Apollodorus of Athens

Apollodorus of Athens (Greek: Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, Apollodōros ho Athēnaios; c. 180 BC – after 120 BC) son of Asclepiades, was a Greek scholar, historian and grammarian. He was a pupil of Diogenes of Babylon, Panaetius the Stoic, and the grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace, under whom he appears to have studied together with his contemporary Dionysius Thrax. He left (perhaps fled) Alexandria around 146 BC, most likely for Pergamon, and eventually settled in Athens.

Literary works

  • Chronicle (Χρονικά), a Greek history in verse from the fall of Troy in the 12th century BC to roughly 143 BC (although later it was extended as far as 109 BC), and based on previous works by Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Its dates are reckoned by its references to the archons of Athens. As most archons only held office for one year, scholars have been able to pin down the years to which Apollodorus was referring. The poem is written in comic trimeters and is dedicated to the second century BC king of Pergamon, Attalus II Philadelphus.
  • On the Gods (Περὶ θεῶν, Peri theon, prose, in 24 books), lost but known through quotes to have included etymologies[1] of the names and epithets of the gods, rifled and quoted by the Roman Epicurean Philodemus; further fragments appear in Oxyrhynchus papyri.
  • A twelve-book essay about Homer's Catalogue of Ships, also based on Eratosthenes of Cyrene and Demetrius of Scepsis, dealing with Homeric geography and how it has changed along the centuries. Strabo relied greatly on this for books 8 through 10 of his own Geographica.
  • Other possible works include an early etymology (possibly the earliest by an Alexandrian writer), and analyses of the poets Epicharmus of Kos and Sophron.
  • Apollodorus produced numerous other critical and grammatical writings, which have not survived.
  • His eminence as a scholar gave rise to several imitations, forgeries and misattributions. The encyclopedia of Greek mythology called Bibliotheca, or Library, was traditionally attributed to him, but it cannot be his; as it cites Castor the Annalist, who was a contemporary of Cicero.[2] Rather, the author of the Bibliotheca is now designated Pseudo-Apollodorus.

References

  1. ^ Dignified as "philological inquiries" by Fritz Graf, Greek Mythology: an introduction 1996:276.
  2. ^ Perseus Encyclopedia
  • Hornblower, Simon (1996). "Apollodorus (6) of Athens". The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 124.
  • Smith, W. (1861). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. London: Walton & Maberly. p. 234.
  • Bravo, Benedetto. La Chronique d'Apollodore et le Pseudo-Skymnos: érudition antiquaire et littérature géographique dans la seconde moitié du IIe siècle av. J.-C. (Leuven: Peeters, 2009) (Studia Hellenistica, 46).
  • Μανόλης Παπαθωμόπουλος, ed. Απολλόδωρου Βιβλιοθήκη / Apollodori Bibliotheca, post Richardum Wagnerum recognita. Εισαγωγή - Κείμενο - Πίνακες (Αθήνα: Εκδοσεις Αλήθεια, 2010) (Λόγος Ελληνικός, 4).

External links

Agesilaus I

Agesilaus I (; Greek: Ἀγησίλαος), son of Doryssus, was the 6th king of the Agiad line at Sparta, excluding Aristodemus. According to Apollodorus of Athens, he reigned forty-four years, and died in 886 BC. Pausanias makes his reign a short one, but contemporary with the legislation of Lycurgus. He was succeeded by his son Archelaus. His grandson was Teleclus.

Agis I

Agis I (Greek: Ἄγις) was a king of Sparta and eponym of the Agiad dynasty. He was the son of Eurysthenes, first monarch of this dynasty, which ruled the city along with the Eurypontids.

His genealogy was traced through Aristodemus, Aristomachus, Cleodaeus and Hyllus all the way to Heracles, and he belongs to mythology rather than to history. Tradition ascribed to him the capture of the maritime town of Helos, which resisted his attempt to curtail its guaranteed rights (which had originally been granted by Eurysthenes). The inhabitants of the town attempted to shake off the yoke, but they were subdued, and gave rise and name to the Spartan class of serfs called helots. To his reign was referred the colony which went to Crete under Pollis and Delphus.According to Eusebius he reigned only one year; according to Apollodorus of Athens, as it appears, about 31 years.He was succeeded by his son Echestratus.

Apollodorus mythographus

Apollodorus mythographus may refer to:

Apollodorus of Athens (born circa 180 BC), Athenian writer.

Pseudo-Apollodorus, author of the Bibliotheca, sometimes identified with Apollodorus of Athens.

Apollodorus of Cyrene

Apollodorus of Cyrene (Greek: Ἀπολλόδωρος ὁ Κυρηναῖος) was a grammarian of ancient Greece who was often cited by other Greek grammarians, as by the Scholiast on Euripides, in the Etymologicum Magnum, and in the Suda. From Athenaeus it would seem that he wrote a work on drinking vessels (ποτήρια), and if we may believe the authority of the 16th-century Italian mythographer Natalis Comes, he also wrote a work on the gods, but this may possibly be a confusion of this Apollodorus with the celebrated grammarian and mythographer Apollodorus of Athens.

Automate (mythology)

Automate (Ancient Greek: Αὐτομάτη means "acting of one's own will, of oneself") was in Greek mythology one of the Danaids, who, according to Apollodorus of Athens and others, killed the (mythical) Egyptian king Busiris, who was betrothed to her; whereas, according to the geographer Pausanias, she was married to Architeles, the son of Achaeus, who emigrated from Phthiotis in Thessaly to Argos with Archander.

Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus)

The Bibliotheca (Ancient Greek: Βιβλιοθήκη Bibliothēkē, "Library"), also known as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, is a compendium of Greek myths and heroic legends, arranged in three books, generally dated to the first or second century AD.The author was traditionally thought to be Apollodorus of Athens, but that attribution is now regarded as false, and so "Pseudo-" was added to Apollodorus.

The Bibliotheca has been called "the most valuable mythographical work that has come down from ancient times". An epigram recorded by the important intellectual Patriarch Photius I of Constantinople expressed its purpose:

It has the following not ungraceful epigram: 'Draw your knowledge of the past from me and read the ancient tales of learned lore. Look neither at the page of Homer, nor of elegy, nor tragic muse, nor epic strain. Seek not the vaunted verse of the cycle; but look in me and you will find in me all that the world contains'.

The brief and unadorned accounts of myth in the Bibliotheca have led some commentators to suggest that even its complete sections are an epitome of a lost work.

Ceuthonymus

Ceuthonymus or Keuthonymos (Ancient Greek: Κευθώνυμος) is a spirit in mythology who is the father of Menoites (or Menoetes, Menoetius). Ceuthonymus is a mysterious daimon or spirit of the underworld, who lives in the realm of Hades. Ceuthonymus is possibly the same as Iapetos, a Titan, and father of a certain Menoitios.

Crates of Tralles

Crates of Tralles (Greek: Κράτης), an orator or rhetorician in the school of Isocrates. David Ruhnken assigns to him the logoi dēmēgorikoi which Apollodorus of Athens ascribes to the Academic philosopher, Crates. Gilles Ménage is wrong in supposing that Crates is mentioned by Lucian. The person there spoken of is Critias the sculptor.

Helorus (river)

Helorus or Elorus (Greek: Ἕλωρος or Ἕλωρος, which directly translates to ellor, or elsewhere), is a river in the southeast of Sicily, the most considerable which occurs between Syracuse and Cape Pachynum. It is now called Tellaro, evidently a corruption of Helorus.

It rises in the hills between Palazzolo (ancient Acrae) and Giarratana, and flows at first to the south, then turns eastward, and enters the sea about 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Syracuse. Near its mouth stood the town of the same name. In the upper part of its course it is a mountain stream, flowing over a rugged and rocky bed, whence Silius Italicus calls it undae clamosus Helorus (xiv. 269); but near its mouth it becomes almost perfectly stagnant, and liable to frequent inundations. Hence Virgil justly speaks of praepingue solum stagnantis Helori (Aen. iii. 698). Ovid praises the beauty of the valley through which it flows, which he terms Helornia Tempe (Fast. iv. 476). Several ancient authors mention that the stagnant pools at the mouth of the river abounded in fish, which were said to be so tame that they would eat out of the hand, in the same manner as was afterwards not uncommon in the fishponds of the Romans. (Apollodorus of Athens ap. Steph. Byz. v. Ἔλωρος; Athenaeus, viii. p. 331; Plin. xxxii. 2. s. 7.)

It was on the banks of the Helorus, at a spot called Ἀρέας πόρος the precise locality of which cannot be determined, that the Syracusans were defeated by Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, in a great battle. (Herod. vii. 154; Pind. Nem. ix. 95; and Schol. ad loc.)

Idomeneus of Crete

In Greek mythology, Idomeneus (; Greek: Ἰδομενεύς) was a Cretan commander, father of Orsilochus, Cleisithyra and Iphiclus, son of Deucalion and Cleopatra, grandson of Minos and king of Crete. He led the Cretan armies to the Trojan War and was also one of Helen's suitors as well as a comrade of the Telamonian Ajax. Meriones was his charioteer and brother-in-arms.

Leucippe

In Greek mythology, Leucippe (Ancient Greek: Λευκίππη, "white horse") is the name of the following individuals:

Leucippe, an Oceanid

Leucippe, one of the Minyades

Leucippe, the wife of King Thestius of Pleuron and mother of Iphiclus and Althaea.

Leucippe, was a queen of Troy as the wife of Ilus, founder of Ilium. By him, she became the mother of Laomedon and possibly, Themiste, Telecleia and Tithonus. In some accounts, the wife of Ilus was called Eurydice, daughter of Adrastus or Batia, daughter of Teucer.

Leucippe, the wife of Laomedon. According to Apollodorus of Athens, she and Laomedon had five sons, Tithonus, Lampus, Clytius, Hicetaon, and Priam, and three daughters, Hesione, Cilla and Astyoche. Otherwise the wife of Laomedon was identified as Strymo, daughter of Scamander or Placia, daughter of Otreus or Zeuxippe.

Leucippe, a daughter of Thestor and possibly Polymele, and thus, sister of Theonoe, Calchas and Theoclymenus. She became a priestess of Apollo and went from country to country in search of her father, Thestor and sister Theonoe who was stolen by pirates.

Leucippe, mother of Egyptian king, Aegyptus by Hephaestus.

Leucippe, mother of Teuthras the Mysian king. Her son killed a sacred boar of Artemis during hunt and was driven mad by the angry goddess. Lysippe then went out in the woods, seeking to find out what had happened to her son. Eventually she learned about the goddess' wrath from the seer Polyidus; she then sacrificed to the goddess to propitiate her, and Teuthras' sanity was restored.

Leucippe, the wife of Euenor (mythology) and mother of Cleito in Plato' s legend of Atlantis.

Leucippe, the heroine of The Adventures of Leucippe and Cleitophon by Achilles Tatius

Oechalia (Aetolia)

Oechalia or Oichalia (Ancient Greek: Οἰχαλία) was a town in ancient AetoliaAccording to Greek mythology, King Eurytus of Oechalia had promised the hand of his beautiful daughter Iole to whomever defeated him in an archery competition. Heracles beat him but Eurytus refused to keep his promise, so Heracles sacked the city, killed Eurytus and kidnapped Iole. However, there was great discussion in antiquity about whether this Oechalia referred to this city, or that of Euboea, of Thessaly, or another located in Trachis, also in Thessaly, or even to others that were located in Arcadia or Messenia. The author of the epic poem Capture of Oechalia (usually attributed to Creophylus of Samos), Sophocles (in The Trachiniae) and Hecataeus of Miletus (who locates Oechalia near Eretria) were aligned among with those who identified this Oechalia with the Euboean location. Homer, equivocally, and Apollodorus of Athens and Aristarchus of Samothrace placed it in Thessaly. Also, Demetrius of Scepsis placed it in Arcadia, and Homer also calls the Oechalia in Messenia the city of Eurytus in both the Iliad and the Odyssey, and this identification was followed by Pherecydes of Leros and Pausanias. Strabo makes mention of all these possibilities but does not offer any additional data on the concrete location of the Oechalia of Thessaly.The site of Oechalia is placed at the palaiokastro ("old fort") of Koryskhades or Koryschades (Κορυσχάδες) in the municipal unit of Karpenisi.

Oechalia (Euboea)

Oechalia or Oichalia (Ancient Greek: Οἰχαλία) was a town in ancient Euboea, in the district of Eretria. At the time of Strabo it was only a village and the geographer points out that it was a vestige of the city that was destroyed by Heracles.According to Greek mythology, King Eurytus of Oechalia had promised the hand of his beautiful daughter Iole to whoever defeated him in an archery competition. Heracles beat him but Eurytus refused to keep his promise, so Heracles sacked the city, killed Eurytus and kidnapped Iole. However, there was great discussion in antiquity about whether this Oechalia referred to this city, or that of Thessaly, or another also located in Trachis, also in Thessaly, or even to others that were located in Arcadia or Messenia. The author of the epic poem Capture of Oechalia (usually attributed to Creophylus of Samos), Sophocles (in The Trachiniae) and Hecataeus of Miletus (who locates Oechalia near Eretria) were aligned among with those who identified this Oechalia with the Euboean location. Homer, equivocally, and Apollodorus of Athens and Aristarchus of Samothrace placed it in Thessaly. Also, Demetrius of Scepsis placed it in Arcadia, and Homer also calls the Oechalia in Messenia the city of Eurytus in both the Iliad and the Odyssey, and this identification was followed by Pherecydes of Leros and Pausanias. Strabo makes mention of all these possibilities but does not offer any additional data on the concrete location of the Oechalia of Thessaly.The site of Oechalia is tentatively placed at the kastro of Ano Potamia (Άνω Ποταμιά) in the municipal unit of Kyme.

Oechalia (Messenia)

Oechalia or Oichalia (Ancient Greek: Οἰχαλία) was a town in ancient Messenia, in the plain of Stenyclerus. It was in ruins in the time of Epaminondas, and its position was a matter of dispute in later times. Strabo identified it with Andania, the ancient residence of the Messenian kings, and Pausanias with Carnasium, which was only 8 stadia distant from Andania, and upon the river Charadrus. Carnasium, in the time of Pausanias, was the name given to a grove of cypresses, in which were statues of Apollo Carneius, of Hermes Criophorus, and of Persephone. It was here that the mystic rites of the great goddesses were celebrated, and that the urn was preserved containing the bones of Eurytus, the son of Melaneus.According to Greek mythology, King Eurytus of Oechalia had promised the hand of his beautiful daughter Iole to whoever defeated him in an archery competition. Heracles beat him but Eurytus refused to keep his promise, so Heracles sacked the city, killed Eurytus and kidnapped Iole. However, there was great discussion in antiquity about whether this Oechalia referred to this city, or that of Euboea, or one of two located in Thessaly or even to another that was located in Arcadia. Homer calls the Oechalia in Messenia the city of Eurytus in both the Iliad and the Odyssey, and this identification was followed by Pherecydes of Leros and Pausanias. However, Homer also, followed Apollodorus of Athens and Aristarchus of Samothrace, placed it in Thessaly. The author of the epic poem Capture of Oechalia (usually attributed to Creophylus of Samos), Sophocles (in The Trachiniae) and Hecataeus of Miletus (who locates Oechalia near Eretria) were aligned among with those who identified this Oechalia with the Euboean location. Also, Demetrius of Scepsis placed it in Arcadia. Strabo makes mention of all these possibilities.The site of Oechalia is at or near that of ancient Carnasium (Karnasion).

Oechalia (Thessaly)

Oechalia or Oichalia (Ancient Greek: Οἰχαλία) was a town in ancient Thessaly, on the Peneius, between Pelinna to the east and Tricca to the west, not far from Ithome.Oechalia is mentioned by Homer in the Catalogue of Ships of the Iliad, where it was part of the territories ruled by Podalirius and Machaon.According to Greek mythology, King Eurytus of Oechalia had promised the hand of his beautiful daughter Iole to whoever defeated him in an archery competition. Heracles beat him but Eurytus refused to keep his promise, so Heracles sacked the city, killed Eurytus and kidnapped Iole. However, there was great discussion in antiquity about whether this Oechalia referred to this city, or that of Euboea, or another also located in Thessaly or even to others that were located in Arcadia or Messenia. Homer, equivocally, and Apollodorus of Athens and Aristarchus of Samothrace placed it in Thessaly. Instead, the author of the epic poem Capture of Oechalia (usually attributed to Creophylus of Samos), Sophocles (in The Trachiniae) and Hecataeus of Miletus (who locates Oechalia near Eretria) were aligned among with those who identified this Oechalia with the Euboean location. Also, Demetrius of Scepsis placed it in Arcadia., and Homer also calls the Oechalia in Messenia the city of Eurytus in both the Iliad and the Odyssey, and this identification was followed by Pherecydes of Leros and Pausanias. Strabo makes mention of all these possibilities but does not offer any additional data on the concrete location of the Oechalia of Thessaly.The site's location is unknown. The modern town of Oichalia, also close to Pelinna and Tricca, echoes the ancient name, but is east of the former contrary to the location's description in ancient sources.

Oechalia (Trachis)

Oechalia or Oichalia (Ancient Greek: Οἰχαλία) was a town in Trachis, in ancient Thessaly.According to Greek mythology, King Eurytus of Oechalia had promised the hand of his beautiful daughter Iole to whoever defeated him in an archery competition. Heracles beat him but Eurytus refused to keep his promise, so Heracles sacked the city, killed Eurytus and kidnapped Iole. However, there was great discussion in antiquity about whether this Oechalia referred to this city, that of Euboea, or another also located in Thessaly, or even to others that were located in Arcadia or Messenia. The author of the epic poem Capture of Oechalia (usually attributed to Creophylus of Samos), Sophocles (in The Trachiniae) and Hecataeus of Miletus (who locates Oechalia near Eretria) were aligned among with those who identified this Oechalia with the Euboean location. Homer, equivocally, and Apollodorus of Athens and Aristarchus of Samothrace placed it in Thessaly. Also, Demetrius of Scepsis placed it in Arcadia, and Homer also calls the Oechalia in Messenia the city of Eurytus in both the Iliad and the Odyssey, and this identification was followed by Pherecydes of Leros and Pausanias. Strabo makes mention of all these possibilities but does not offer any additional data on the concrete location of Oechalia.

Pseudo-Scymnus

Pseudo-Scymnus is the name given by Augustus Meineke to the unknown author of a work on geography written in Classical Greek, the Periodos to Nicomedes. It is an account of the world (periegesis) in 'comic' iambic trimeters which is dedicated to a King Nicomedes of Bithynia. This is either Nicomedes II Epiphanes who reigned from 149 BC for an unknown number of years or his son, Nicomedes III Euergetes. The author explicitly takes for his model Apollodorus of Athens, whose chronography in trimeters was dedicated to King Attalus II Philadelphus of Pergamum.

Sosicrates

Sosicrates of Rhodes (Greek: Σωσικράτης ὁ Ῥόδιος; floruit c. 180 BC) was a Greek historical writer. Sosicrates was born on the island Rhodes and is noted, chiefly, for his frequent mention by Diogenes Laërtius in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers — referencing Sosicrates as the sole authority behind such facts as Aristippus having written nothing. It is inferred that Sosicrates flourished after Hermippus and before Apollodorus of Athens, and, therefore, sometime between 200 and 128 BC. Sosicrates is claimed to have penned a Successions of Philosophers, quoted by both Athenaeus and Diogenes Laërtius. Sosicrates also composed a work on the history of Crete — though neither of the aforementioned works have survived.

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