App Inventor for Android

App Inventor for Android is an open-source web application originally provided by Google, and now maintained by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

It allows newcomers to computer programming to create software applications for the Android operating system (OS). It uses a graphical interface, very similar to Scratch and the StarLogo TNG user interface, which allows users to drag-and-drop visual objects to create an application that can run on Android devices. In creating App Inventor, Google drew upon significant prior research in educational computing, as well as work done within Google on online development environments.[1]

App Inventor and the projects on which it is based are informed by constructionist learning theories, which emphasizes that programming can be a vehicle for engaging powerful ideas through active learning. As such, it is part of an ongoing movement in computers and education that began with the work of Seymour Papert and the MIT Logo Group in the 1960s and has also manifested itself with Mitchel Resnick's work on Lego Mindstorms and StarLogo.[1][2]

App Inventor also supports the use of cloud data via an experimental FirebaseDB component.[3][4]

App Inventor for Android
Mit app inventor
Google App Inventor
Google App Inventor
Original author(s)Google, Inc.
Developer(s)MIT Media Lab, MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab
Written inJava, Kawa, Scheme
Operating systemAndroid
Available inEnglish, Spanish, French, Italian, Korean, Dutch, Portuguese, Brazilian Portuguese, Russian, Swedish, Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese
TypeApplication software development
LicenseMIT License


The application was made available through request on July 12, 2010, and released publicly on December 15, 2010. The App Inventor team was led by Hal Abelson[1] and Mark Friedman.[5] In the second half of 2011, Google released the source code, terminated its server, and provided funding for the creation of The MIT Center for Mobile Learning, led by App Inventor creator Hal Abelson and fellow MIT professors Eric Klopfer and Mitchel Resnick.[6] The MIT version was launched in March 2012.[7]

On December 6, 2013 (the start of the Hour of Code),[7] MIT released App Inventor 2, renaming the original version "App Inventor Classic"[8] Major differences are:

  • The blocks editor in the original version ran in a separate Java process, using the Open Blocks Java library for creating visual blocks programming languages and programming
App Inventor Block Editor
App Inventor Classic Blocks Editor

Open Blocks is distributed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Scheller Teacher Education Program (STEP) and is derived from master's thesis research by Ricarose Roque. Professor Eric Klopfer and Daniel Wendel of the Scheller Program supported the distribution of Open Blocks under an MIT License.[2] Open Blocks visual programming is closely related to StarLogo TNG, a project of STEP, and Scratch, a project of the MIT Media Lab's Lifelong Kindergarten Group. App Inventor 2[8] replaced Open Blocks with Blockly, a blocks editor that runs within the browser.

As of May 2014, there were 87,000 weekly active users of the service and 1.9 million registered users in 195 countries for a total of 4.7 million apps built.

As December 2015, there were 140,000 weekly active users and 4 million registered users in 195 countries, run total of 12 million built applications.

See also


{{Reflist} Thunkable App

External links

  1. ^ a b c Hardesty, Larry (August 19, 2010). "The MIT roots of Google's new software". MIT News Office.
  2. ^ a b "On the Shoulders of Giants!". Google. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  3. ^ "The FirebaseDB Component (Experimental)". Retrieved 2019-02-14.
  4. ^ "Brief introduction to cloud data and the FirebaseDB component". Google Docs. Retrieved 2019-02-14.
  5. ^ Wolber, David; Abelson, Hal; Spertus, Ellen; Looney, Liz (May 2011), App Inventor for Android: Create Your Own Android Apps, O'Reilly, ISBN 978-1-4493-9748-7
  6. ^ "App Inventor @ MIT".
  7. ^ a b Clark, Andrew (December 30, 2013), App Inventor launches second iteration
  8. ^ a b App Inventor Classic, December 3, 2013
AP Computer Science Principles

Advanced Placement Computer Science Principles (also called AP CSP or AP CS Principles) is an AP Computer Science course and examination offered by the College Board to high school students as an opportunity to earn college credit for a college-level computer science course. AP Computer Science Principles is meant to be the equivalent of a first-semester course in computer science. Assessment for AP Computer Science Principles is divided into two parts, both an end of course exam as well as the creation of artifacts throughout the course.The AP Computer Science Principles Exam was administered for the first time on May 5, 2017.

Android software development

Android software development is the process by which new applications are created for devices running the Android operating system. Google states that "Android apps can be written using Kotlin, Java, and C++ languages" using the Android software development kit (SDK), while using other languages is also possible. All non-JVM languages, such as Go, JavaScript, C, C++ or assembly, need the help of JVM language code, that may be supplied by tools, likely with restricted API support. Some languages/programming tools allow cross-platform app support, i.e. for both Android and iOS. Third party tools, development environments and language support have also continued to evolve and expand since the initial SDK was released in 2008. In addition, with major business entities like Walmart, Amazon, Bank of America etc. eyeing to engage and sell through mobiles, mobile application development is witnessing a transformation.

AppMakr is a do-it-yourself platform to create content-based native mobile apps for iPhone and Android, as well as HTML5 Mobile Websites. The process requires no coding knowledge and builds apps with a WYSIWYG editor. It is free to use the site.

Ellen Spertus

Ellen Spertus is a Professor of Computer Science at Mills College, Oakland, California, United States, and a former senior research scientist at Google.Spertus grew up in Glencoe, Illinois, where she attended New Trier High School. At MIT she received a B.S. in Computer Science and Engineering (1990), a master's degree in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (1992), and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (1998). She spent several summers between terms working for Microsoft.Spertus has written articles treating both technical and social subjects, often combining the two. In 1993, she was profiled in The New York Times as one of the "women who might change the face of the computer industry" and in a follow-up article in 2003. In 2001 she was named "The Sexiest Geek Alive".While at Google, Spertus spent her time at Google working on App Inventor for Android, a block based development platform with a graphical user interface that lets developers and amateurs alike create applications for Android. In May 2011, O'Reilly Media published App Inventor, which Spertus co-authored with David Wolber, Hal Abelson, and Liz Looney.Spertus was a lessee of one of the approximately 1,000 General Motors EV1s. She is married to computer scientist Keith Golden.In 2014, she went on Sabbatical from Mills to work with Google for the development of Blockly.

Eric Klopfer

Eric Klopfer (born October 8, 1970) is a professor and Director of the Scheller Teacher Education Program and the Education Arcade at MIT. Klopfer's research explores how educational technology, games, and computer simulations can be tools for teaching complex systems and developing cognitive and computational thinking skills. Klopfer and his research group developed StarLogo and App Inventor for Android and other Visual programming language platforms that build on the work of Seymour Papert and the Constructionism (learning theory) in education. He is also the principal investigator in the research and development of award-winning games designed for building understanding in science and math - connecting game play with scientific practice, problem-solving, and real world issues.In 2014, Klopfer produced a series of four online courses on the edX learning platform, delivering videos, tools, and assignments for participants to create, implement, and evaluate projects in educational technology. Klopfer is co-founder and past president of the non-profit Learning Games Network, and the co-author of the books, Adventures in Modeling and The More We Know, and author of Augmented Learning.He is a triathlete, husband of Rachel Klopfer, and father of two children.

Graphical user interface builder

A graphical user interface builder (or GUI builder), also known as GUI designer, is a software development tool that simplifies the creation of GUIs by allowing the designer to arrange graphical control elements (often called widgets) using a drag-and-drop WYSIWYG editor. Without a GUI builder, a GUI must be built by manually specifying each widget's parameters in source-code, with no visual feedback until the program is run.

User interfaces are commonly programmed using an event-driven architecture, so GUI builders also simplify creating event-driven code. This supporting code connects widgets with the outgoing and incoming events that trigger the functions providing the application logic.

Some graphical user interface builders, such as e.g. Glade Interface Designer, automatically generate all the source code for a graphical control element. Others, like Interface Builder, generate serialized object instances that are then loaded by the application.

Hal Abelson

Harold "Hal" Abelson (born April 26, 1947) is a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, a fellow of the IEEE, and a founding director of both Creative Commons and the Free Software Foundation.

He directed the first implementation of Logo for the Apple II, which made the language widely available on personal computers beginning in 1981; and published a widely selling book on Logo in 1982. Together with Gerald Jay Sussman, Abelson developed MIT's introductory computer science subject, The Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs (aka 6.001), a subject organized around the notion that a computer language is primarily a formal medium for expressing ideas about methodology, rather than just a way to get a computer to perform operations. Abelson and Sussman also cooperate in codirecting the MIT Project on Mathematics and Computation. The MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) project was spearheaded by Hal Abelson and other MIT faculty.

Abelson led an internal investigation of the school's choices and role in the prosecution of Aaron Swartz by the FBI, which concluded that MIT did nothing legally wrong, but recommended that MIT consider changing some of its internal policies.

Mobile app development

Mobile app development is the act or process by which a mobile app is developed for mobile devices, such as personal digital assistants, enterprise digital assistants or mobile phones. These applications can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing platforms, or delivered as web applications using server-side or client-side processing (e.g., JavaScript) to provide an "application-like" experience within a Web browser. Application software developers also must consider a long array of screen sizes, hardware specifications, and configurations because of intense competition in mobile software and changes within each of the platforms. Mobile app development has been steadily growing, in revenues and jobs created. A 2013 analyst report estimates there are 529,000 direct app economy jobs within the EU 28 members, 60% of which are mobile app developers.As part of the development process, mobile user interface (UI) design is also essential in the creation of mobile apps. Mobile UI considers constraints, contexts, screen, input, and mobility as outlines for design. The user is often the focus of interaction with their device, and the interface entails components of both hardware and software. User input allows for the users to manipulate a system, and device's output allows the system to indicate the effects of the users' manipulation. Mobile UI design constraints include limited attention and form factors, such as a mobile device's screen size for a user's hand(s). Mobile UI contexts signal cues from user activity, such as location and scheduling that can be shown from user interactions within a mobile app. Overall, mobile UI design's goal is mainly for an understandable, user-friendly interface. The UI of mobile apps should: consider users' limited attention, minimize keystrokes, and be task-oriented with a minimum set of functions. This functionality is supported by mobile enterprise application platforms or integrated development environments (IDEs).

Mobile UIs, or front-ends, rely on mobile back-ends to support access to enterprise systems. The mobile back-end facilitates data routing, security, authentication, authorization, working off-line, and service orchestration. This functionality is supported by a mix of middleware components including mobile app server, mobile backend as a service (MBaaS), and service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure.

Scheme (programming language)

Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional and imperative programming. It is one of the three main dialects of Lisp, alongside Common Lisp and Clojure. Unlike Common Lisp, Scheme follows a minimalist design philosophy, specifying a small standard core with powerful tools for language extension.

Scheme was created during the 1970s at the MIT AI Lab and released by its developers, Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman, via a series of memos now known as the Lambda Papers. It was the first dialect of Lisp to choose lexical scope and the first to require implementations to perform tail-call optimization, giving stronger support for functional programming and associated techniques such as recursive algorithms. It was also one of the first programming languages to support first-class continuations. It had a significant influence on the effort that led to the development of Common Lisp.The Scheme language is standardized in the official IEEE standard and a de facto standard called the Revisedn Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme (RnRS). The most widely implemented standard is R5RS (1998); a new standard, R6RS, was ratified in 2007. Scheme has a diverse user base due to its compactness and elegance, but its minimalist philosophy has also caused wide divergence between practical implementations, so much that the Scheme Steering Committee calls it "the world's most unportable programming language" and "a family of dialects" rather than a single language.

Subgoal labeling

Subgoal labeling is giving a name to a group of steps, in a step-by-step description of a process, to explain how the group of steps achieve a related subgoal. This concept is used in the fields of cognitive science and educational psychology.

Lower-level steps of a worked example are grouped into a meaningful unit and labeled. This labeling helps learners identify the structural information from incidental information. Learning subgoals can reduce cognitive load when problem solving because the learner has fewer possible problem-solving steps to focus. Subgoal-labeled worked examples might provide learners with mental model frameworks. In a recent study, Learners who were given labels for subgoals used those labels when explaining how they solved a problem, suggesting that's how they mentally organized the information.


ASU VIPLE is a Visual IoT/Robotics Programming Language Environment developed at Arizona State University.ASU VIPLE is an educational platform designed with a focus on computational thinking, namely on learning how algorithms work without focusing on syntactic complexities. To this end, VIPLE is designed to facilitate the programming of applications that make use of robotics and other IoT devices.

Visual programming language

In computing, a visual programming language (VPL) is any programming language that lets users create programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually. A VPL allows programming with visual expressions, spatial arrangements of text and graphic symbols, used either as elements of syntax or secondary notation. For example, many VPLs (known as dataflow or diagrammatic programming) are based on the idea of "boxes and arrows", where boxes or other screen objects are treated as entities, connected by arrows, lines or arcs which represent relations.

Windows App Studio

Windows App Studio, formerly Windows Phone App Studio is a discontinued web app provided by Microsoft for Windows app development. It allows users to create apps that can be installed or published to the Windows Store

, and in addition provides the full source code in the form of a Visual Studio solution. The tool is used to develop Universal Windows Platform apps.It allows newcomers to computer programming to create software applications for the Windows and Windows Phone operating system (OS). It uses a graphical interface, allowing users to create an application that can run on Windows Phone and Windows devices with little experience, and concentrates primarily on apps for websites and content streams. It also allows users to download the source code of the applications for further edits in Visual Studio. Some of its features includes a Logo and Image Wizard, customizable theme templates, and can collect content from sites such as YouTube, Flickr and Facebook. The service works only for those with a Microsoft account and is completely free of charge.On 27 May 2015 Microsoft added support for Windows 10 applications and included new features such as live tile updatability, Xbox Music Data Sourcing, Bing Maps, and analytics for applications concerning how often an application gets open, crashes, and is used by users who have installed it. In March 2016 Microsoft released the Windows App Studio Installer for Windows 10 and Windows 10 Mobile devices which allows developers to install and test applications developed in the Windows App Studio, and generate and scan QR Codes associated with the download link of their application programmes.In June 2017, Microsoft announced that they would be shutting down the service on 1 December. However,Windows Template Studio is available as a Visual Basic extension to create apps. The source code of the project is provided at GitHub.


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