Anzali Lagoon

Anzali Lagoon (Persian: تالاب انزلی‎) (also Anzali Mordab, Anzali Bay, Pahlavi Mordab, Pahlavi Bay or Anzali Liman)[2] is a coastal liman, or lagoon, in the Caspian Sea near Bandar-e Anzali, in the northern Iranian province of Gilan. The lagoon divides Bandar-e Anzali into two parts, and is home to both the Selke Wildlife Refuge and the Siahkesheem Marsh.[3]

Although the lagoon suffers from pollution,[4] it is known as a good place for bird watching.[3] The lagoon's water ranges from fresh near the tributary streams to brackish near the mouth into the harbor and the sea. Studies indicate that in the 19th and early 20th Centuries that the lagoon had a much higher salinity.[5]

The lagoon has decreased in size since the 1930s to less than a quarter of its former extent.[5] However, in the last ten years (As of 2007) water salinity has increased both by the rise of the level of the Caspian Sea which has caused greater interchange of waters, and due to greater salt transport in incoming "fresh" water due to increased upstream irrigation.[5][6]

The lagoon has been listed in Ramsar Convention since 21 December 1975.[7]

Coordinates: 37°28′16″N 49°27′44″E / 37.47111°N 49.46222°E

Designations
Official nameAnzali Wetland Complex
Designated23 June 1975
Reference no.40[1]
Anzali Lagoon
Anzali lagoon2 Barry Kent
Anzali Lagoon

Fishery

Anzali lagoon Barry Kent
Anzali Lagoon showing growth of Caspian lotus (Nelumbo caspicum) and mats of Azolla filiculoides fern.

Prior to 1950 the Anzali Lagoon provided about 70% of the commercial fish taken in Gilan Province, with catches of over 5,000 tons annually.[2] Commercial fishing was done during the spring and autumn spawning cycles when the kutum, pike-perch and bream, would enter the lagoon from the Caspian.[2] However, a number of factors acted against the continuation of the fishery and by the time commercial fishing ceased in 1960 annual catches were less than 100 tons.[2]

Heavy siltation from increased upstream irrigation had resulted in the shrinkage and shallowing of the lagoon, increased pollution of the source waters and eutrophication due to an increased nutrient load contributed to the destruction of the fishery. More recently the surface of the lagoon has become gradually overgrown with aquatic macrophytes, primarily the non-native water-fern, Azolla filiculoides, and this has caused increased eutrophication, creating large areas of the lagoon where there is insufficient dissolved oxygen for fish to survive.[8][9]

Geography

Located in an area of 15,000 hectares near the northern port city of Bandar Anzali in Gilan Province, Anzali is one of the few Iranian wetlands which have been registered as an international wetland in the 1975 Ramsar Convention. Wetlands are considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems; however, the Anzali Wetland has also been the victim of the authorities neglect, putting it in danger of grave ecological changes.

The use of Anzali Wetland's bank as the city dump and the release of human and industrial waste into the wetland have already put in danger the lives of animal species and at least 78 species of birds living in the area. Besides, some local authorities plan to build a sports field in a peninsula connected to the wetland. This will be the final blow to the wetland, which has so far been prevented only by the serious opposition of environmentalists to the construction of the sports field.

The efforts made in Australia, Canada, the United States and many European countries to protect nature can be considered an epitome of the governments' serious attention to the conservation of natural habitats, which are permanent sources of tourism attraction.

Islands

Among the islands located in the lagoon are Bozorg, Kouchak, and Mianposhteh.[10]

Tributaries

The following rivers and streams flow into the Anzali Lagoon.[11]

  • Pirbazar
  • Pasikhan
  • Shakhraz
  • Gazrudbar
  • Massuleh
  • Palanghvar
  • Abatar
  • Khalkai
  • Morghak
  • Bahambar
  • Shaf

References

  1. ^ "Anzali Wetland Complex". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d Holčik, Juraj and Oláh, János (1992) "Introduction" Fish, Fisheries and Water Quality in Anzali Lagoon and Its Watershed Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, accessed 29 November 2008
  3. ^ a b "IR016: Anzali Mordab complex" Birdand International, accessed 29 November 2008
  4. ^ Pourang, N. (1996) "Heavy metal concentrations in surficial sediments and benthic macroinvertebrates from Anzali wetland, Iran" Hydrobiologia 331(1/3): pp. 53–61, p.53, et.seq.
  5. ^ a b c Holčik, Juraj and Oláh, János (1992) "2.3 Status of the Anzali Lagoon" Fish, Fisheries and Water Quality in Anzali Lagoon and Its Watershed Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, accessed 29 November 2008
  6. ^ Final Report of the 5th Meeting on Anzali Lagoon Adaptive Management Pilot Initiation Project (17 April 2007), Caspian Environment Program (CEP), p. 4, accessed 28 November 2008
  7. ^ Ramsar sites database
  8. ^ Holčik, Juraj and Oláh, János (1992) "2.3.3 Azolla invasion" Fish, Fisheries and Water Quality in Anzali Lagoon and Its Watershed Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, accessed 29 November 2008
  9. ^ Jamalzad, F.; Nezami, Sh. and Sefat, A. Darvish (2004) "Investigation of trophic states in the Anzali Lagoon using GIS" Intecol 7th International Wetlands Conference, Utrecht, Netherlands
  10. ^ "About Guilan Province: Anzali Wetland" Guilan Province Water and Wastewater Company Archived January 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, accessed 28 November 2008
  11. ^ Holčik, Juraj and Oláh, János (1992) "Table 4: A suspended sediment transport to Anzali Lagoon in 1990–91" Fish, Fisheries and Water Quality in Anzali Lagoon and Its Watershed Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, accessed 29 November 2008
Bandar-e Anzali

Bandar-e Anzali (Persian: بندرانزلی‎, also Romanized as Bandar-e Anzalī; known as Bandar-e Pahlavi before the Iranian Revolution) is a city of Gilan Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 144,664.Anzali is one of the most important cities in Iran in terms of tourism, economics, and athletics. The city was home to the first and biggest port on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Bandar-e Anzali consists of an island called Mianposhteh and the surrounding lands. Tourist attractions include a clock tower called Manareh, the long harbour promenade, and the water-logged delta and beach along the Sefid Rud.

Estil Lagoon

Estil Lagoon (Persian: تالاب استیل‎), One of the tourist attractions in Astara city. Located by the Astara – Rasht road. This Lagoon is 138 acres. Estil Lagoon has been identified as one of the top five places of tourism in Gilan in 2005 .

Lagoon

A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs. Lagoons are commonly divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons. They have also been identified as occurring on mixed-sand and gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of water classified as coastal lagoons and bodies of water classified as estuaries. Lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world.

Lake-effect snow

Lake-effect snow is produced during cooler atmospheric conditions when a cold air mass moves across long expanses of warmer lake water. The lower layer of air, heated up by the lake water, picks up water vapor from the lake and rises up through the colder air above; the vapor then freezes and is deposited on the leeward (downwind) shores.The same effect also occurs over bodies of salt water, when it is termed ocean-effect or bay-effect snow. The effect is enhanced when the moving air mass is uplifted by the orographic influence of higher elevations on the downwind shores. This uplifting can produce narrow but very intense bands of precipitation, which deposit at a rate of many inches of snow each hour, often resulting in a large amount of total snowfall.

The areas affected by lake-effect snow are called snowbelts. These include areas east of the Great Lakes, the west coasts of northern Japan, the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia, and areas near the Great Salt Lake, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Baltic Sea, and the Adriatic Sea.

Lake-effect blizzards are the blizzard-like conditions resulting from lake-effect snow. Under certain conditions, strong winds can accompany lake-effect snows creating blizzard-like conditions; however the duration of the event is often slightly less than that required for a blizzard warning in both the US and Canada.

If the air temperature is low enough to keep the precipitation frozen, it falls as lake-effect snow. If not, then it falls as lake-effect rain. For lake-effect rain or snow to form, the air moving across the lake must be significantly cooler than the surface air (which is likely to be near the temperature of the water surface). Specifically, the air temperature at an altitude where the air pressure is 850 millibars (85 kPa) (roughly 1.5 kilometers or 0.93 miles vertically) should be 13 °C (23 °F) lower than the temperature of the air at the surface. Lake-effect occurring when the air at 850 millibars (85 kPa) is much colder than the water surface can produce thundersnow, snow showers accompanied by lightning and thunder (caused by larger amounts of energy available from the increased instability).

Ramsar Wetland Conservation Award

The Ramsar Wetland Conservation Award honours the work of governments, organisations and individuals in promoting the wise use and conservation of wetlands.

The Ramsar Wetland Conservation Award was established in 1996 at the 6th Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention. The Award has been given six times so far on the occasion of Meetings of the Conference of the Contracting Parties (1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012, and 2015). All awardees have also received the Evian Special Prize of US$10,000, donated by the Danone Group.

Ziabar (Gaskar)

Ziabar (formerly Gaskar), is a hamlet in Gilan Province, Iran at 37°25'48" N, 49°15'0" E.

Ziabar has a population of approximately 4,500. Two rivers flow through it, both of which empty into Anzali Lagoon. Ziabar's residents speak Gilaki but many Tat, Taylish, and Azeri immigrants also live there. The settlement is known for its high quality rice, kitchen gardens, and surrounding spruce tree forests.

According to historical documents, Ziabar was founded around 800 years ago. It is thought Ziabar was originally located at a different site, now a ruin. Most likely, the plague wiped out a significant number of early residents, causing the remaining Ziabari people to immigrate to the town's present place.

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