Applied science

Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.

Within natural science, disciplines that are basic science, also called pure science, develop basic information to predict and perhaps explain and understand phenomena in the natural world. Applied science is the use of scientific processes and knowledge as the means to achieve a particular practical or useful result. This includes a broad range of applied science related fields from engineering, business, medicine to early childhood education.

Applied science can also apply formal science, such as statistics and probability theory, as in epidemiology. Genetic epidemiology is an applied science applying both biological and statistical methods.

Applied research

Applied research is the practical application of science. It accesses and uses accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, state-, business-, or client-driven purpose. Applied research is contrasted with pure research (basic research) in discussion about research ideals, methodologies, programs, and projects.[1]

Applied research deals with solving practical problems[2] and generally employs empirical methodologies. Because applied research resides in the messy real world, strict research protocols may need to be relaxed. For example, it may be impossible to use a random sample. Thus, transparency in the methodology is crucial. Implications for interpretation of results brought about by relaxing an otherwise strict canon of methodology should also be considered.[3]

Since applied research has a provisional close-to-the-problem and close-to-the-data orientation, it may also use a more provisional conceptual framework such as working hypotheses or pillar questions.[4][5] The OECD's Frascati Manual[6] describes applied research as one of the three forms of research, along with basic research & experimental development.[7]

Due to its practical focus, applied research information will be found in the literature associated with individual disciplines.[8]

Branches of applied science

Engineering fields include thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, statics, dynamics, mechanics of materials, kinematics, electromagnetism, materials science, earth sciences, engineering physics.

Medical sciences, for instance medical microbiology and clinical virology, are applied sciences that apply biology toward medical knowledge and inventions, but not necessarily medical technology, whose development is more specifically biomedicine or biomedical engineering.

In education

In Canada, the Netherlands and other places the Bachelor of Applied Science (BASc) is equivalent to the Bachelor of Engineering, and is classified as a professional degree. The BASc tends to focus more on the application of the engineering sciences. In Australia and New Zealand this degree is awarded in various fields of study and is considered a highly specialized professional degree.

In the United Kingdom's educational system, Applied Science refers to a suite of "vocational" science qualifications that run alongside "traditional" General Certificate of Secondary Education or A-Level Sciences.[9] Applied Science courses generally contain more coursework (also known as portfolio or internally assessed work) compared to their traditional counterparts. These are an evolution of the GNVQ qualifications that were offered up to 2005. These courses regularly come under scrutiny and are due for review following the Wolf Report 2011;[10] however, their merits are argued elsewhere.[11]

In the United States, The College of William & Mary offers an undergraduate minor as well as Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in "applied science." Courses and research cover varied fields including neuroscience, optics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive testing, and nuclear magnetic resonance.[12] In New York City, the Bloomberg administration awarded the consortium of Cornell-Technion $100 million in City capital to construct the universities' proposed Applied Sciences campus on Roosevelt Island.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Roll-Hansen, Nils (April 2009). Why the distinction between basic (theoretical) and applied (practical) research is important in the politics of science (PDF) (Report). The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
  2. ^ "a definition of applied research". Archived from the original on August 18, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.(The site appears to be available, but returns a 'forbidden' response, suggesting that only certain IP ranges or recognized accounts might have access.)
  3. ^ Coombs, Crispin; Coombs, Crispin (2017). "Coherence and transparency: some advice for qualitative researchers". Production. 27. doi:10.1590/0103-6513.006817. ISSN 0103-6513.
  4. ^ Shields, Patricia and Rangarjan, N. 2013. A Playbook for Research Methods: Integrating Conceptual Frameworks and Project Management. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press. (See Chapter 5 "Exploration - Working Hypotheses" pp. 109-158)
  5. ^ The following are examples of applied research using working hypotheses 1) Swift, James T. 2010. "Exploring Capital Metro's Sexual Harassment Training Using Dr. Bengt-Ake Lundvall's Taxonomy of Knowledge Principles". Applied Research Projects, Texas State University. 2) Gillfillan, Abigail. 2008. "Using Geographic Information Systems to Develop and Analyze Land-Use Policies". Applied Research Projects, Texas State University. 3) Thornton, Wayne 2000. "A Descriptive and Exploratory Study of the Ethics Program at Austin State Hospital: The Common Elements of the Program and Managers' Beliefs About the Purpose and Usefulness of the Program". Applied Research Projects, Texas State University.
  6. ^ "Frascati Manual Page 30" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  7. ^ National Research Council (US) Committee to Update Science, Medicine (2004). The Concept of Basic Research. National Academies Press (US).
  8. ^ "Open J-gate journals". Archived from the original on 2011-09-02. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  9. ^ Donnelly, Jim. "Applied Science - an invisible revolution?" (pdf). Nuffield Foundation. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  10. ^ Wolf, Alison (March 2011). Review of Vocational Education - The Wolf Report (Report). Department for Education and Department for Business, Innovation & Skills. DFE-00031-2011. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  11. ^ Bell, Jacqueline; Donnelly, Jim (2007). Positioning Applied Science In Schools: Uncertainty, Opportunity and Risk in Curriculum Reform (PDF) (Report). University of Leeds. Centre for Studies in Science & Mathematics Education. Archived from the original (pdf) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  12. ^ "Applied Science". William & Mary. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  13. ^ "Mayor Bloomberg, Cornell President Skorton and Technion President Lavie announce historic partnership to build a new applied sciences campus on Roosevelt Island" (Press release). The City of New York. Office of the Mayor. 19 December 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
Associate degree

An associate degree is an undergraduate degree awarded, primarily in the United States, after a course of post-secondary study lasting two or three years. It is a level of qualification between a high school diploma or GED and a bachelor's degree.

The first associate degrees were awarded in the UK (where they are no longer awarded) in 1873 before spreading to the US in 1898. In the United States, the associate degree may allow transfer into the third year of a bachelor's degree. Associate degrees have since been introduced in a small number of other countries.

Bachelor of Applied Science

The Bachelor of Applied Science, often abbreviated as B.AS., BAS, BSAS, BASc, B.ASc., or BAppSc, is an undergraduate degree.

Bachelor of Science

A Bachelor of Science (Latin Baccalaureus Scientiae, B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc, or B.Sc; or, less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B., from the equivalent Latin Scientiae Baccalaureus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years, or a person holding such a degree.The first university to admit a student to the degree of Bachelor of Science was the University of London in 1860. Prior to this, science subjects were included in the BA bracket, notably in the cases of mathematics, physics, physiology and botany.Whether a student of a particular subject is awarded a Bachelor of Science degree or a Bachelor of Arts degree can vary between universities. For example, an economics degree may be given as a Bachelor of Arts (BA) by one university but as a BS by another, and some universities offer the choice of either. Some liberal arts colleges in the United States offer only the BA, even in the natural sciences, while some universities offer only the BS, even in non-science fields.At universities that offer both BA and BS degrees in the same discipline, the BS degree is usually more extensive in that particular discipline and is targeted toward students who are pursuing graduate school or a profession in that field.

Basic research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena. Applied research, in turn, uses scientific theories to develop technology or techniques to intervene and alter natural or other phenomena. Though often driven by curiosity, basic research fuels applied science's innovations. The two aims are often coordinated in research and development.

College of Applied Science, Thamarassery

The College of Applied Science, Thamarassery also known as IHRD Thamarassery or CAS Thamarassery, is a degree-awarding educational institution located in Korangad just Near to Thamarassery, Kozhikode district.

The college was established in the year 2012. The college is managed by the Institute of Human Resources Development (IHRD) and is affiliated to the University of Calicut.

College of Applied Science, Vadakkencherry

The College of Applied Science or CASVDY, is located in Vadakkencherry, Palakkad district in the Indian state of Kerala.

The college is affiliated with the University of Calicut. It is managed by the IHRD, a government of Kerala undertaking. It conducts courses in B.Sc Computer Science, B.Sc Electronics, B.Com with Computer Application, M.Sc Computer Science, M.Sc Electronics and MCA.

CASVDY is the first college in Kerala to offer a postgraduate diploma course in Audio engineering at the government level for aspirants in the audio media industry and fourth in India. The course started in June 2010.

NSS unit of IHRD was the overall champions of 2018 NSS kalotsavam.

College of Applied Science Malappuram

College of Applied Science Malappuram, is established in 1993, affiliated to university of Calicut and is managed by Institute of Human Resources Development (IHRD Established by Govt Of Kerala.

David Nagel

David Nagelis an American manager. He held executive positions in a wide variety of technology companies and organizations.

EMS College, Vallithode

The EMS Memorial College of Applied Science is a college located at Kelanpeetika hilly village near Vallithode, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east of Iritty along the Thalassery-Kodagu inter state highway. It is affiliated to Kannur University and run by the Institute of Human Resources Development. It was established in 2009.

Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science

The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (popularly known as SEAS or Columbia Engineering; previously known as Columbia School of Mines) is the engineering and applied science school of Columbia University. It was founded as the School of Mines in 1863 and then the School of Mines, Engineering and Chemistry before becoming the School of Engineering and Applied Science. On October 1, 1997, the school was renamed in honor of Chinese businessman Z.Y. Fu, who had donated $26 million to the school.

The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science maintains a close research tie with other institutions including NASA, IBM, MIT, and The Earth Institute. Patents owned by the school generate over $100 million annually for the university. SEAS faculty and alumni are responsible for technological achievements including the developments of FM radio and the maser.

The School's applied mathematics, biomedical engineering, computer science and the financial engineering program in operations research are very famous and ranked high. The current SEAS faculty include 27 members of the National Academy of Engineering and one Nobel Laureate in a faculty size of 173. In all, the faculty and alumni of Columbia Engineering have won 10 Nobel Prizes in physics, chemistry, medicine, and economics.

The school consists of approximately 300 undergraduates in each graduating class and maintains close links with its undergraduate liberal arts sister school Columbia College which shares housing with SEAS students. The School's current dean is Mary Cunningham Boyce, who was appointed in 2013.

H. W. Wilson Company

The H. W. Wilson Company, Inc. is a publisher and indexing company that was founded in 1898 and is located in The Bronx, New York. It provides print and digital content aimed at patrons of public school, college, and professional libraries in both the United States and internationally. The company also provides indexing services that include text, retrospective, abstracting and indexing, as well other types of databases. Image gallery indexing includes art museum and cinema. The company also indexed reference monographs. An online retrieval system with various features, including language translation, is also available. The company merged with EBSCO Publishing in June 2011. Grey House Publishing currently publishes print editions of H. W. Wilson products under license.

Institute of Human Resources Development

The Institute of Human Resources Development (IHRD) was established by the Government of Kerala (India) in 1987, with the institutional centre at Thiruvananthapuram and Model polytechnics in 1988 at Vatakara. IHRD has grown within a short period into a network of more than 50 institutions. In addition to regular courses of study in academic establishments, IHRD also runs short and long-term employment oriented and continuing education programmes.

The first name of IHRD was Institute of Human Resources Development for Electronics (IHRDE). Later it was renamed and now bears the name IHRD.

IHRD founded and manages a large number of Technical Schools, Engineering Colleges, polytechnics and Applied Science colleges.

Kansas State University

Kansas State University (KSU), commonly shortened to Kansas State or K-State, is a public research university with its main campus in Manhattan, Kansas, United States. Kansas State was opened as the state's land-grant college in 1863 and was the first public institution of higher learning in the state of Kansas. It had a record high enrollment of 24,766 students for the Fall 2014 semester.The university is classified as one of 115 research universities with highest research activity (R1) by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Kansas State's academic offerings are administered through nine colleges, including the College of Veterinary Medicine and the College of Technology and Aviation in Salina. Graduate degrees offered include 65 master's degree programs and 45 doctoral degrees.

Branch campuses are in Salina and Olathe. The Kansas State University Polytechnic Campus in Salina is home to the College of Technology and Aviation. The Olathe Innovation Campus has a focus on graduate work in research bioenergy, animal health, plant science and food safety and security.

Raymond D. Mindlin

Raymond David Mindlin (New York City, 17 September 1906 – 22 November 1987) was an American mechanical engineer, Professor of Applied Science at Columbia University, and recipient of the 1946 Presidential Medal for Merit and many other awards and honours. He is known as mechanician, who made seminal contributions to many branches of applied mechanics, applied physics, and engineering sciences.

Ronald Sugar

Ronald D. Sugar (born July 30, 1948) is an American business executive. He served as the chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the Northrop Grumman Corporation from 2003 to 2009. On August 1 2018 he was unanimously elected as independent Chairman of Uber

S. D. V. College of Arts and Applied Science

S.D.V. College of Arts and Applied Science, or Sanatana Dharma Vidyasala College, is an educational institution based in Sanathanapuram, Alappuzha, India, affiliated to the University of Kerala and recognised by the government of Kerala.

It is a self-financing educational institution, under the Sanatana Dharma Vidyasala and was established in 2013. It is the sixth educational institution that came into existence under the Sanatana Dharma Vidyasala, a non-profit making organization registered under the Companies Act, which owns and manages the Sanatana Dharma College, SDV High School for Girls, SDV High School for Boys, SDV English Medium HSS (CBSE), and SDV Boys’ HSS.

The institution offers graduate courses in B.Com Tourism & Travel Management, B.Sc. Bio-Technology (Multi-Major) and B.A. Journalism, Mass Communication and Video Production under the Choice Based Credit and Semester System (CBCSS) of the University of Kerala.

Saskatchewan Polytechnic

Saskatchewan Polytechnic (formerly the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology or SIAST) is Saskatchewan's primary public institution for post-secondary technical education and skills training, recognized nationally and internationally for its expertise and innovation. Through program and course registrations, Saskatchewan Polytechnic serves 26,000 distinct students with programs that touch every sector of the economy. It operates campuses in Moose Jaw, Prince Albert, Regina and Saskatoon; and provides a number of courses and programs through distance education.

UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science

The UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science (HSSEAS), informally known as UCLA Engineering, is the school of engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). It opened as the College of Engineering in 1945, and was renamed the School of Engineering in 1969. Since its initial enrollment of 379 students, the school has grown to approximately 6,100 students. The school is ranked 16th among all engineering schools in the United States. The school offers 28 degree programs and is home to eight externally funded interdisciplinary research centers, including those in space exploration, wireless sensor systems, and nanotechnology.

University of Toronto Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering

The Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering is an academic division of the University of Toronto devoted to study and research in engineering. Founded in 1873 as the School of Practical Science, it is still known today by the longtime nickname of Skule. The faculty is based primarily across 16 buildings on the southern side of the university campus in Downtown Toronto, in addition to operating the Institute for Aerospace Studies facility. The faculty administers undergraduate, master's and doctoral degree programs, as well as a dual-degree program with the Rotman School of Management.

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