Apamea Myrlea

For namesakes, see Apamea
Apamea Myrlea
Apamea Myrlea is located in Turkey
Apamea Myrlea
Shown within Turkey
LocationTurkey
RegionBursa Province
Coordinates40°22′35″N 28°53′00″E / 40.37639°N 28.88333°ECoordinates: 40°22′35″N 28°53′00″E / 40.37639°N 28.88333°E

Apamea Myrlea (/ˌæpəˈmiːə mərˈliːə/; Ancient Greek: Απάμεια Μύρλεια) was an ancient city and bishopric (Apamea in Bithynia) on the Sea of Marmara, in Bithynia, Anatolia; its ruins are a few kilometers south of Mudanya, Bursa Province in the Marmara Region of Asian Turkey.

Name

To distinguish this city from the many others called Apamea,[1][2][3] the name Apamea Myrlea used here adds to the name (Apamea) it was given when rebuilt as an important city the name (Myrlea) it previously bore as a smaller town.[4] It was also referred to as Apamea Myrlēon (Apamea of Myrlea).[5]

History

The town was founded as a colony of the Colophonians and was called Μύρλεια (Myrleia or Myrlea). Philip V of Macedon took the town, as it appears, during his war against the king of Pergamon, and gave it to his ally, King Prusias I of Bithynia, who fortified and enlarged it – indeed almost rebuilt it[6] – around 202 BC, renaming it Ἀπάμεια (transcribed as Apameia, Apamea, or Apamia), after his wife, Apama III.[2]

Erdek
Erdek Gulf today

The place was on the south coast of the Gulf of Erdek, and northwest of Bursa, then called Prusa, for which it served as a port.[1]

The Romans made Apamea a colonia, apparently in the time of Augustus, or perhaps Julius Caesar, in view of the adjective "Iulia" that appear on its coins under Roman rule.[2] Its earlier coins were stamped Ἀπαμέων Μυρλεάνων, but in Roman times they bore the label C.I.C.A. (= Colonia Iulia Concordia Apamea).[7]

When Pliny the Younger was governor of Bithynia, he consulted Trajan about a claim by the colonia not to have its accounts of receipts and expenditures examined by the Roman governor.[2]

A passage of Ulpian shows use of the adjectival form of the name was Apamenus: "Apamena: est in Bithynia colonia Apamena.[2]

Ecclesiastical history

This Apamea in the Late Roman province of Bithynia became the seat of a Christian bishop in the 4th century and was at first a suffragan of Nicaea, but became an autocephalous archdiocese some time before the Fourth Council of Constantinople (Roman Catholic) in 869, at which its archbishop Paulus took part.[8][9]

Titular see

No longer a residential bishopric, Apamea in Bithynia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see,[10] of the intermediary Archiepiscopal rank.

Since the Latin Catholic archdiocese was thus nominally restored (in ?1633), it has had the following archiepiscopal incumbents, but is vacant since decades :

References

  1. ^ a b Hogarth, David George (1911). "Apamea s.v. 4" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). p. 159.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Apameia" in William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854)
  3. ^ See also the disambiguation page Apamea
  4. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, entry "Ăpămēa"
  5. ^ William Smith, A Classical Dictionary, p. 83
  6. ^ William Smith, A Classical Dictionary, p. 581
  7. ^ Asia Minor Coins - ancient coins of Apamea
  8. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 655-658
  9. ^ Gaetano Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, Vol. 2, p. 235
  10. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 834

Sources and external links

Further reading

Apama III

Apama III, sometimes known as Apame III (Ancient Greek: Ἀπάμα, born c. 250 BC, flourished 3rd and 2nd century BC) was a Greek princess from the Antigonid dynasty.

Apama was of Greek Macedonian and Persian descent. She was the child born to the King Demetrius II Aetolicus and Queen Stratonice of Macedon. Her paternal grandparents were the Antigonid Monarchs Antigonus II Gonatas and Phila, while her maternal grandparents were the Seleucid Monarchs Antiochus I Soter and Stratonice of Syria. From her father’s second marriage, she had a younger paternal half-brother called Philip V of Macedon who would eventually succeed as king. Apama was the namesake of her maternal aunt Apama II, who was the wife of King Magas of Cyrene and mother of the Ptolemaic Queen Berenice II. Apama was born and raised in Macedonia.

Her father formed an alliance with the Greek King of Anatolia Prusias I of Bithynia. Apama later married Prusias I and through her marriage, became Queen of Bithynia. Apama bore Prusias I, a son and his successor called Prusias II of Bithynia, sometimes known as Prusias II Cynegus, Cynegus means the Hunter.Her husband was also an ally to her half brother, Philip V. After Philip V, took the port city of Prusa, her husband rebuilt the city around 202 BC and renamed the city Apamea Myrlea, which still bears her name. Her daughter-in-law was her niece and namesake Apame IV. Apame IV was one of the daughters of her half brother and later married her son.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Bithynian coinage

Bithynian coinage refers to coinage struck by the Kingdom of Bithynia that was situated on the coast of the Black Sea.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Cyaneae

Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Elekosmioi

Elekosmioi was a town located near the coast of the Propontis in ancient Bithynia, between Cius and Apamea Myrlea.Its site is located near Elegmi, Asiatic Turkey.

Hisarlik

Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Mudanya

Mudanya (Mudania, Greek: τα Μουδανιά, ta Moudaniá [Pl.]) (the site of ancient Apamea Myrlea), is a town and district of Bursa Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. It is located on the Gulf of Gemlik, part of the southern coast of the Sea of Marmara. As of 1911, it was connected with Bursa by the Mudanya–Bursa railway and a carriage road, and with Istanbul by steamers. Mudanya has only an open anchorage usable in calm weather. The town produces olive oil and there is a pier used by local fishing and cargo boats.

Nea Moudania

Nea Moudania (Greek: Νέα Μουδανιά, Néa Moudaniá; often referred to as Moudania (Μουδανιά, Moudaniá), which is the name of the municipal unit the town belongs to) is the seat of the municipality of Nea Propontida, Chalkidiki, Greece and its main town. The town is located 60 km south of Thessaloniki and is considered to be the financial and commercial center of the regional unit of Chalkidiki. It was built after 1922 by Greek refugees from Anatolia who wanted to give the settlement the name of their hometown (now Mudanya, Turkey), hence the addition of the word nea, which means new in Greek. Nea Moudania hosts the Department of Fisheries & Aquaculture Technology [1] of the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. The town also features a harbor which serves as Thessaloniki's adjuvant.

Rhodiapolis

Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Tirilye

Tirilye is a town in Bursa Province, Turkey, situated 12 km (7.46 mi) west of Mudanya. It is a country along the Marmara Sealine. The area, which was inhabited since the 8th century BC, was formerly known as Τρίγλεια, Trianomia or Βρύλλειον, Brylleion in Greek. When demand for the products of Southern Marmara from the ancient world increased, ports have been constructed in Kios (Gemlik), Kurşunlu, Apamea Myrlea(Mudanya), Siği (Kumyaka), and Trilye (Zeytinbağı) and the region boomed. The most important historical structure in Trilye(Triglia) is that of the Byzantine Haghioi Theodoroi Church, known today as the Fatih Mosque. Mudanya, a residential and commercial development in this township is under state protection as a historical site.

Trisect has been an important religious center for Greek Orthodox Christians for a long time. Trilye is a first level protected area since 1980 because of the Byzantine and Ottoman architectural monuments and is considered as an open-air museum thanks to the historical buildings and houses. Osman Gazi’s Turkmens in Bursa and surroundings have started settling in this location from the beginning of the year 1303. Kaymak Oba, Mirza Oba and Çepni villages located at the back of Trilye are believed to have been established during this era. After Mudanya was conquered in 1321 Trilye’s ports and other ports in the region started being used. The land at the western parts of Bursa namely the area between current Minor Industry Area (Küçük Sanayi Bölgesi) and Uluabat Lake were very fertile. Grapes, cocoons and cereal crops were grown in this region. In addition the Tahtalı, Demirci and Doğancı regions had high quality wood used in the production of ships. There are signs proving a Genoese cargo boat has visited Trilye port in the 1330s.

Churches and monasteries were constructed in Trigleia and its surroundings on the patronage of Byzantine Emperors.

Only 2500 people currently live in the town due to the impact of the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey. Only the ruins of the Byzantines remain, the ruins of old Byzantine churches. Greek houses built at the end of the 19th century prior to the Genocide line the remaining streets. Nevertheless, the town is under the protection of the Ministry of Culture so no one can destroy the old houses or rebuild them in a different style than the original one. The place is known for its olives and had historically been inhabited by Greek artisans engaged in the silk trade. 'Zeytingbagi' means 'olive yard'.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

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