Appanage

An appanage or apanage (/ˈæpənɪdʒ/) or French: apanage (French pronunciation: ​[a.pa.naʒ]) is the grant of an estate, title, office, or other thing of value to a younger male child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture. It was common in much of Europe.

The system of appanage greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and the German states, and explains why many of the former provinces of France had coats of arms which were modified versions of the king's arms.

Etymology

Late Latin *appanaticum, from appanare or adpanare 'to give bread' (panis), a pars pro toto for food and other necessities, hence for a "subsistence" income, notably in kind, as from assigned land.

Original appanage: in France

History of the French appanage

An appanage was a concession of a fief by the sovereign to his younger sons, while the eldest son became king on the death of his father. Appanages were considered as part of the inheritance transmitted to the puîsné (French puis, "later", + , "born [masc.]") sons; the word Juveigneur (from the Latin comparative iuvenior, 'younger [masc.]'; in Brittany's customary law only the youngest brother) was specifically used for the royal princes holding an appanage. These lands could not be sold, neither hypothetically nor as a dowry, and returned to the royal domain on the extinction of the princely line. Daughters were excluded from the system: Salic law then generally prohibited daughters from inheriting land and also from acceding to the throne.

The system of appanage has played a particularly important role in France. It developed there with the extension of royal authority from the 13th century, then disappeared from the late Middle Ages with the affirmation of the exclusive authority of the royal state. It strongly influenced the territorial construction, explaining the arms of several provinces. The prerogative of Burgundy is also the origin of the Belgian, Luxembourg and Dutch States, through the action of its dukes favored by their position in the court of the kings of France.

Appanages were used to sweeten the pill of the primogeniture. It has traditionally been used to prevent the revolt of younger sons who would otherwise have no inheritance, while avoiding the weakening of the kingdom by equal division. Indeed, according to Frankish custom, the inheritance was to be divided among the surviving sons. The kingdom was considered family property, and so many divisions occurred under the Merovingians (the first following the death of Clovis I in 511), and later under the rule of the Carolingians in which the Treaty of Verdun of 843 gave birth to independent territories.

The consequences of equal division (dismemberment of the kingdom, civil wars, conflicts between heirs, etc.) led to the adoption of the appanage system, which has the advantage of diverting the claim of younger sons to the crown, which was the inheritance of the eldest. In addition, over time, the system guarantees the unity of the royal domain to the senior heir.

Hugh Capet was elected King of the Franks on the death of Louis V in 987. The Capetian dynasty broke away from the Frankish custom of dividing the kingdom among all the sons. The eldest son alone became King and received the royal domain except for the appanages. Unlike their predecessors, their hold on the crown was initially tenuous. They could not afford to divide the kingdom among all their sons, and the royal domain (the territory directly controlled by the king) was very small, inititially consisting solely of the Île-de-France. Most of the Capetians endeavored to add to the royal domain by the incorporation of additional fiefs, large or small, and thus gradually obtained the direct lordship over almost all of France.

The first king to create an appanage is Henry I of France in 1032, when he gave the Duchy of Burgundy to his brother Robert I, whose descendants retained the duchy until 1361 with the extinction of the first Capetian House of Burgundy by the death of Philip de Rouvres. Louis VIII and Louis IX also created appanages. The king who created the most powerful appanages for his sons was John II of France. His youngest son, Philip the Bold, founded the second Capetian House of Burgundy in 1363. By marrying the heiress of Flanders, Philip also became ruler of the Low Countries.

King Charles V tried to remove the appanage system, but in vain. Provinces conceded in appanage tended to become de facto independent and the authority of the king was recognized there reluctantly. In particular the line of Valois Dukes of Burgundy caused considerable trouble to the French crown, with which they were often at war, often in open alliance with the English. Theoretically appanages could be reincorporated into the royal domain but only if the last lord had no male heirs. Kings tried as much as possible to rid themselves of the most powerful appanages. Louis XI retook the Duchy of Burgundy at the death of its last duke, Charles the Bold. Francis I confiscated the Bourbonnais, after the treason in 1523 of his commander in chief, Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, the 'constable of Bourbon' (died 1527 in the service of Emperor Charles V).

The first article of the Edict of Moulins (1566) declared that the royal domain (defined in the second article as all the land controlled by the crown for more than ten years) could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land; and to form an appanage, which must return to the crown in its original state on the extinction of the male line. The apanagist (incumbent) therefore could not separate himself from his appanage in any way.

After Charles V of France, a clear distinction had to be made between titles given as names to children in France, and true appanages. At their birth the French princes received a title independent of an appanage. Thus, the Duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV, never possessed Anjou and never received any revenue from this province. The king waited until the prince had reached adulthood and was about to marry before endowing him with an appanage. The goal of the appanage was to provide him with a sufficient income to maintain his noble rank. The fief given in appanage could be the same as the title given to the prince, but this was not necessarily the case. Only seven appanages were given from 1515 to 1789.

Appanages were abolished in 1792 before the proclamation of the Republic. The youngest princes from then on were to receive a grant of money but no territory.

Appanages were reestablished under the first French empire by Napoleon Bonaparte and confirmed by the Bourbon restoration-king Louis XVIII. The last of the appanages, the Orléanais, was reincorporated to the French crown when the Duke of Orléans, Louis-Philippe, became king of the French in 1830.

The word apanage is still used in French figuratively, in a non-historic sense: "to have appanage over something" is used, often in an ironic and negative sense, to claim exclusive possession over something. For example, "cows have appanage over prions."

List of major French appanages

Direct Capetians

House of Valois

House of Bourbon

Although Napoleon restored the idea of apanage in 1810 for his sons, none were ever granted, nor were any new apanages created by the restoration monarchs.

Western feudal appanages outside France

Appanages within Britain

English and British monarchs frequently granted appanages to younger sons of the monarch. Most famously, the Houses of York and Lancaster, whose feuding over the succession to the English throne after the end of the main line of the House of Plantagenet caused the Wars of the Roses, were both established when the Duchies of York and Lancaster were given as appanages for Edmund of Langley and John of Gaunt, the younger sons of King Edward III.

In modern times, the Duchy of Cornwall is the permanent statutory appanage of the monarch's eldest son, intended to support him until such time as he inherits the Crown.[1] Other titles have continued to be granted to junior members of the royal family, but without associated grants of land directly connected with those titles, any territorial rights over the places named in the titles, or any income directly derived from those lands or places.

Scotland

The defunct Kingdom of Strathclyde was granted as an appanage to the future David I of Scotland by his brother Edgar, King of Scots. Remnants of this can be found within the patrimony of the Prince of Scotland, currently Charles, Duke of Rothesay.

Kingdom of Jerusalem

In the only crusader state of equal rank in protocol to the states of Western Europe, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the County of Jaffa and Ascalon was often granted as an appanage.

Brigantine Portugal

With the installation of the House of Braganza on the Portuguese throne in 1640, an official appanage was created for the second eldest son of the monarch, the House of the Infantado. The Infantado included several land grants and palaces, along with a heightened royal pension.

Equivalents outside Western Europe

The practice is certainly not unique to western feudalism

  • The principalities of European Russia had a similar practice; an appanage given to a younger male of the royal family was called an udel. The frequency and importance of the custom was particularly important between the mid-13th and the mid-15th centuries; some historians refer to this era as "the appanage period".
  • In Medieval Serbia, an appanage was predominantly given to a younger brother of the supreme ruler, called a Župa. Its use began in the 9th century and continued into the 14th century, with the fall of the Serbian Empire.
  • In the Indian subcontinent, the jagir (a type of fief) was often thus assigned to individual junior relatives of the ruling house of a princely state, but not as a customary right of birth, though in practice usually hereditarily held, and not only to them but also to commoners, normally as an essentially meritocratic grant of land and taxation rights (guaranteeing a "fitting" income, in itself bringing social sway, in the primary way in a mainly agricultural society), or even as part of a deal.
  • The seniormost female in the Travancore royal family held the estate of Attingal, also known as the Sreepadam Estate in appanage for life. All the income derived from this 15,000 acres (61 km2) estate was the private property of the senior maharani, alternatively known as the Senior Rani of Attingal (Attingal Mootha Thampuran).
  • The Javanese kingdom of Majapahit, which dominated eastern Java in the 14th and 15th centuries, was divided into nagara (provinces). The administration of these nagara was entrusted to members of the royal family, who bore the title of Bhre i. e. Bhra i, "lord of" (the word bhra being akin to the Thai Phra), followed by the name of the land they were entrusted with: for example a sister of king Hayam Wuruk (r. 1350-1389) was "Bhre Lasem", "lady of Lasem".

Appanage system of the Mongol Empire and Mongolian monarchs

The royal family of the Mongol Empire owned the largest appanages in the world because of their enormous empire. In 1206, Genghis Khan awarded large tracts of land to his family members and loyal companions, most of whom were of common origin. Shares of booty were distributed much more widely. Empresses, princesses, and meritorious servants, as well as children of concubines, all received full shares including war prisoners.[2] For example, Kublai summoned two siege engineers from the Ilkhanate, and after their success rewarded them with lands. After the Mongol conquest in 1238, the port cities in Crimea paid the Jochids custom duties and the revenues were divided among all Chingisid princes in Mongol Empire in accordance with the appanage system.[3] As loyal allies, the Kublaids in East Asia and the Ilkhanids in Persia sent clerics, doctors, artisans, scholars, engineers and administrators to and received revenues from the appanages in each other's khanates.

The Great Khan Möngke divided up shares or appanages in Persia and made redistribution in Central Asia in 1251-1256.[4] Although the Chagatai Khanate was the smallest in size, the Chagatai Khans held the cities of Kat and Khiva in Khorazm, and some cities and villages in Shanxi and Iran, as well as their nomadic grounds in Central Asia.[2] The first Ilkhan, Hulagu, owned 25,000 households of silk-workers in China, valleys in Tibet, and lands in Mongolia.[2] In 1298, his descendant Ghazan of Persia sent envoys with precious gifts to the Great Khan Temür Khan, and asked for the share of lands and revenues held by his great-grandfather in the Yuan lands (China and Mongolia). It is claimed that Ghazan received revenues that were not sent since the time of Möngke Khan.[5]

The appanage holders demanded excessive revenues and freed themselves from taxes. Ögedei decreed that nobles could appoint darughachi and judges in the appanages instead of direct distribution without the permission of the Great Khan, thanks to the brilliant Khitan minister Yelü Chucai. Both Güyük and Möngke restricted the autonomy of the appanages, but Kublai Khan continued Ögedei's regulations. Ghazan also prohibited any misfeasence of appanage holders in the Ilkhanate, and Yuan councillor Temuder restricted Mongol nobles' excessive powers in appanages in China and Mongolia.[6] Kublai's successor Temür abolished imperial son-in-law King Chungnyeol of Goryeo's 358 departments which caused financial pressures to Korean people, though, Mongols gave them some autonomy.[7]

The appanage system was severely affected beginning with the civil strife in the Mongol Empire in 1260-1304.[5][8] Nevertheless, this system survived. For example, Abagha of the Ilkhanate allowed Möngke Temür of the Golden Horde to collect revenues from silk workshops in northern Persia in 1270, and Baraq of the Chagatai Khanate sent his Muslim vizier to the Ilkhanate in 1269, ostensibly to investigate his appanages there. (The vizier's real mission was to spy on the Ilkhanids.)[9] After a peace treaty declared among Mongol Khans: Temür, Duwa, Chapar, Tokhta and Oljeitu in 1304, the system began to see a recovery. During the reign of Tugh Temür, Yuan court received a third of revenues of the cities of Transoxiana (Mawarannahr) under Chagatai Khans while Chagatai elites such as Eljigidey, Duwa Temür, Tarmashirin were given lavish presents and sharing in the Yuan Dynasty's patronage of Buddhist temples.[10] Tugh Temür was also given some Russian captives by Chagatai prince Changshi as well as Kublai's future khatun Chabi had servant Ahmad Fanakati from Fergana Valley before her marriage.[11] In 1326, Golden Horde started sending tributes to Great Khans of Yuan Dynasty again. By 1339, Ozbeg and his successors had received annually 24 thousand ding in paper currency from their Chinese appanages in Shanxi, Cheli and Hunan.[12] H. H. Howorth noted that Ozbeg's envoy required his master's shares from the Yuan court, the headquarters of the Mongol world, for the establishment of new post stations in 1336.[13] This communication ceased only with the breakup, succession struggles and rebellions of Mongol Khanates.[note 1]

After the fall of the Mongol Empire in 1368, the Mongols continued the tradition of appanage system. They were divided into districts ruled by hereditary noblemen. The units in such systems were called Tumen and Otog during Northern Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia. However, the Oirats called their appanage unit ulus or anggi. Appanages were called banners (Khoshuu) under the Qing Dynasty.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ilkhanate broke up in 1335; the succession struggles of the Golden Horde and the Chagatai Khanate started in 1359 and 1340 respectively; the Yuan army fought against the Red Turban Rebellion since the 1350s.

References

  1. ^ Arnold-Baker, Charles (2001). The Companion to British History. p. 43. ISBN 978-0415185837. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  2. ^ a b c Weatherford, Jack. Genghis Khan and the making of the modern world, p.220-227
  3. ^ Jackson, Peter. Dissolution of Mongol Empire, pp. 186-243
  4. ^ René Grousset The Empire of Steppes, p.286
  5. ^ a b Jackson, Peter. "From Ulus to Khanate: the making of Mongol States, c. 1220-1290" in The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy, pp. 12-38
  6. ^ Cambridge History of China
  7. ^ The history of Gaoli Chongson
  8. ^ Atwood, Christopher P. Encyclopedia of the Mongol Empire and Mongolia, p.32
  9. ^ A COMPENDIUM OF CHRONICLES: Rashid al-Din's Illustrated History of the World (The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, VOL XXVII) ISBN 0-19-727627-X or Reuven Amitai-Preiss (1995), Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Īlkhānid War, 1260–1281, pp. 179-225. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-46226-6.
  10. ^ W. Barthold "Chagatay Khanate" in Encyclopedia of Islam 2ed, 3-4; Kazuhide Kato Kebek and Yasawr: the establishment of Chagatai Khanate 97-118
  11. ^ Handbuch Der Orientalistik By Agustí Alemany, Denis Sinor, Bertold Spuler, Hartwig Altenmüller, p.391-408, Encyclopdeia of Mongolia and Mongol Empire "Ahmad Fanakati"
  12. ^ Thomas T. Allsen Sharing out the Empire 172-190
  13. ^ H. H. Howorth History of the Mongols, Vol II, p.172
Amyntas II of Macedon

Amyntas II (Greek: Ἀμύντας Βʹ) or Amyntas the Little, was the king of Macedonia for a short time, circa 393 BC. Thucydides describes him as a son of Philip, the brother of king Perdiccas II. He first succeeded his father in his appanage in Upper Macedonia, but Perdiccas II wished to deprive Amyntas of the appanage, as he had before endeavoured to wrest it from Philip. This project had however been hindered by the Athenians.

In 429 BC Amyntas, aided by Sitalces, king of the Odrysian Kingdom, actively sought to contest with Perdiccas the throne of Macedonia itself; but the latter contrived to obtain a peace agreement through the mediation of Seuthes, the nephew of the Thracian king. Therefore, Amyntas was obliged to content himself with his hereditary principality.

He nonetheless became king c.393 after the death of Aeropus II, but he was soon after assassinated by a Elimieotan nobleman named [[:de:Derdas II. von Elimiotis%7CDerdas|Derdas]]. He was succeeded by Pausanias, his nephew.

Battle of Demotika

In the Byzantine civil war which began in 1352, John Palaiologos obtained the help of Serbia, while John Kantakouzenos sought help from Orhan I, the Ottoman bey. Kantakouzenos marched into Thrace to rescue his son, Matthew, who was attacked by Palaiologos shortly after being given this appanage and then refusing to recognize John Palaiologos as heir to the throne.The Ottoman troops retook some cities that had surrendered to John Palaiologos, and Kantakouzenos allowed the troops to plunder the cities, including Adrianople, thus it seemed that Kantakouzenos was defeating John Palaiologos, who now retreated to Serbia. Emperor Stefan Dušan sent Palaiologos a cavalry force of 4,000 or 6,000 under the command of Gradislav Borilović while Orhan I provided Kantakouzenos 10,000 horsemen. The two armies met at an open-field battle near Demotika (modern Didymoteicho) in October 1352, which would decide the fate of the Byzantine Empire, without the direct involvement of the Byzantines. The more numerous Ottomans defeated the Serbs, and Kantakouzenos retained the power, while Palaiologos fled to Venetian Tenedos. According to Kantakouzenos about 7,000 Serbs fell at the battle (deemed exaggerated), while Nikephoros Gregoras (1295–1360) gave the number as 4,000. The battle was the first major battle of the Ottomans on European soil, and it made Stefan Dušan realize the major threat of the Ottomans to Eastern Europe.

County of La Marche

The County of La Marche (Occitan: la Marcha) was a medieval French county, approximately corresponding to the modern département of Creuse.

La Marche first appeared as a separate fief about the middle of the 10th century, when William III, Duke of Aquitaine, gave it to one of his vassals named Boso, who took the title of count. In the 12th century, the countship passed to the family of Lusignan. They also were sometimes counts of Angoulême and counts of Limousin.

With the death of the childless Count Guy in 1308, his possessions in La Marche were seized by Philip IV of France. In 1316 the king made La Marche an appanage for his youngest son the Prince, afterwards Charles IV. Several years later in 1327, La Marche passed into the hands of the House of Bourbon. The family of Armagnac held it from 1435 to 1477, when it reverted to the Bourbons.

In 1527 La Marche was seized by Francis I and became part of the domains of the French crown. It was divided into Haute Marche and Basse Marche, the estates of the former continuing until the 17th century. From 1470 until the Revolution, the province was under the jurisdiction of the parlement of Paris.

Crown lands of France

The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term eventually came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain originally referred to the network of "castles, villages and estates, forests, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, and the rights of justice, tolls and taxes" effectively held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords.

In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the first Capetians—while being the kings of France—were among the least powerful of the great feudal lords of France in terms of territory possessed. Patiently, through the use of feudal law (and, in particular, the confiscation of fiefs from rebellious vassals), conquest, annexation, skillful marriages with heiresses of large fiefs, and even by purchase, the kings of France were able to increase the royal domain. By the time of Philip IV, the meaning of "royal domain" began to shift from a mere collection of lands and rights to a fixed territorial unit, and by the sixteenth century the "royal domain" began to coincide with the entire kingdom. However, the medieval system of appanage (a concession of a fief with its land rights by the sovereign to his younger sons, which reverts to the crown upon the extinction of the male line of the original holder) alienated large territories from the royal domain and sometimes created dangerous rivals (especially the Duchy of Burgundy from the 14th to the 15th centuries).

During the Wars of Religion, the alienation of lands and fiefs from the royal domain was frequently criticized. The Edict of Moulins (1566) declared that the royal domain (defined in the second article as all the land controlled by the crown for more than ten years) could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land; and to form an appanage, which must return to the crown in its original state on the extinction of the male line.

Traditionally, the king was expected to survive from the revenues generated from the royal domain, but fiscal necessity, especially in times of war, led the kings to enact "exceptional" taxes, like the taille, upon the whole of the kingdom (the taille became permanent in 1439).

Demetrios Palaiologos

Demetrios Palaiologos or Demetrius Palaeologus (Greek: Δημήτριος Παλαιολόγος, translit. Dēmētrios Palaiologos; ca. 1407–1470) was a Byzantine prince and Despot. He ruled over Mesembria and Lemnos, before becoming Despot in the Morea in 1449. He remained co-ruler of the Morea along with his brother Thomas Palaiologos until he surrendered Mistras to the Ottomans in 1460. He was given lands in Thrace as an appanage by Sultan Mehmed II, which he ruled until his disgrace in 1467. Shortly after he was allowed to retire to Adrianople with his wife. He became a monk with the monastic name David after the death of his daughter Helena Palaiologina in 1469, and died in 1470.

Duchy of Aragvi

The Duchy of Aragvi (Georgian: არაგვის საერისთავო) was an important fiefdom in medieval and early modern Georgia, strategically located in the upper Aragvi valley, in the foothills of the eastern Greater Caucasus crest, and ruled by a succession of eristavi ("dukes") from c. 1380 until being transferred to the royal crown in 1747.

Forez

Forez is a former province of France, corresponding approximately to the central part of the modern Loire département and a part of the Haute-Loire and Puy-de-Dôme départements.

The final "z" in Forez (French pronunciation: ​[fɔʁɛ]) is not pronounced in the Loire département; however, it is pronounced in the western part of the former province, essentially when referring to the correspondent Forez Mountains (on the border between Puy-de-Dôme and Loire. The name is derived from the city of Feurs. Franco-Provençal is the language that was historically spoken in the region.

The city of Montbrison, Loire is considered the historical capital of the Forez.

Residents of the Forez are called Foréziens.

The rue du Forez in the third arrondissement of Paris was built in the late 16th century and appears on Turgot's map of Paris.

Genevois (province)

The Genevois is a former province of the Duchy of Savoy. Its capital is Annecy and other centres include Faverges, Thônes, and La Clusaz. It was bordered by the provinces of Carouge to the north-west, Faucigny to the north-east, and Savoy proper to the south-east and south-west.

Although the province took its name from the city of Geneva, the Counts of Geneva were never able to exercise their authority in the city itself, which was ruled by the Bishops of Geneva. The County of Geneva, having passed to the de Thoire et Villars family on the death of Count Robert (the Avignon Pope Clement VII) in 1394, was sold in 1400 to the Counts of Savoy. It was subsequently conceded in appanage to several Savoyard princes before being joined to the Duchy of Savoy in 1659.

Hilakku

Hilakku was one of the Neo-Hittite states during the Iron Age in southern Anatolia during the 1st millennium BC.Hilakku was north of the Neo-Hittite state of Tabal, west of Que, and north of the Mediterranean sea. It covered the land of Cilicia Tracheia, (Latin Aspera) of the Classical age, otherwise known as 'Rough Cilicia'. It was also within the south-eastern frontiers of the Hittite appanage domain of Tarhuntassa.

House of Artois

The House of Artois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, descended from Louis VIII the Lion, King of France, through his younger son, Robert (1216 † 1250). Robert received the County of Artois as appanage in his father's will.

In 1297, Robert II, Count of Artois, was one of three Capetian princes to be added to the peerage of France. On his death in 1302, the county was claimed by his daughter Mahaut and his paternal grandson Robert III. The Parlement of Paris ruled in favor of Mahaut, and Robert III was given the lordship of Beaumont-le-Roger as compensation.

Robert later lost his lands by producing false documents in support of his claims in the Artois suit. The county of Artois was inherited by Mahaut's descendants, who married into the House of Burgundy, another branch of the Capetian dynasty.

The sons of Robert III received French titles and fought in the Hundred Years War against the English. The House of Artois became extinct in the male line in 1472.

House of the Infantado

The House of the Infantado (Portuguese: Casa do Infantado) was an appanage for the second eldest son of the Portuguese monarch.

Mongol invasion of Thrace

The Mongol invasion of Thrace took place in the winter of 1264/1265, under the leadership of Nogai Khan.

The Seljuk Sultan Kayqubad II appealed to Berke, khan of the Golden Horde to attack the Byzantine Empire in order to free his brother Kaykaus II.

With the assistance of the Second Bulgarian Empire (then vassal of the Golden Horde), around 2 tumens under the leardership of Nogai Khan crossed the Danube river and invaded Byzantine Thrace. Nogai defeated the armies of the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in the spring of 1265. While most of the defeated army fled, the Byzantine Emperor likewise escaped with the assistance of Italian merchants. After that Thrace was plundered by Nogai's army.

Michael VIII was forced to release Kaykaus, and signed a treaty with Berke, in which he agreed to give one of his daughters, Euphrosyne Palaiogina, in marriage to Nogai. Berke ceded Crimea to Kaykus as appanage and agreed that he would marry a Mongol woman. Michael also sent tribute to the Horde.

Prince of Piedmont

The lordship, later principality of Piedmont (French: Piémont, Italian: Piemonte) was originally an appanage of the Savoyard county and as such its lords were members of the Achaea branch of the House of Savoy. The title was inherited by the elder branch of the dynasty in 1418, at about which time Savoy was elevated to ducal status and Piedmont to princely status. When the House of Savoy was given the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Savoyards used the style of Prince of Piedmont for their heir apparent. This first came into use by Prince Victor Amadeus of Savoy.

The usage was retained when the House of Savoy became Kings of Italy, "Prince of Piedmont" becoming roughly equivalent to the British "Prince of Wales", the title bestowed to the Crown Prince.

Principality of Drutsk

The Duchy of Drutsk (Belarusian: Княства Друцкае) was a small appanage principality of the Polotsk principality and was centred in Drutsk. It was located on a three way stick between Vitebsk, Minsk and Mogilev regions in modern Belarus.

The appanage duchy of Drutsk was established after the death of Vseslav, the Prince of Polotsk, in 1101 and the division of the Polatsk territory between Vseslav's sons. Drutsk was given to Rogvolod-Boris. Soonits territory was taken over by another appanage duchy of Polotsk, Duchy of Minsk governed by Gleb Vseslavich. In 1116, the duchy of Drutsk was taken over by the Grand Duchy of Kiev governed by Volodymyr Monomakh, but by 1150s it was returned to Duchy of Minsk. Eventually Drutsk was entirely taken over by the Principality of Minsk in the second half of the 13th century and in early 14th century by another appanage duchy of Polotsk, Principality of Vitebsk.

It is believed that Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, acquired the Duchy by marriage to Maria of Vitebsk. The Duchy became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania where it existed as an autonomous principality until an administrative reform in 1565–1566, when it was included into the Orsha county of Vitebsk Voivodeship.

Principality of Terebovlia

Principality of Terebovlia (Ukrainian: Теребовлянське князівство) was a Kievan Rus principality established as an appanage principality ca 1084 and was given to Vasylko Rostyslavych (his brothers, Volodar Rostislavich and Rurik Rostislavich, ruled Peremyshl (Przemyśl) and Zvenyhorod respectively).

Stefan Dragutin

Stefan Dragutin (Serbian: Стефан Драгутин, Hungarian: Dragutin István; c. 1244 – 12 March 1316) was King of Serbia from 1276 to 1282. From 1282, he ruled a separate kingdom which included northern Serbia, and (from 1284) the neighboring Hungarian banates (or border provinces), for which he was unofficially styled as "King of Syrmia". He was the eldest son of King Stefan Uroš I of Serbia and Helen of Anjou. He received the title of "young king" in token of his right to succeed his father after a peace treaty between Uroš I and Béla IV of Hungary who was the grandfather of Dragutin's wife, Catherine, in 1268. He rebelled against his father and forced him to abdicate with Hungarian assistance in 1282.

Dragutin abandoned Uroš I's centralizing policy and ceded large territories to his mother in appanage. After a riding accident, he abdicated in favor of his brother, Milutin in 1282, but he retained the northern regions of Serbia along the Hungarian border. Two years later, his brother-in-law, Ladislaus IV of Hungary, granted him three banates—Mačva (or Sirmia ulterior), Usora and Soli—to him. He was the first Serbian monarch to rule Belgrade. With his brother's support, he also occupied the Banate of Braničevo in 1284 or 1285.

Dragutin was in theory a vassal both to his brother (for his Serbian territories), and to the Hungarian monarchs (for the four banates), but he actually ruled his realm as an independent ruler from the 1290s. His conflicts with Milutin developed into an open war in 1301 and he made frequent raids against the neighboring Hungarian lords from 1307. Most of the Serbian noblemen supported Dragutin, but he was forced to make peace with Milutin after Milutin's mercenaries routed him in 1311 or 1312. Before his death, he entered into a monastery and died as the monk Teokist. In the list of Serbian saints, Dragutin is venerated on 12 November or 30 October (Old Style and New Style dates).

Stracimir Zavidović

Stracimir Zavidović (Serbian Cyrillic: Страцимир Завидовић) was a 12th-century Serbian prince (Župan) of West Morava, an administrative division (appanage) of the Grand Principality of Serbia, from 1163–1166.

He was a son of Zavida, a prince of the house of Vukanović that briefly held the appanage of Zahumlje.Stracimir was given the oblasts of West Morava to rule as a Župan (prince, the second highest title) following Byzantium's division of the Serb lands by Manuel I. His brothers were given česti (parts): Miroslav ruled Zahumlje and Travunia, Stefan Nemanja was given Toplica, Ibar, Rasina, and Reke, while the first-born, Tihomir, was given supreme rule of the principality.

He built the fortress of Morava Gradac (Moravski Gradac, Моравски Градац), Monastery of Our Lady, in Čačak, where he was seated.

In 1166 Stefan Nemanja overthrew Tihomir in a coup and had him and his brothers, Stracimir and Miroslav, expelled to Byzantium in 1167/1168. Stefan Nemanja defeated Tihomir and his Byzantine army. Tihomir drowned in a river and the other brothers were stripped of their titles, with Nemanja becoming ruler of All Serbia. He pardoned his brothers and Stracimir continued to rule his lands. When Stefan Nemanja besieged and retook control of Duklja in the 1180s, Stracimir and Miroslav attacked the forces of Doclean ruler and kinsman Mihailo.

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