Apollonia ad Rhyndacum

Apollonia or Apollonia-on-the-Rhyndacus (Ancient Greek: Ἀπολλωνία ἐπὶ Ῥυνδακῷ, Apollōnía épì Ryndakō; Latin: Apollonia ad Rhyndacum) was an ancient town near the Rhyndacus river in northwestern Anatolia. Strabo placed it in Mysia, causing some to misidentify the site as Uluabat on the western shore of Lake Uluabat. However, the site is actually the promontory tombolo on the northeastern shore, near modern Gölyazı. The remains of Apollonia are inconsiderable. The Rhyndacus flows into the lake and issues from it a deep and muddy river. The lake extends from east to west and is studded with several islands in the northeast part, on one of which is Gölyazı, but the dimensions vary greatly through the seasons.

Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, Tor der byzantinischen Burg
Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, Gate of the Byzantine castle on Saint George hill.

It is known that nine cities were built named as “Apollonia” in Anatolia within the process of ancient period . “Apollonia ad Rhyndacum” is the city built on the peninsula and islets reaching to the lake called as “Apolyont” which was named as “Artynias” or “Apolloniatis” in earlier times located on the north east of Mysia. The name of “Apollonia ad Rhyndacum” was chosen in order to differentiate from other cities in the Ancient Era with reference to the stream “Rhyndacus (Adranos)” located close to the city and stemming from Aizanoi (Çavdarhisar).

Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, byzantinische Stadtmauer 01
Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, Byzantine city wall 8th to 10th century.

It is thought that the islet known as Kız Ada was the Sacred Area of Apollo in Ancient Era. After the construction of the temple in the name of preservative God of the city, head of Apollo, kithara, plectron and Apollo Sauroctonus figure in the temple were used from Hellenistic Era to the late Roman Empire Period. Usage of crawfish figure continued its prevalence while depiction of Gorgon head gradually decreased. Different characters were used on the coins such as Demeter and Tyche due to the coming of new cults to the city in Roman Period.

Apollonia ad Rhyndacum
Apollonia ad Rhyndacum is located in Turkey
Apollonia ad Rhyndacum
Shown within Turkey
RegionBursa Province
Coordinates40°10′0″N 28°36′0″E / 40.16667°N 28.60000°ECoordinates: 40°10′0″N 28°36′0″E / 40.16667°N 28.60000°E

Greek colonization

Apollonia ad Rhyndacum is one of many ancient Greek cities that bear the name of Apollo.[1]

Inhabitants of Apollonia believed that their original colony had been founded by Miletus under the auspices of Apollo of Didyma, so Apollo was its archegetes.

The antiquity of the colony and of its name is supported by coins from as early as 450 BCE, which bear the anchor symbol of Apollo and which have been attributed by some scholars to this Apollonia.

The city experienced prosperity under the Attalids during Hellenistic times.

Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, Spolie in der byzantinischen Burgmauer
Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, Spolia in the Byzantine castle wall, 7th century.


 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Apollonia". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Aybek S. and Öz A. K. “Preliminary Report of the Archeological Survey at Apollonia Ad Rhyndacum”, Anatolia 27, 1-25, 2004. Aybek S. and Öz. A. K. “The Apollo Sanctuary of Apollonia ad Rhyndacum”, Ist International Symposium on the Oracle in Antiquity and the Cults of Apollo in Asia Minor, Ege University, Izmir, 2005. Abmeier A. “Zur Geschichte von Apollonia am Rhyndakos", E. Schwertheim (ed.), Mysische Studien. AMStud 1, 1990.


  1. ^ Shachar, Ilan. "Greek Colonization and the Eponymous Apollo." Mediterranean Historical Review (2000), 15:2, 1-26.
Greek colonisation

The Greek colonisation was an organised colonial expansion by the Archaic Greeks into the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea in the period of the 8th–6th centuries B.C (750 and 550 B.C)

This colonisation differed from the migrations of the Greek Dark Ages in that it consisted of organised direction by the originating metropolis instead of the simple movement of tribes which characterized the earlier migrations. Many colonies (Ancient Greek: ἀποικία, romanized: apoikia, lit. 'home away from home') that were founded in this period evolved into strong city-states and became independent of their metropoleis.


Gölyazı is a Turkish town founded on a small peninsula on Lake Uluabat.

Gölyazı was founded by the Ancient Greeks. but remains of the Roman period are abundant.Every year the town holds the Stork Festival and until the 20th century, Greeks and Manavlar lived together. In ancient times it was known as Apolloniatis The name Gölyazı means Fisherwoman

List of ancient Greek cities

This is a small list of ancient Greek cities, including colonies outside Greece proper. Note that there were a great many Greek cities in the ancient world. In this list, a city is defined as a single population center. These were often referred to as poleis in the ancient world, although the list is not limited to "proper" poleis. Also excluded from the list are larger units, such as kingdoms or empires.

A city is defined as ancient Greek if at any time its population or the dominant stratum within it spoke Greek. Many were soon assimilated to some other language. By analogy some cities are included that never spoke Greek and were not Hellenic per se but contributed to Hellenic culture later found in the region.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

List of archaeological sites by country

This is a list of notable archaeological sites sorted by country and territories.

For one sorted by continent and time period, see the list of archaeological sites by continent and age.

List of renamed cities, towns and regions in Turkey

The names of many populated places and geographical features in Turkey have undergone changes over the centuries, and more particularly since the establishment of the present-day nation in the early 20th century, when there were extensive campaigns to change to recognizably Turkish names. Names changed were usually of Armenian, Greek, Georgian (including Laz), Bulgarian, Kurdish, Zazaki, Syriac or Arabic origin.


Miletouteichos (Ancient Greek: Μιλητουτεῖχος) was a Greek town located near the coast of the Propontis in ancient Mysia. It is mentioned in the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia: in the year 395 BCE, the troops of Agesilaus II, king of Sparta, departing from Cius, attacked Miletouteichos, but they could not take it and they retired, marching next by the Rhyndacus river to Dascylium.Scholars have debated the name. The toponym also appears in an inscription where a theorodokos is mentioned in Miletouteichos around 330 BCE. It may be that the place-name appears in an Athenian decree of the year 410/09 BCE. Some scholars have identified Miletouteichos with Miletopolis, but others contend that they are two different cities. Another possibility that has been suggested is to identify it with the city of Apollonia ad Rhyndacum. It has been suggested as possible site of Miletouteichos is northwest of Lake Apolloniatis, in the current Uluabat, Asiatic Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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