Apo myna

The Apo myna (Basilornis mirandus) is a species of starling in the starling family Sturnidae. The species is also known as the Mount Apo starling or the Mount Apo king starling. The specific name is Latin for wonderful or strange.[2]

Apo myna
Apo Myna - Mindanao - Philippines H8O1095 (22409185609)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sturnidae
Genus: Basilornis
Species:
B. mirandus
Binomial name
Basilornis mirandus
(Hartert, 1903)
Synonyms

Goodfellowia miranda

Distribution and habitat

It is endemic to Mindanao in the south Philippines. Its natural habitat tropical moist montane forests above 1,250 m (4,100 ft). It is assumed that the species is non-migratory.[3]

Description

The Apo myna is a long-tailed starling, 30 cm (12 in) long and weighing around 110 g (3.9 oz). The plumage is mostly glossy black, except for the lower back which is white. The feathers on the head are degenerate and form a floppy crest. There is a large patch of bare yellow skin around the eye and on the cheek creating a distinctive mask. The bill and legs are yellowish. Both the sexes are alike. Juvenile birds resemble adults but have less glossy plumage and have a buff edge to the feathers.[3]

Behaviour

Little is known about the behaviour of this species. It eats berries and insects, and forages singly, as pairs or in small groups. Two nests have been found for this species, both in the holes excavated by woodpeckers into trees. One of these nests was 15 m (49 ft) off the ground and made of twigs and leaves.[3]

Status and conservation

The Apo myna is becoming rare due to habitat loss. It is common in some protected areas, but it has a small and fragmented range, and is becoming rare across some of its range. It is safe for the moment, as its habitat is remote and rugged, but that situation could change.[3] Because of this it is listed as near threatened by the IUCN.

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Basilornis mirandus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012: e.T22710968A38243834. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22710968A38243834.en. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  2. ^ Jobling, J. A. (2017). Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology. In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2017). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from www.hbw.com).
  3. ^ a b c d Craig, A. & Feare, C. (2017). Apo Myna (Basilornis mirandus). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from http://www.hbw.com/node/60815 on 19 March 2017).
Basilornis

Basilornis is a genus of mynas in the family Sturnidae. Established by Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1850, it contains the following species:

Sulawesi myna (Basilornis celebensis)

Long-crested myna (Basilornis corythaix)

Helmeted myna (Basilornis galeatus)

Apo myna (Basilornis mirandus)The name Basilornis is a combination of the Greek words basileus, meaning "king" and ornis, meaning "bird".

List of birds of Asia

The birds of Asia are diverse.

The taxonomy of this list adheres to James Clements' Birds of the World: A Checklist, 6th edition. Taxonomic changes are on-going. As more research is gathered from studies of distribution, behaviour, and DNA, the order and number of families and species may change. Furthermore, different approaches to ornithological nomenclature have led to concurrent systems of classification (see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy).

The area covered by this list corresponds with the Asian listing area as defined by the American Birding Association[1]. The area includes Russia east of the Ural River and Ural Mountains and the Russian Arctic islands east of but not including Novaya Zemlya, as well as Kazakhstan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey (except for the portion north of the Bosporus, Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles) and Cyprus. The area is separated from Africa by the Suez Canal. In the Indian Ocean it includes Sri Lanka, Lakshadweep (the Laccadive Islands), the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, but does not include Socotra (Africa), the Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago and Christmas Island (all Indian Ocean). It includes the Russian islands in the Bering Sea and North Pacific. Japan, the Izu Islands (except Nampo Shoto and the Daitō Islands), the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and most of Indonesia. In Indonesia, the dividing line between Asia and Australasia runs through the Banda and Molucca Seas with Sulawesi, Banggai and Talaud on the Asian side, and the islands of Kai, Ceram, Buru, the Sula Group and Morotai on the Australasian side.

List of birds of the Philippines

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Philippines. The avifauna of the Philippines include a total of 657 species, of which 214 are endemic, five have been introduced by humans and 52 are rare or accidental. Of these, 68 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for the Philippines.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental: a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Philippines

(E) Endemic: a species endemic to the Philippines

(I) Introduced: a species introduced to the Philippines as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of near threatened birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 1012 near threatened avian species. 9.3% of all evaluated avian species are listed as near threatened.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of near threatened avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

Myna

The myna (; also spelled mynah) is a bird of the starling family (Sturnidae). This is a group of passerine birds which are native to southern Asia, especially Nepal, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh . Several species have been introduced to areas like North America, Australia, South Africa, Fiji and New Zealand, especially the common myna which is often regarded as an invasive species. It is often known as "Selarang" and "Teck Meng" in Malay and Chinese respectively in Singapore, due to their high population there. Similarly, in Nepal, it is known by local name Dangre.

Mynas are not a natural group; instead, the term myna is used for any starling in the Indian subcontinent, regardless of their relationships. This range was colonized twice during the evolution of starlings, first by rather ancestral starlings related to the coleto and Aplonis lineages, and millions of years later by birds related to the common starling and wattled starling's ancestors. These two groups of mynas can be distinguished in the more terrestrial adaptions of the latter, which usually also have less glossy plumage except on the heads and longer tails. The Bali myna which is nearly extinct in the wild is highly distinctive.

Some mynas are considered talking birds, for their ability to reproduce sounds, including human speech, when in captivity.

Myna is derived from the Hindi language mainā which itself is derived from Sanskrit madanā.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 14

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Starling

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for starling, sturnus. Many Asian species, particularly the larger ones, are called mynas, and many African species are known as glossy starlings because of their iridescent plumage. Starlings are native to Europe, Asia and Africa, as well as northern Australia and the islands of the tropical Pacific. Several European and Asian species have been introduced to these areas as well as North America, Hawaii and New Zealand, where they generally compete for habitats with native birds and are considered to be invasive species. The starling species familiar to most people in Europe and North America is the common starling, and throughout much of Asia and the Pacific, the common myna is indeed common.

Starlings have strong feet, their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Several species live around human habitation and are effectively omnivores. Many species search for prey such as grubs by "open-bill probing", that is, forcefully opening the bill after inserting it into a crevice, thus expanding the hole and exposing the prey; this behaviour is referred to by the German verb zirkeln (pronounced [ˈtsɪɐ̯kl̩n]).Plumage of many species is typically dark with a metallic sheen. Most species nest in holes and lay blue or white eggs.

Starlings have diverse and complex vocalizations and have been known to embed sounds from their surroundings into their own calls, including car alarms and human speech patterns. The birds can recognize particular individuals by their calls and are the subject of research into the evolution of human language.

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