with named apsides
Astronomical object Sun Mercury Earth Moon Mars Ceres Jupiter Saturn
Suffix -⁠helion -⁠hermion -⁠gee -⁠lune[3]
-⁠areion -⁠demeter[9] -⁠jove -⁠chron[3]
of the name
Helios Hermes Gaia Luna
Ares Demeter Zeus
Other objects with named apsides
Astronomical object Star Galaxy Barycenter Black hole
Suffix -⁠astron -⁠galacticon -⁠center
of the name
lat. astra: stars galaxy gr. melos: black
gr. bothros: hole
lat. niger: black

Perihelion and aphelion


The words perihelion and aphelion were coined by Johannes Kepler[10] to describe the orbital motion of the planets. The words are formed from the prefixes peri- (Greek: περί, near) and apo- (Greek: ἀπό, away from) affixed to the Greek word for the sun, ἥλιος.[11]


Currently, the Earth reaches perihelion in early January, approximately 14 days after the December Solstice. At perihelion, the Earth's center is about 0.98329 astronomical units (AU) or 147,098,070 km (91,402,500 mi) from the Sun's center. In contrast, the Earth reaches aphelion currently in early July, approximately 14 days after the June Solstice. The aphelion distance between the Earth's and Sun's centers is currently about 1.01671 AU or 152,097,700 km (94,509,100 mi). Dates change over time due to precession and other orbital factors, which follow cyclical patterns known as Milankovitch cycles. In the short term, the dates of perihelion and aphelion can vary up to 2 days from one year to another.[12] This significant variation is due to the presence of the Moon: while the Earth–Moon barycenter is moving on a stable orbit around the Sun, the position of the Earth's center which is on average about 4,700 kilometres (2,900 mi) from the barycenter, could be shifted in any direction from it – and this affects the timing of the actual closest approach between the Sun's and the Earth's centers (which in turn defines the timing of perihelion in a given year).[13]

Because of the increased distance at aphelion, only 93.55% of the solar radiation from the Sun falls on a given area of land as does at perihelion. However, this fluctuation does not account for the seasons,[14] as it is summer in the northern hemisphere when it is winter in the southern hemisphere and vice versa. Instead, seasons result from the tilt of Earth's axis, which is 23.4 degrees away from perpendicular to the plane of Earth's orbit around the sun. Winter falls on the hemisphere where sunlight strikes least directly, and summer falls where sunlight strikes most directly, regardless of the Earth's distance from the Sun. In the northern hemisphere, summer occurs at the same time as aphelion. Despite this, there are larger land masses in the northern hemisphere, which are easier to heat than the seas. Consequently, summers are 2.3 °C (4 °F) warmer in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere under similar conditions.[15] Astronomers commonly express the timing of perihelion relative to the vernal equinox not in terms of days and hours, but rather as an angle of orbital displacement, the so-called longitude of the periapsis (also called longitude of the pericenter). For the orbit of the Earth, this is called the longitude of perihelion, and in 2000 it was about 282.895°; by the year 2010, this had advanced by a small fraction of a degree to about 283.067°.[16]

For the orbit of the Earth around the Sun, the time of apsis is often expressed in terms of a time relative to seasons, since this determines the contribution of the elliptical orbit to seasonal variations. The variation of the seasons is primarily controlled by the annual cycle of the elevation angle of the Sun, which is a result of the tilt of the axis of the Earth measured from the plane of the ecliptic. The Earth's eccentricity and other orbital elements are not constant, but vary slowly due to the perturbing effects of the planets and other objects in the solar system. See Milankovitch cycles. On a very long time scale, the dates of the perihelion and of the aphelion progress through the seasons, and they make one complete cycle in 22,000 to 26,000 years. There is a corresponding movement of the position of the stars as seen from Earth that is called the apsidal precession. (This is closely related to the precession of the axis.) The dates and times of the perihelions and aphelions for several past and future years are listed in the following table:[17]

Year Perihelion Aphelion
Date Time (UT) Date Time (UT)
2007 January 3 19:43 July 6 23:53
2008 January 2 23:51 July 4 07:41
2009 January 4 15:30 July 4 01:40
2010 January 3 00:09 July 6 11:30
2011 January 3 18:32 July 4 14:54
2012 January 5 00:32 July 5 03:32
2013 January 2 04:38 July 5 14:44
2014 January 4 11:59 July 4 00:13
2015 January 4 06:36 July 6 19:40
2016 January 2 22:49 July 4 16:24
2017 January 4 14:18 July 3 20:11
2018 January 3 05:35 July 6 16:47
2019 January 3 05:20 July 4 22:11
2020 January 5 07:48 July 4 11:35




P - A


A - P


P - P


A - A


3-Jan-2007 19:43 6-Jul-2007 23:53 184.17
2-Jan-2008 23:51 4-Jul-2008 7:41 180.00 183.33 364.17 363.33
4-Jan-2009 15:30 4-Jul-2009 1:40 184.33 180.42 367.65 364.75
3-Jan-2010 0:09 6-Jul-2010 11:30 182.94 184.47 363.36 367.41
3-Jan-2011 18:32 4-Jul-2011 14:54 181.29 181.85 365.77 363.14
5-Jan-2012 0:32 5-Jul-2012 3:32 184.40 182.13 366.25 366.53
2-Jan-2013 4:38 5-Jul-2013 14:44 181.05 184.42 363.17 365.47
4-Jan-2014 11:59 4-Jul-2014 0:13 182.89 180.51 367.31 363.40
4-Jan-2015 6:36 6-Jul-2015 19:40 184.27 183.54 364.78 367.81
2-Jan-2016 22:49 4-Jul-2016 16:24 180.13 183.73 363.68 363.86
4-Jan-2017 14:18 3-Jul-2017 20:11 183.91 180.25 367.65 364.16
3-Jan-2018 5:35 6-Jul-2018 16:47 183.39 184.47 363.64 367.86
3-Jan-2019 5:20 4-Jul-2019 22:11 180.52 182.70 364.99 363.22
5-Jan-2020 7:48 4-Jul-2020 11:35 184.40 181.16 367.10 365.56

Other planets

The following table shows the distances of the planets and dwarf planets from the Sun at their perihelion and aphelion.[18]

Type of body Body Distance from Sun at perihelion Distance from Sun at aphelion
Planet Mercury 46,001,009 km (28,583,702 mi) 69,817,445 km (43,382,549 mi)
Venus 107,476,170 km (66,782,600 mi) 108,942,780 km (67,693,910 mi)
Earth 147,098,291 km (91,402,640 mi) 152,098,233 km (94,509,460 mi)
Mars 206,655,215 km (128,409,597 mi) 249,232,432 km (154,865,853 mi)
Jupiter 740,679,835 km (460,237,112 mi) 816,001,807 km (507,040,016 mi)
Saturn 1,349,823,615 km (838,741,509 mi) 1,503,509,229 km (934,237,322 mi)
Uranus 2,734,998,229 km (1.699449110×109 mi) 3,006,318,143 km (1.868039489×109 mi)
Neptune 4,459,753,056 km (2.771162073×109 mi) 4,537,039,826 km (2.819185846×109 mi)
Dwarf planet Ceres 380,951,528 km (236,712,305 mi) 446,428,973 km (277,398,103 mi)
Pluto 4,436,756,954 km (2.756872958×109 mi) 7,376,124,302 km (4.583311152×109 mi)
Haumea 5,157,623,774 km (3.204798834×109 mi) 7,706,399,149 km (4.788534427×109 mi)
Makemake 5,671,928,586 km (3.524373028×109 mi) 7,894,762,625 km (4.905578065×109 mi)
Eris 5,765,732,799 km (3.582660263×109 mi) 14,594,512,904 km (9.068609883×109 mi)

The following chart shows the range of distances of the planets, dwarf planets and Halley's Comet from the Sun.

Astronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitAstronomical unitHalley's CometSunEris (dwarf planet)Makemake (dwarf planet)Haumea (dwarf planet)PlutoCeres (dwarf planet)NeptuneUranusSaturnJupiterMarsEarthVenusMercury (planet)Astronomical unitAstronomical unitDwarf planetDwarf planetCometPlanet

Distances of selected bodies of the Solar System from the Sun. The left and right edges of each bar correspond to the perihelion and aphelion of the body, respectively, hence long bars denote high orbital eccentricity. The radius of the Sun is 0.7 million km, and the radius of Jupiter (the largest planet) is 0.07 million km, both too small to resolve on this image.

The images below show the perihelion (green dot) and aphelion (red dot) points of the inner and outer planets.[1]

Inner Planet Orbits

The perihelion and aphelion points of the inner planets of the Solar System

Outer Planet Orbits

The perihelion and aphelion points of the outer planets of the Solar System

See also


  1. ^ a b "the definition of apsis". Dictionary.com.
  2. ^ Since the Sun, Ἥλιος in Greek, begins with a vowel (H is considered a vowel in Greek), the final o in "apo" is omitted from the prefix. The pronunciation "Ap-helion" is given in many dictionaries [1], pronouncing the "p" and "h" in separate syllables. However, the pronunciation /əˈfiːliən/ [2] is also common (e.g., McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th edition, 1994, p. 114), since in late Greek, 'p' from ἀπό followed by the 'h' from ἥλιος becomes phi; thus, the Greek word is αφήλιον. (see, for example, Walker, John, A Key to the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names, Townsend Young 1859 [3], page 26.) Many [4] dictionaries give both pronunciations
  3. ^ a b c d "Basics of Space Flight". NASA. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Apollo 15 Mission Report". Glossary. Retrieved October 16, 2009.
  5. ^ Perimelasma, by Geoffrey Landis, first published in Asimov's Science Fiction, January 1998, republished at Infinity Plus
  6. ^ R. Schödel, T. Ott, R. Genzel, R. Hofmann, M. Lehnert, A. Eckart, N. Mouawad, T. Alexander, M. J. Reid, R. Lenzen, M. Hartung, F. Lacombe, D. Rouan, E. Gendron, G. Rousset, A.-M. Lagrange, W. Brandner, N. Ageorges, C. Lidman, A. F. M. Moorwood, J. Spyromilio, N. Hubin, K. M. Menten (17 October 2002). "A star in a 15.2-year orbit around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way". Nature. 419: 694–696. arXiv:astro-ph/0210426. Bibcode:2002Natur.419..694S. doi:10.1038/nature01121.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ Koberlein, Brian (2015-03-29). "Peribothron – Star makes closest approach to a black hole". briankoberlein.com. Retrieved 2018-01-10.
  8. ^ http://lasp.colorado.edu/home/maven/science/science-orbit/
  9. ^ http://www.planetary.org/blogs/guest-blogs/marc-rayman/20181019-dawn-journal-11-years-in-space.html
  10. ^ Klein, Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1965. (Archived version)
  11. ^ Since the Sun, Ἥλιος in Greek, begins with a vowel, H is the long e vowel in Greek, the final o in "apo" is omitted from the prefix. The pronunciation "Ap-helion" is given in many dictionaries [5], pronouncing the "p" and "h" in separate syllables. However, the pronunciation /əˈfiːliən/ [6] is also common (e.g., McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th edition, 1994, p. 114), since in late Greek, 'p' from ἀπό followed by the 'h' from ἥλιος becomes phi; thus, the Greek word is αφήλιον. (see, for example, Walker, John, A Key to the Classical Pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names, Townsend Young 1859 [7], page 26.) Many [8] dictionaries give both pronunciations
  12. ^ "Perihelion, Aphelion and the Solstices". timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-01-10.
  13. ^ "Variation in Times of Perihelion and Aphelion". Astronomical Applications Department of the U.S. Naval Observatory. 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2018-01-10.
  14. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Science & Technology: Science Features: Weather, Weather, Everywhere?". NASA. Retrieved 2015-09-19.
  15. ^ "Earth at Aphelion". Space Weather. July 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  16. ^ "Data.GISS: Earth's Orbital Parameters". data.giss.nasa.gov.
  17. ^ "Solex by Aldo Vitagliano". Retrieved 2018-01-10. (calculated by Solex 11)
  18. ^ NASA planetary comparison chart

External links


In architecture, an apse (plural apses; from Latin absis: "arch, vault" from Greek ἀψίς apsis "arch"; sometimes written apsis, plural apsides) is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome, also known as an exedra. In Byzantine, Romanesque, and Gothic Christian church (including cathedral and abbey) architecture, the term is applied to a semi-circular or polygonal termination of the main building at the liturgical east end (where the altar is), regardless of the shape of the roof, which may be flat, sloping, domed, or hemispherical. Smaller apses may also be in other locations, especially shrines.

Argument of periapsis

The argument of periapsis (also called argument of perifocus or argument of pericenter), symbolized as ω, is one of the orbital elements of an orbiting body. Parametrically, ω is the angle from the body's ascending node to its periapsis, measured in the direction of motion.

For specific types of orbits, words such as perihelion (for heliocentric orbits), perigee (for geocentric orbits), periastron (for orbits around stars), and so on may replace the word periapsis. (See apsis for more information.)

An argument of periapsis of 0° means that the orbiting body will be at its closest approach to the central body at the same moment that it crosses the plane of reference from South to North. An argument of periapsis of 90° means that the orbiting body will reach periapsis at its northmost distance from the plane of reference.

Adding the argument of periapsis to the longitude of the ascending node gives the longitude of the periapsis. However, especially in discussions of binary stars and exoplanets, the terms "longitude of periapsis" or "longitude of periastron" are often used synonymously with "argument of periapsis".

Dwarf gallery

A dwarf gallery is an architectural ornament in Romanesque architecture.

It is a natural development of the blind arcade and consists of an arcaded gallery, usually just below the roof, recessed into the thickness of the walls. Usually dwarf galleries can be found at church towers or apses but they frequently appear at other parts of buildings as well, or even go around the entire building. Although principally meant as a decorative element, some dwarf galleries can be accessed. During the septennial Pilgrimage of the Relics in Maastricht, relics were shown daily from the dwarf gallery of St Servatius' to pilgrims gathered in front of the church in Vrijthof.

Dwarf galleries mainly appear at Romanesque churches in Germany and Italy. A few examples can be found in Belgium and the Netherlands (see Mosan art). Remarkably, in France no dwarf galleries were built. The oldest church in Germany with a dwarf gallery is Trier Cathedral. The apsis with dwarf gallery at Speyer Cathedral, described as “one of the most memorable pieces of Romanesque design”, was copied in many other places in the German Rhineland. Several of Cologne's twelve Romanesque churches feature dwarf galleries, as well as important Rhineland churches like Mainz Cathedral, Worms Cathedral and Bonn Minster.

In Italy, dwarf galleries appear at churches in the central and northern regions of the country. Examples are Santa Maria della Pieve in Arezzo, Modena Cathedral, Pistoia Cathedral, San Donato in Genoa and Pisa Cathedral. The famous Leaning Tower of Pisa could be described as having six rings of dwarf galleries.

In France, simple dwarf galleries are rare. But there was a luxurious development. In some façades, sculptures were placed between the columns. Most famous are the Galleries of Kings (Galeries des Rois) on Notre-Dame de Paris and the Cathedral of Amiens.

Dwarf galleries incidentally feature in Romanesque Revival architecture, notably in Germany, but also in other parts of the world.

Isaiah Church

Isaiah Church (Danish: Esajas Kirke) is a Lutheran church in the Østerbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark.


Lengyeltóti is a town in Somogy county, Hungary.

The settlement is part of the Balatonboglár wine region.

List of internet service providers in Canada

This is an alphabetical list of internet service providers in Canada:

Access Communications

Altima Telecom

Apsis Communications Inc.

Aurora Cable Internet

Bell Aliant

Bell Internet

Bonnechere Communications Inc.

Cable Axion

Cablevision (Canada)

CanNet Telecom

Carry Telecom

Chebucto Community Net

CIK Telecom




Craig Wireless

Dery Telecom

Eastlink (company)

Everus Communications


Frontline Broadband

Internex Online



Look Communications

MNSi Telecom

Mountain Cablevision

National Capital FreeNet

Novus Entertainment


Persona Communications

Project Chapleau


Rogers Hi-Speed Internet

Rush Communications Ltd.


Seaside Communications


Source Cable

SSI Micro




Telus Internet


Virgin mobile


Wireless Nomad

Xplornet Communications

YAP - Your Affordable Provider

Mariner 2

| orbit_epoch = December 27, 1962

| orbit_reference = Heliocentric

| orbit_periapsis = 105,464,560 kilometers (56,946,310 nautical miles)

| orbit_apoapsis =

| orbit_inclination =

| apsis = helion

|interplanetary =

Flyby of VenusClosest approachDecember 14, 1962Distance34,773 kilometers (18,776 nautical miles)


Mariner 2 (Mariner-Venus 1962), an American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter. The first successful spacecraft in the NASA Mariner program, it was a simplified version of the Block I spacecraft of the Ranger program and an exact copy of Mariner 1. The missions of Mariner 1 and 2 spacecraft are together sometimes known as the Mariner R missions. Original plans called for the probes to be launched on the Atlas-Centaur, but serious developmental problems with that vehicle forced a switch to the much smaller Agena B stage. As such, the design of the Mariner R vehicles was greatly simplified. Far less instrumentation was carried than on the Soviet Venera probes of this period, including no TV camera as the Atlas-Agena B had only half as much lift capacity as the Soviet 8K78 booster. The Mariner 2 spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral on August 27, 1962 and passed as close as 34,773 kilometers (21,607 mi) to Venus on December 14, 1962.The Mariner probe consisted of a 100 cm (39.4 in) diameter hexagonal bus, to which solar panels, instrument booms, and antennas were attached. The scientific instruments on board the Mariner spacecraft were two radiometers (one each for the microwave and infrared portions of the spectrum), a micrometeorite sensor, a solar plasma sensor, a charged particle sensor, and a magnetometer. These instruments were designed to measure the temperature distribution on the surface of Venus, as well as making basic measurements of Venus' atmosphere.

The primary mission was to receive communications from the spacecraft in the vicinity of Venus and to perform radiometric temperature measurements of the planet. A second objective was to measure the interplanetary magnetic field and charged particle environment.En route to Venus, Mariner 2 measured the solar wind, a constant stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, confirming the measurements by Luna 1 in 1959. It also measured interplanetary dust, which turned out to be scarcer than predicted. In addition, Mariner 2 detected high-energy charged particles coming from the Sun, including several brief solar flares, as well as cosmic rays from outside the Solar System. As it flew by Venus on December 14, 1962, Mariner 2 scanned the planet with its pair of radiometers, revealing that Venus has cool clouds and an extremely hot surface.

Perigee (disambiguation)

Perigee is a type of apsis: an extreme point in an object's orbit.

Perigee may also refer to:

Perigee: Publication for the Arts, a quarterly literary journal

Perigee Books, a former imprint of Penguin Group, now part of TarcherPerigee

Perigee moon, or supermoon

Holcomb Perigee, a prototype sportsplane

Prix Bertrand du Breuil

The Prix Bertrand du Breuil is a Group 3 flat horse race in France open to thoroughbreds aged four years or older. It is run at Chantilly over a distance of 1,600 metres (about 1 mile), and it is scheduled to take place each year in June.

Prix Thomas Bryon

The Prix Thomas Bryon is a Group 3 flat horse race in France open to two-year-old thoroughbreds. It is run at Saint-Cloud over a distance of 1,400 metres (about 7 furlongs), and it is scheduled to take place each year in October.

Rotunda (architecture)

A rotunda (from Latin rotundus) is any building with a circular ground plan, and sometimes covered by a dome. It can also refer to a round room within a building (a famous example being within the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.). The Pantheon in Rome is a famous rotunda. A Band Rotunda is a circular bandstand, usually with a dome.

Ruth's Church

Ruth's Church (Danish: Ruts Kirke) is a parish church located in the village of Rutsker near Hasle on the Danish island of Bornholm. The church was built in the early 13th century in the Romanesque style. Situated on a hilltop 130 m above sea level, it is the island's highest-standing church.

SS Empire Baffin

Empire Baffin was a 6,978 ton cargo ship which was built by Lithgows Ltd, Port Glasgow in 1941 for the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT). She was commissioned in 1943 as HMS Sancroft, being converted into a cable laying ship for Operation Pluto. She was returned to the MoWT in 1946 and subsequently sold and renamed Clintonia. A final change of ownership in 1960 saw her renamed Aspis and she was scrapped in 1963.

Santa Reparata, Florence

Santa Reparata is the former cathedral of Florence, Italy. Its name refers to Saint Reparata, an early virgin martyr who is the co-patron saint of Florence. The Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore was constructed over it.


Tarnaszentmária is a village at the foot of the Mátra Mountains in Hungary, in Heves.


Zánka is a village in Veszprém county, Hungary.


Østermarie is a village on the Danish island of Bornholm, 8 km (5.0 mi) west of Svaneke. Founded ca. 1880, its old church (Østermarie Church) , now a ruin, dates back to the 12th century. The population as of 1 January 2015 is 483.

Gravitational orbits
Orbital mechanics

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