Apocalypse

An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω, literally meaning "an uncovering") is a disclosure or revelation of knowledge. In religious and occult concepts an apocalypse usually discloses something hidden, or provides what Bart Ehrman has termed "a vision of heavenly secrets that can make sense of earthly realities".[1] Historically, the term has a heavy religious connotation as commonly seen in the prophetic revelations of eschatology obtained through dreams or spiritual visions. The biblical Book of Revelation depicts as an "apocalypse" the complete and final destruction of the world.

In all contexts, the revealed events usually entail some form of an end time scenario or the end of the world - or revelations into divine, heavenly, or spiritual realms. There are many other books from the Jewish and Christian world that can be classified as apocalypses. In addition, other books of the Bible contain passages pertaining to an apocalypse or to apocalyptic circumstances.

Orthodox-Apocalypse-Fresco
Apocalypse depicted in Christian Orthodox traditional fresco scenes in Osogovo Monastery, Republic of Macedonia
St-john
St. John at Patmos: the receiving of an apocalyptic vision

Word usage

The Greek word apokálypsis has become particularly associated with the last book of the New Testament entitled "Revelation"and also known as "the Apocalypse" or as "the Apocalypse of John". The term is also included in the title of some non-biblical canon books involving revelations. Today, English-speakers commonly refer to any larger-scale catastrophic event or chain of detrimental events to humanity or nature as "an apocalypse" or as "apocalyptic".

Origin

Dreams and visions

A revelation may be made through a dream, as in the Book of Daniel, or through a vision, as in the Book of Revelation. In biblical terms, a revelation is something shown to humans by God: Other words used to describe revelation include: apocalypse, prophecy, unveiling. Fasting, mainly as part of a spiritual discipline, can lead one into an apocalyptic prophetic vision.[2] One example of this is found in the Book of Daniel which is the first apocalypse in the Protestant Bible.[3] After a long period of fasting,[4] Daniel is standing by a river when a heavenly being appears to him, and the revelation follows (Daniel 10:2ff). Apocalyptic visions or dreams show hidden information/truth about God, human life and the spiritual world. These visions or dreams usually show insights about life after death. A part about Gods final judgement deals with forces of evil and forces of good. In the Bible God defeats an evil force forever and bring justice and mercy to the world. Rev 20–22,[5] and the article “Day of the Lord”

Adam A fall of 5500 years Adam would be back in the Garden of Eden when the messenger of God (Messiah) will come to save him and his children. The Book of Adam and Eve (I-chap.6, 21-25), rev. Malan 1882
Enoch The ten (10) weeks of the world It cover the chastisement by the flood until the heavenly dwelling of the righteous (and destruction of the world). The Book of Enoch (chap.91-93), prof. Dillmann 1893
The Watchers Imprisoned for seventy (70) generations For luring the women and begot wicked giants. The Book of Jubilees (chap.7), prof. Charles 1902; The Book of Enoch (chap. 10), Dillmann 1893
Noah Destruction of the children of Cain Those who go into Sheol (place of condemnation) will be in the darkness of the deep, fully removed into an intense death. The Book of Jubilees (chap.7), prof. Charles 1902
Abraham Visions of Heaven and Sheol The idolater and murderers from his own people. The Apocalypse of Abraham, Box 1918

Symbolism

Numerical

Apocalyptic writing often makes wide use of symbolism. One instance of this occurs where gematria is employed, either for obscuring the writer's meaning or enhancing it; as a number of ancient cultures used letters also as numbers (i.e., the Romans with their use of "Roman numerals"). Thus the symbolic name "Taxo," "Assumptio Mosis", ix. 1; the "Number of the Beast" (616/666), in the Book of Revelation 13:18;[6] the number 666 ('Iησōῦς), Sibyllines, i.326–30.

Lengths of time / periods

Similar is the frequent prophecy of the length of time through which the events predicted must be fulfilled. Thus, the "time, times, and a half," Daniel 12:7 which has been taken to be 3½ years in length by Dispensationalists;[7] the "fifty-eight times" of Enoch, xc.5, "Assumptio Mosis", x.11; the announcement of a certain number of "weeks" or days, which starting point in Daniel 9:24, 25 is "the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks",[8] a mention of 1290 days after the covenant/sacrifice is broken (Daniel 12:11),[9] 12; Enoch xciii.3–10; 2 Esdras 14:11, 12; Apocalypse of Baruch xxvi–viii; Revelation 11:3, which mentions "two witnesses" with supernatural power,[10] 12:6;[11] compare Assumptio Mosis, vii.1.

Descriptions

Symbolic language also occurs in descriptions of persons, things or events; thus, the "horns" of Daniel 7 and 8;[12] Revelation 17[13] and following; the "heads" and "wings" of 2 Esdras xi and following; the seven seals of Revelation 6;[14] trumpets, Revelation 8;[15] "vials of the wrath of God" or "bowl..." judgments, Revelation 16;[16] the dragon, Revelation 12:3–17,[17] Revelation 20:1–3;[18] the eagle, Assumptio Mosis, x.8; and so on.

Result/purpose

016Apocalíptico I
"Apocalyptic I" by contemporary Mexican painter Mauricio García Vega.

End of the age

In the Hebrew Old Testament some pictures of the end of the age were images of the judgment of the wicked and the glorification of those who were given righteousness before God. In the Book of Job and in some Psalms the dead are described as being in Sheol, awaiting the final judgment. The wicked will then be consigned to eternal suffering in the fires of Gehinnom, or the lake of fire mentioned in the Book of Revelation.[16][19][20][21][22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Bart D. Ehrman, How Jesus Became God: The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilee (New York: HarperOne, 2014), page 59. Quoted in: Gallois, Caroline (2019). William Orpen, an Outsider in France: Painting and Writing World War One. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 112. ISBN 9781527525849. Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  2. ^ Eggmeier, Matthew (2014). A Sacramental-Prophetic Vision : Christian Spirituality in a Suffering World. Collegeville, MN: Michael Glazier. p. 39. ISBN 9780814680926.
  3. ^ Carey, Greg (April 2017). "Daniel as an Americanized Apocalypse". Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology. 71 (2): 190–203. doi:10.1177/0020964316688052.
  4. ^ "Daniel 10:1–4 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
  5. ^ bible. pp. 20–22.
  6. ^ "Revelation 13:16–18 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. 2012. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  7. ^ "Daniel 12:7 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  8. ^ "Daniel 9:24–25 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  9. ^ "Daniel 12:11 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-11-05. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  10. ^ "Revelation 11:3 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  11. ^ "Revelation 12:6 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  12. ^ "Daniel 7; Daniel 8 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  13. ^ "Revelation 17 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  14. ^ "Revelation 6 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-11-15. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  15. ^ "Revelation 8 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  16. ^ a b "Revelation 16 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-12-08. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  17. ^ "Revelation 12:3–17 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  18. ^ "Revelation 20:1–3 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  19. ^ "Revelation 19:20 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-11-07. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  20. ^ "Revelation 20:10 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-12-09. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  21. ^ "Revelation 20:14–15 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
  22. ^ "Revelation 21:8 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2007-11-24. Retrieved 2007-11-21.

Further reading

  • Morris, Henry M (1985) [1983]. The Revelation Record. Tyndale House and Creation Life.
  • Collins, John J. (2010) [2010]. The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Imagination 2nd Ed. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
  • Collins, John J. ed. (2014)[2014]. The Oxford Handbook of Apocalyptic Literature. Oxford University Press.
  • Croley, Wayne (2018)(2018] Prophecy Proof: Insights of the end of times
  • Doyle, Arthur(2016)(2017] The New Revelation

External links

2012 phenomenon

The 2012 phenomenon was a range of eschatological beliefs that cataclysmic or otherwise transformative events would occur on or around 21 December 2012. This date was regarded as the end-date of a 5,126-year-long cycle in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, and as such, festivities to commemorate the date took place on 21 December 2012 in the countries that were part of the Maya civilization (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador), with main events at Chichén Itzá in Mexico, and Tikal in Guatemala.Various astronomical alignments and numerological formulae were proposed as pertaining to this date. A New Age interpretation held that the date marked the start of a period during which Earth and its inhabitants would undergo a positive physical or spiritual transformation, and that 21 December 2012 would mark the beginning of a new era. Others suggested that the date marked the end of the world or a similar catastrophe. Scenarios suggested for the end of the world included the arrival of the next solar maximum, an interaction between Earth and the black hole at the center of the galaxy, or Earth's collision with a mythical planet called Nibiru.

Scholars from various disciplines quickly dismissed predictions of concomitant cataclysmic events as they arose. Professional Mayanist scholars stated that no extant classic Maya accounts forecast impending doom, and that the idea that the Long Count calendar ends in 2012 misrepresented Maya history and culture, while astronomers rejected the various proposed doomsday scenarios as pseudoscience, easily refuted by elementary astronomical observations.

Age of Apocalypse

Age of Apocalypse is a 1995–96 comic book crossover storyline published in the X-Men franchise of books by Marvel Comics. The Age of Apocalypse briefly replaced the universe of Earth-616 and had ramifications in the main Marvel Comics universe when the original timeline was restored. It was later retconned as having occurred in the alternate universe of Earth-295.

During the entirety of the Age of Apocalypse event the regularly published X-Men comics were replaced by new X-Men related mini series, focusing on various teams and individuals in the Age of Apocalypse world including X-Calibre, Gambit and the X-Ternals, Generation Next, Astonishing X-Men, Amazing X-Men, Weapon X, Factor X, X-Man and X-Universe. The event was bookended by two one shots, X-Men Alpha and X-Men Omega.

The storyline starts with Legion (David Haller), a psychotic mutant who traveled back in time to kill Magneto before he can commit various crimes against humanity. Legion accidentally kills Professor Charles Xavier, his father, leading to a major change in the timeline. The death of Professor Xavier leads Apocalypse to attack 10 years sooner than he did in the original timeline, taking control of Earth and altering everything that happened from that point forward. Apocalypse is opposed by several factions of mutant resistance, including a group led by Magneto. The group manages to send the mutant Bishop back in time to prevent the murder of Professor Xavier, undoing the entire timeline.

In 2005, Marvel published an Age of Apocalypse one-shot and miniseries to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the fan favorite event and looks at what happened after the end of the original story revealing that the timeline became in fact an alternate earth, designated "Earth-295". The "Dark Angel Saga" in 2011 also revisited the alternate reality once more, that later led to an Age of Apocalypse ongoing series launched in 2012 that ran for 14 issues. The world was also featured as part of Marvel's 2015 Secret Wars.

Apocalypse (comics)

Apocalypse (En Sabah Nur) is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by Marvel Comics. He is one of the world's first mutants, and was originally a principal villain for the original X-Factor team and now for the X-Men and related spinoff teams. Created by writer Louise Simonson and artist Jackson Guice, Apocalypse first appeared in X-Factor #5 (May 1986).Since his introduction, the character has appeared in a number of X-Men titles, including spin-offs and several limited series. Apocalypse has also been featured in various forms of media. In 2016, Oscar Isaac portrayed the villain in the film X-Men: Apocalypse. In 2009, Apocalypse was ranked as IGN's 24th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time.

Apocalypse Now

Apocalypse Now is a 1979 American epic war film directed, produced and co-written by Francis Ford Coppola. It stars Marlon Brando, Robert Duvall, Martin Sheen, Frederic Forrest, Albert Hall, Sam Bottoms, Laurence Fishburne and Dennis Hopper. The screenplay, co-written by Coppola and John Milius (who received an Oscar nomination for Best Adapted Screenplay) and narration written by Michael Herr, is a loose adaptation of the novella Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. The setting was changed from late 19th-century Congo to the Vietnam War 1969–70, the years in which Green Beret Colonel Robert Rheault, commander of the 5th Special Forces Group, was indicted for murder and President Richard Nixon authorized the secret Cambodian Campaign. Coppola said that Rheault was an inspiration for the character of Colonel Kurtz. The voice-over narration of Willard was written by war correspondent Herr, whose 1977 Vietnam memoir Dispatches brought him to the attention of Coppola. A major influence on the film was Werner Herzog's Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972), which also features a river journey and an insane soldier. The film is about a river journey from South Vietnam into Cambodia undertaken by Captain Benjamin L. Willard (a character based on Conrad's Marlow and played by Sheen), who is on a secret mission to assassinate Colonel Kurtz, a renegade Army officer accused of murder and who is presumed insane.

The film has been noted for the problems encountered while making it, chronicled in the documentary Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse (1991). These problems included Brando arriving on the set overweight and completely unprepared, expensive sets being destroyed by severe weather and Sheen having a breakdown and suffering a near-fatal heart attack while on location. Problems continued after production as the release was postponed several times while Coppola edited over a million feet of film.Apocalypse Now was honored with the Palme d'Or at Cannes Film Festival, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture and the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama. Initial reviews were mixed; while Vittorio Storaro's cinematography was widely acclaimed, several critics found Coppola's handling of the story's major themes to be anticlimactic and intellectually disappointing. Apocalypse Now is today considered to be one of the greatest films ever made. It ranked No. 14 in Sight & Sound's greatest films poll in 2012. In 2000, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant".

Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction

Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction is a subgenre of science fiction, science fantasy, or horror in which the Earth's technological civilization is collapsing or has collapsed. The apocalypse event may be climatic, such as runaway climate change; natural, such as an impact event; man-made, such as nuclear holocaust or resource depletion; medical, such as a pandemic, whether natural or man-made; eschatological, such as the Last Judgement, Second Coming, or Ragnarök; or imaginative, such as a zombie apocalypse, cybernetic revolt, technological singularity, dysgenics, or alien invasion. The story may involve attempts to prevent an apocalypse event, deal with the impact and consequences of the event itself, or it may be post-apocalyptic, set after the event. The time frame may be immediately after the catastrophe, focusing on the travails or psychology of survivors, the way to maintain the human race alive and together as one, or considerably later, often including the theme that the existence of pre-catastrophe civilization has been forgotten (or mythologized). Post-apocalyptic stories often take place in a non-technological future world, or a world where only scattered elements of society and technology remain.

Various ancient societies, including the Babylonian and Judaic, produced apocalyptic literature and mythology which dealt with the end of the world and of human society, such as the Epic of Gilgamesh, written c. 2000–1500 BC. Recognizable modern apocalyptic novels had existed since at least the first third of the 19th century, when Mary Shelley's The Last Man (1826) was published. However, this form of literature gained widespread popularity after World War II, when the possibility of global annihilation by nuclear weapons entered the public consciousness.

Book of Revelation

The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation, the Revelation of Jesus Christ (from its opening words) or the Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is the final book of the New Testament, and therefore also the final book of the Christian Bible. It occupies a central place in Christian eschatology. Its title is derived from the first word of the text, written in Koine Greek: apokalypsis, meaning "unveiling" or "revelation" (before title pages and titles, books were commonly known by the incipit, their first words, as is also the case of the Hebrew Five Books of Moses (Torah)). The Book of Revelation is the only apocalyptic document in the New Testament canon (although there are short apocalyptic passages in various places in the Gospels and the Epistles).The author names himself in the text as "John", but his precise identity remains a point of academic debate. Second-century Christian writers such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Melito the bishop of Sardis, and Clement of Alexandria and the author of the Muratorian fragment identify John the Apostle as the "John" of Revelation. Modern scholarship generally takes a different view, and many consider that nothing can be known about the author except that he was a Christian prophet. Some modern scholars characterise Revelation's author as a putative figure whom they call "John of Patmos". The bulk of traditional sources date the book to the reign of the emperor Domitian (AD 81–96), and the evidence tends to confirm this.The book spans three literary genres: the epistolary, the apocalyptic, and the prophetic. It begins with John, on the island of Patmos in the Aegean Sea, addressing a letter to the "Seven Churches of Asia". He then describes a series of prophetic visions, including figures such as the Seven Headed Dragon, The Serpent and the Beast, culminating in the Second Coming of Jesus.

The obscure and extravagant imagery has led to a wide variety of Christian interpretations: historicist interpretations see in Revelation a broad view of history; preterist interpretations treat Revelation as mostly referring to the events of the apostolic era (1st century), or, at the latest, the fall of the Roman Empire; futurists believe that Revelation describes future events, the seven churches growing into the body/believers throughout the age, and a reemergence or continuous rule of a Roman/Graeco system with modern capabilities described by John in ways familiar to him; and idealist or symbolic interpretations consider that Revelation does not refer to actual people or events, but is an allegory of the spiritual path and the ongoing struggle between good and evil.

Caliban (Marvel Comics)

Caliban is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, commonly in association with the X-Men. The character was portrayed in film by Tómas Lemarquis in X-Men: Apocalypse (2016) and by Stephen Merchant in Logan (2017).

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are described in the last book of the New Testament of the Bible, the Book of Revelation by John of Patmos, at 6:1–8. The chapter tells of a book or scroll in God's right hand that is sealed with seven seals. The Lamb of God opens the first four of the seven seals, which summons four beings that ride out on white, red, black, and pale horses.

Though theologians and popular culture differ on the first Horseman, the four riders are often seen as symbolizing Conquest or Pestilence (and less frequently, the Christ or the Antichrist), War, Famine, and Death. The Christian apocalyptic vision is that the Four Horsemen are to set a divine apocalypse upon the world as harbingers of the Last Judgment. One reading ties the Four Horsemen to the history of the Roman Empire subsequent to the era in which the Book of Revelation was written as a symbolic prophecy.

Francis Ford Coppola

Francis Ford Coppola (; born April 7, 1939) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter and film composer. He was a central figure in the New Hollywood wave of filmmaking.

After directing The Rain People (1969), he co-wrote the 1970 film Patton, earning the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay along with co-writer Edmund H. North. His directorial prominence was cemented with the release in 1972 of The Godfather, a film that revolutionized movie-making in the gangster genre, earning praise from both critics and the public before winning three Academy Awards—including his second Oscar (Best Adapted Screenplay, with Mario Puzo), Best Picture, and his first nomination for Best Director.

He followed with The Godfather Part II in 1974, which became the first sequel to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. Highly regarded by critics, it brought him three more Academy Awards: Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Director and Best Picture, and made him the second director, after Billy Wilder, to be honored three times for the same film. The Conversation, which he directed, produced and wrote, was released that same year, winning the Palme d'Or at the 1974 Cannes Film Festival. He next directed 1979's Apocalypse Now. While notorious for its lengthy and strenuous production, the film is widely acclaimed for its vivid depiction of the Vietnam War. It won the Palme d'Or at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival, making Coppola one of only eight filmmakers to win two Palme d'Or awards.

While a number of Coppola's ventures in the 1980s and 1990s were critically lauded, he has never quite achieved the same commercial success with films as in the 1970s. His most well-known films released since the start of the 1980s are the dramas The Outsiders and Rumble Fish (both 1983), the crime-drama The Cotton Club (1984), the crime-drama The Godfather Part III (1990), and the horror film Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992).

Horsemen of Apocalypse

The Horsemen of Apocalypse are a team of fictional supervillain characters that appear in comic books published by Marvel Comics.

List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events

Predictions of apocalyptic events that would result in the extinction of humanity, a collapse of civilization, or the destruction of the planet have been made since at least the beginning of the Common Era. Religious-related end-time events are usually predicted to occur within the lifetime of the person making the prediction, who often quote the Bible, and in particular the New Testament, as either the primary or exclusive source for the predictions. Often this takes the form of mathematical calculations, such as trying to calculate the point where it will have been 6000 years since the supposed creation of the Earth by the Abrahamic God, which according to the Talmud marks the deadline for the Messiah to appear. Predictions of the end from natural events have also been theorised by various scientists and scientific groups. While these predictions are generally accepted as plausible within the scientific community, the events and phenomena are not expected to occur for hundreds of thousands or even billions of years from now.

Little research has been done into why people make apocalyptic predictions. Historically, it has been done for reasons such as diverting attention from actual crises like poverty and war, pushing political agendas, and promoting hatred of certain groups; antisemitism was a popular theme of Christian apocalyptic predictions in medieval times, while French and Lutheran depictions of the apocalypse were known to feature English and Catholic antagonists respectively. According to psychologists, possible explanations for why people believe in modern apocalyptic predictions include mentally reducing the actual danger in the world to a single and definable source, an innate human fascination with fear, personality traits of paranoia and powerlessness and a modern romanticism involved with end-times due to its portrayal in contemporary fiction. The prevalence of Abrahamic religions throughout modern history is said to have created a culture which encourages the embracement of a future that will be drastically different from the present. Such a culture is credited with the rise in popularity of predictions that are more secular in nature, such as the 2012 phenomenon, while maintaining the centuries-old theme that a powerful force will bring the end of humanity.Polls conducted in 2012 across 20 countries found over 14% of people believe the world will end in their lifetime, with percentages ranging from 6% of people in France to 22% in the US and Turkey. Belief in the apocalypse is most prevalent in people with lower rates of education, lower household incomes, and those under the age of 35. In the UK in 2015, 23% of the general public believed the apocalypse was likely to occur in their lifetime, compared to 10% of experts from the Global Challenges Foundation. The general public believed the likeliest cause would be nuclear war, while experts thought it would be artificial intelligence. Only 3% of Britons thought the end would be caused by the Last Judgement, compared to 16% of Americans. Between one and three percent of people from both countries thought the apocalypse would be caused by zombies or alien invasion.

Resident Evil (film series)

Resident Evil is an action horror science fiction film series loosely based on the Capcom survival horror video game series of the same name. German studio Constantin Film bought the rights to adapt the series to film in January 1997. In 2001, Screen Gems acquired distribution rights and hired Paul W. S. Anderson as writer and director for Resident Evil (2002). Anderson continued as writer and producer for Resident Evil: Apocalypse (2004) and Resident Evil: Extinction (2007), and returned as the director for Resident Evil: Afterlife (2010), Resident Evil: Retribution (2012), and Resident Evil: The Final Chapter (2016).

The films follow Alice (Milla Jovovich), a character created for the films, who battles the Umbrella Corporation, whose bioweapons have triggered a zombie apocalypse. Characters from the games also appear, including Jill Valentine, Carlos Olivera, Claire Redfield, Albert Wesker, Chris Redfield, Barry Burton, Leon S. Kennedy, Ada Wong and James Marcus.

The Resident Evil film series is the highest-grossing film series based on a video game, having grossed over $1.2 billion worldwide.

Zombie

A zombie (Haitian French: zombi, Haitian Creole: zonbi) is a fictional undead being created through the reanimation of a human corpse. Zombies are most commonly found in horror and fantasy genre works. The term comes from Haitian folklore, in which a zombie is a dead body reanimated through various methods, most commonly magic. Modern depictions of the reanimation of the dead do not necessarily involve magic but often invoke science fictional methods such as carriers, radiation, mental diseases, vectors, pathogens, scientific accidents, etc.The English word "zombie" is first recorded in 1819, in a history of Brazil by the poet Robert Southey, in the form of "zombi". The Oxford English Dictionary gives the origin of the word as West African, and compares it to the Kongo words nzambi (god) and zumbi (fetish). A Kimbundu-to-Portuguese dictionary from 1903 defines the related word nzumbi as soul, while a later Kimbundu–Portuguese dictionary defines it as being a "spirit that is supposed to wander the earth to torment the living."One of the first books to expose Western culture to the concept of the voodoo zombie was The Magic Island by W. B. Seabrook in 1929. This is the sensationalized account of a narrator who encounters voodoo cults in Haiti and their resurrected thralls. Time claimed that the book "introduced 'zombi' into U.S. speech".Zombies have a complex literary heritage, with antecedents ranging from Richard Matheson and H. P. Lovecraft to Mary Shelley's Frankenstein drawing on European folklore of the undead. In 1932, Victor Halperin directed White Zombie, a horror film starring Bela Lugosi. Here zombies are depicted as mindless, unthinking henchmen under the spell of an evil magician. Zombies, often still using this voodoo-inspired rationale, were initially uncommon in cinema, but their appearances continued sporadically through the 1930s to the 1960s, with notable films including I Walked with a Zombie (1943) and Plan 9 from Outer Space (1959).

A new version of the zombie, distinct from that described in Haitian folklore, emerged in popular culture during the latter half of the twentieth century. This "zombie" is taken largely from George A. Romero's seminal film Night of the Living Dead, which was in turn partly inspired by Richard Matheson's 1954 novel I Am Legend. The word zombie is not used in Night of the Living Dead but was applied later by fans. The monsters in the film and its sequels, such as Dawn of the Dead and Day of the Dead, as well as its many inspired works, such as Return of the Living Dead and Zombi 2, are usually hungry for human flesh, although Return of the Living Dead introduced the popular concept of zombies eating brains. The "zombie apocalypse" concept, in which the civilized world is brought low by a global zombie infestation, became a staple of modern popular art.

Zombie apocalypse

A zombie apocalypse is a particular scenario within apocalyptic fiction. In a zombie apocalypse, a widespread rise of zombies hostile to human life engages in a general assault on civilization.

In some stories, victims of zombies may become zombies themselves if they are bitten by zombies or if a zombie-creating virus travels by air, sexually, or by water; in others, everyone who dies, whatever the cause, becomes one of the undead.

In some cases, parasitic organisms can cause zombification by killing their hosts and reanimating their corpses, though some argue that this is not a true zombie. In the latter scenario zombies also prey on the living and their bite causes an infection that kills.

In either scenario, this causes the outbreak to become an exponentially growing crisis: the spreading "zombie plague" swamps law enforcement organizations, the military and health care services, leading to the panicked collapse of civil society until only isolated pockets of survivors remain. Basic services such as piped water supplies and electrical power shut down, mainstream mass media cease broadcasting, and the national government of affected countries collapses or goes into hiding. The survivors usually begin scavenging for food, weapons and other supplies in a world reduced to a mostly pre-industrial hostile wilderness. There is usually a 'safe zone' where the non-infected can seek refuge and begin a new era.

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