Apollos

Apollos (Greek: Ἀπολλώς) was a 1st-century Alexandrian Jewish Christian mentioned several times in the New Testament. A contemporary and colleague of Paul the Apostle, he played an important role in the early development of the churches of Ephesus and Corinth.

Saint Apollos
Епафродит, Сосфен, Аполлос, Кифа и Кесарь
Epaphroditus, Sosthenes, Apollos, Cephas and Caesar
Born1st century
Alexandria, Egypt
Died1st century
Venerated inAnglican Communion
Coptic Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodox Churches
Roman Catholic Church

Biblical account

Acts of the Apostles

Apollos is first mentioned as a Christian preacher who had come to Ephesus (probably in AD 52 or 53), where he is described as "being fervent in spirit: he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, though he knew only the baptism of John".[1] Priscilla and Aquila, a Jewish Christian couple who had come to Ephesus with the Apostle Paul, instructed Apollos:

"When Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him the way of God more adequately."[2]

The differences between the two understandings probably related to the Christian baptism, since Apollos "knew only the baptism of John". Later, during Apollos' absence, the writer of the Acts of the Apostles recounts an encounter between Paul and some disciples at Ephesus:

And he said to them, "Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?" And they said, "No, we have not even heard that there is a Holy Spirit." And he said, "Into what then were you baptized?" They said, "Into John's baptism." And Paul said, "John baptized with the baptism of repentance, telling the people to believe in the one who was to come after him, that is, Jesus." 5 On hearing this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul had laid his hands on them, the Holy Spirit came on them, and they began speaking in tongues and prophesying.[3]

Before Paul's arrival, Apollos had moved from Ephesus to Achaia[4] [5] and was living in Corinth, the provincial capital of Achaia.[6] Acts reports that Apollos arrived in Achaia with a letter of recommendation from the Ephesian Christians and "greatly helped those who through grace had believed, for he powerfully refuted the Jews in public, showing by the Scriptures that the Christ was Jesus.[7]

1 Corinthians

Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians (AD 55) mentions Apollos as an important figure at Corinth. Paul describes Apollos' role at Corinth:

I planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the growth.[8]

Paul's Epistle refers to a schism between four parties in the Corinthian church, of which two attached themselves to Paul and Apollos respectively, using their names[9] (the third and fourth were Peter, identified as Cephas, and Jesus Christ himself).[10] It is possible, though, that, as Msgr. Ronald Knox suggests, the parties were actually two, one claiming to follow Paul, the other claiming to follow Apollos. "It is surely probable that the adherents of St. Paul [...] alleged in defence of his orthodoxy the fact that he was in full agreement with, and in some sense commissioned by, the Apostolic College. Hence 'I am for Cephas'. [...] What reply was the faction of Apollos to make? It devised an expedient which has been imitated by sectaries more than once in later times; appealed behind the Apostolic College itself to him from whom the Apostolic College derived its dignity; 'I am for Christ'."[11] Paul states that the schism arose because of the Corinthians' immaturity in faith.[12]

Apollos was a devout Jew born in Alexandria. Pope Benedict XVI says that the name "Apollos" was probably short for Apollonius or Apollodorus.[13] Apollos' origin in Alexandria has led to speculations that he would have preached in the allegorical style of Philo. Theologian Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, for example, commented: "It is difficult to imagine that an Alexandrian Jew ... could have escaped the influence of Philo, the great intellectual leader ... particularly since the latter seems to have been especially concerned with education and preaching."[14] Pope Benedict suggest there were those in Corinth "...fascinated by his way of speaking...."[13]

There is no indication that Apollos favored or approved an overestimation of his person. Paul urged him to go to Corinth at the time, but Apollos refused, stating that he would come later when he had an opportunity.[15]

Epistle to Titus

Apollos is mentioned one more time in the New Testament. In the Epistle to Titus, the recipient is exhorted to "speed Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their way".[16]

Extrabiblical information

Jerome states that Apollos was so dissatisfied with the division at Corinth that he retired to Crete with Zenas; and that once the schism had been healed by Paul's letters to the Corinthians, Apollos returned to the city and became one of its elders.[17] Less probable traditions assign to him the bishopric of Duras, or of Iconium in Phrygia, or of Caesarea.[9]

Significance

Martin Luther and some modern scholars have proposed Apollos as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, rather than Paul or Barnabas.[9] Both Apollos and Barnabas were Jewish Christians with sufficient intellectual authority.[18] The Pulpit Commentary treats Apollos' authorship of Hebrews as "generally believed".[19] Other than this, there are no known surviving texts attributed to Apollos.

Apollos is regarded as a saint by several Christian churches, including the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, which hold a commemoration for him, together with saints Aquila and Priscilla, on 13 February.

Notes

  1. ^ Acts 18:24-25
  2. ^ [Acts 18:26]
  3. ^ Acts 19:2-6
  4. ^ [Acts 18:27]
  5. ^ So the Alexandrian recension; the text in 38 and Codex Bezae indicate that Apollos went to Corinth. Joseph Fitzmyer, The Acts of the Apostles (New York: Doubleday, 1998), p. 639.
  6. ^ [Acts 19:1]
  7. ^ Acts 18:27-28
  8. ^ 1 Cor 3:6
  9. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Apollos" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 189.
  10. ^ [1 Cor 1:10-13]
  11. ^ Knox, R. Enthusiasm, p. 13.
  12. ^ 1 Cor 3:1-4
  13. ^ a b Pope Benedict XVI. "Barnabas, Silas, and Apollos", L'Osservatore Romano, February 7, 2007, p. 11
  14. ^ J Murphy-O'Connor. Paul: A critical life. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996, p. 275
  15. ^ [1 Cor 16:12]
  16. ^ [Titus 3:13]
  17. ^ Jerome, Commentary on the Epistle to Titus 3:13
  18. ^ The NIV study bible, new international version; English (UK) edition; London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1987; p.1817.
  19. ^ Pulpit Commentary on I Corinthians 3, accessed 19 March 2017

References

2019 AAF season

The 2019 AAF season was the first and only season in the history of the Alliance of American Football (AAF), which began on February 9, 2019. A ten-week regular season was scheduled for each of the league's eight teams.

On April 2, multiple sources indicated that Thomas Dundon, controlling owner of the AAF, had followed through on threats made in the previous week and suspended the AAF's operations, against the will of its founders. By the end of the week, the AAF front office had confirmed the suspension of operations and allowed players to opt-out of their contracts to sign with other leagues. The league filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy on April 17, 2019.

At the time the season ended, each team had played eight games, and the Orlando Apollos, with a league best 7–1 record two games ahead of its nearest competitors, had clinched no less than a share of the regular season's best record, regardless of how the rest of the schedule would have played out. A four-team playoff was scheduled to start on April 21, with a championship game on April 27. Initially scheduled for Sam Boyd Stadium on the outskirts of Las Vegas, Nevada, the title game was moved to the Ford Center at the Star in Frisco, Texas, before the league ceased operations.

Atlanta Chiefs

The Atlanta Chiefs was a soccer team based in Atlanta, Georgia that played in the NPSL and NASL from 1967 to 1972. Their home fields were Atlanta Stadium (1967–1969, 1971–1972) and Tara Stadium (1970). The club was the brainchild of Dick Cecil, then Vice President of the Atlanta Braves baseball franchise who was the Chiefs' owners. Cecil was intrigued with the 1966 World Cup in England and decided that a professional soccer team would add valuable events for Atlanta Stadium. He proceeded to travel through Europe and Africa signing players including Phil Woosnam, Vic Crowe and Peter McParland of Aston Villa as well as Kaizer Motaung who went on to found Kaizer Chiefs FC, who now play in the South African Premier Soccer League. The Kaizer Chiefs name and logo were inspired by those of the Atlanta club.

Brian Tyms

Brian Edward Tyms (born February 21, 1989) is an American football wide receiver who is a free agent. He played college football at Florida A&M. He signed with the San Francisco 49ers as undrafted free agent in 2012. He has also been a member of the Miami Dolphins, Cleveland Browns, New England Patriots, and Indianapolis Colts, as well as a pair of teams in the Canadian Football League.

Castlegar Apollos

The Castlegar Apollos were a junior 'B' ice hockey team based in Castlegar, British Columbia, Canada. They were members of the Western Division of the Kootenay Hockey League (KHL) from 1967 to 1970 and members of the Western Division of the West Kootenay Hockey League (WKHL) in 1970 (now known as the Kootenay International Junior Hockey League (KIJHL)).

The Apollos joined the league in 1967 as an expansion team and folded in 1970.

Donnie Abraham

Nathaniel Donnell Abraham (born October 8, 1973) is an American football coach and former cornerback who was recently the defensive backs coach for the Orlando Apollos of the Alliance of American Football (AAF). In his career, he played for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers (1996–2001) and the New York Jets (2002–2004).

Garrett Gilbert

Garrett Antone Gilbert (born July 1, 1991) is an American football quarterback for the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League (NFL). Regarded as one of the best high school quarterbacks of his class, he played college football at Texas and SMU and was selected by the St. Louis Rams in the sixth round of the 2014 NFL Draft. He is the son of former NFL quarterback Gale Gilbert.

Gilbert initially saw little playing time as a professional and was primarily assigned to the offseason and practice squads of his teams during his first five seasons in the NFL. He came to prominence as the starting quarterback of the Orlando Apollos of the Alliance of American Football (AAF) in 2019 where he led the league in yards and passer rating and helped his team obtain a league-best 7-1 record and playoff berth. After the AAF suspended operations before the scheduled conclusion of the season, Gilbert signed with the Browns.

Houston Apollos

The Houston Apollos were a minor professional ice hockey team based in Houston, Texas. They played in the Central Hockey League from 1965 to 1969, and then from 1979 to 1981.

From 1965 to 1969 they were a farm team of the NHL's Montreal Canadiens. The Canadiens pulled out and moved the team back to Montreal where they became the Montreal Voyageurs of the American Hockey League. Aside from cutting back on travel costs, the Canadiens cited low attendance, poor choice of dates in the local arena, and lack of practice time.

The team was revived in 1979, after the Houston Aeros of the World Hockey Association folded. The team only lasted one and a half seasons before folding on January 8, 1981.

The team played in the Sam Houston Coliseum.

Jim Jeffcoat

James Wilson Jeffcoat, Jr. (born April 1, 1961) is a former American football defensive end in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys and Buffalo Bills. He was recently an assistant football coach for the Orlando Apollos of the Alliance of American Football and has now been hired as an assistant coach for the Dallas XFL team of the XFL. He played college football at Arizona State University.

Keith Reaser

Keith Reaser (born July 31, 1991) is an American football cornerback for the Kansas City Chiefs of the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the San Francisco 49ers in the fifth round of the 2014 NFL Draft. He played college football at Florida Atlantic.

Lito Sheppard

Lito Decorian Sheppard (born April 8, 1981) is an American football coach and former cornerback. During his playing career, he played in the National Football League (NFL) for ten seasons. He was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles in the first round of the 2002 NFL Draft after playing college football for the University of Florida. He played for the Eagles for seven seasons, and was selected to the Pro Bowl twice. He also played for the NFL's New York Jets, Minnesota Vikings, and Oakland Raiders. As a coach, he was the safeties coach for the Orlando Apollos of the Alliance of American Football (AAF) in 2019.

Marquez White

Marquez White (born October 29, 1994) is an American football cornerback who is currently a free agent. He played college football and basketball at Florida State University.

Mickey Redmond

Michael Edward "Mickey" Redmond (born December 27, 1947)[1] is a former professional hockey player. He is currently a color analyst for Detroit Red Wings games on television for Fox Sports Detroit.

Orlando Apollos

The Orlando Apollos were a professional American football team based in Orlando, Florida, and one of the charter members of the Alliance of American Football (AAF), which began play in February 2019. The team played its home games at Spectrum Stadium on the campus of the University of Central Florida. They were coached by Heisman Trophy winner and former college and National Football League (NFL) head coach Steve Spurrier. NFL front office veteran Tim Ruskell was the general manager and longtime college athletics executive Michael P. Waddell was the team president.

The team's name was inspired by the Greek god Apollo, and his and Florida's connections to the Sun, while the team's colors of orange and navy were tributes to Florida's sunshine and the Apollo program, respectively. The team's helmets depicted Apollo, who commonly pictured as an archer, shooting a bow-and-arrow.On April 2, 2019, the league's football operations were reportedly suspended, and on April 4 the league allowed players to leave their contracts to sign with NFL teams. The league filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy on April 17, 2019.

Parnassius

Parnassius is a genus of northern circumpolar and montane (alpine and Himalayan) butterflies usually known as Apollos or snow Apollos. They can vary in colour and form significantly based on their altitude. They also show an adaptation to high altitudes called altitudinal melanism. They show dark bodies and darkened colouration at the wingbase which helps them warm faster using the sun.

Although classified under the swallowtail butterfly family, none of the Parnassius species possesses tails.

The larvae feed on species of plants belonging to the Papaveraceae and Crassulaceae families, and like the other swallowtail butterfly larvae, possess an osmeterium. Unlike most butterflies that have exposed pupae, they pupate inside a loose silken cocoon.

Priscilla and Aquila

Priscilla ( Greek: Πρίσκιλλα, Priskilla) and Aquila (; Greek: Ἀκύλας, Akylas) were a first century Christian missionary married couple described in the New Testament. Aquila is traditionally listed among the Seventy Disciples. They lived, worked, and traveled with the Apostle Paul, who described them as his "fellow workers in Christ Jesus" (Romans 16:3 NASB).Priscilla and Aquila are described in the New Testament as providing a presence that strengthened the early Christian churches. Paul was generous in his recognition and acknowledgment of his indebtedness to them (Rom. 16:3-4). Together, they are credited with instructing Apollos, a major evangelist of the first century, and "[explaining] to him the way of God more accurately" (Acts 18:26).

It is thought by some to be possible, in light of her apparent prominence, that Priscilla held the office of presbyter . She also is thought by some to be the anonymous author of the Epistle to the Hebrews.

Scranton Miners

The Scranton Miners, known as the Scranton Apollos from 1970 to 1977, were a professional basketball team based in Scranton, Pennsylvania that was a member of the American Basketball League and the Eastern Basketball Association. Arthur Pachter was the owner and coach for many years.

The team was previously known as the Jersey City Atoms before moving to Scranton in 1946. They played in the ABL until 1953. After a two-year hiatus, they were resurrected in the middle of the 1954-55 season in the Eastern Professional Basketball League as a replacement for the Carbondale Celtics. For many years the team was owned by local businessman, Art Pachter, and played games at the Scranton CYC building. During its brief existence the team won two championships, led by Syracuse University alum Jim Boeheim (who later became its head coach). They were renamed the Scranton Apollos in 1970, and folded in 1977.

In June 1963, Scranton Miners owner Arthur Pachter announced the team had signed Paul Seymour to a one-year contract as head coach. The details of the contract were not disclosed, but Pachter told the Associated Press, "[it is] unquestionably the highest ever paid to a coach in the [Eastern Basketball Association]." Scranton hosted the 1969 Eastern Basketball Association (EBA) All-Star Game. The league also held the 1971 EBA All-Star Game on February 17 in Scranton at the Scranton CYC Building. On January 25, 1976, Scranton Apollos player Charlie Criss set an EBA record for points scored in a game with 72.The Scranton Miners were resurrected in 1993 by an investment group led by attorneys George Daniel and Anthony Daniel. The Miners were charter members of the Atlantic Basketball Association and again played at the Scranton CYC for 3 seasons The Miners captured the league's regular season title in 1993-94 and in 1994-95. The Miners defeated the Trenton Flames to win the 1994-95 ABA championship. The franchise was sold and moved to Connecticut following the 1995-96 season.

Sunset High School (Beaverton, Oregon)

Sunset High School is a public high school in Beaverton, Oregon, United States. The school currently offers the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. It opened in 1959 and is the second-oldest of the six high schools in the Beaverton School District. Sunset's athletic teams are known as the Apollos.

Todd Washington

Todd Washington (born July 19, 1976) is an American football coach and former offensive lineman who played eight seasons in the National Football League. Washington has been named the tight ends/tackles coach for the Washington, D.C. XFL team. Previously, he was the offensive line coach for the Orlando Apollos of the Alliance of American Football.

Tre' Jackson

Tre' Jackson (born December 14, 1992) is an American football guard for the Massachusetts Pirates of the National Arena League (NAL). He played college football at Florida State and was drafted by the New England Patriots in the fourth round of the 2015 NFL Draft.

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