Antony Tudor

Antony Tudor (4 April 1908 – 19 April 1987) was an English ballet choreographer, teacher and dancer.

Antony Tudor
Antony Tudor in Gala Performance, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1941
Born4 April 1908
London, England
Died19 April 1987 (aged 79)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Resting placeashes in Woodlawn Cemetery in Zen Institute of America plot.

Life and career

Tudor was born William Cook in London.[1] He discovered dance accidentally. Tudor’s first exposure to professional ballet was in his late teens when he first saw Diaghilev's Ballet Russes. He witnessed the dancer Serge Lifar of the Diaghilev Ballet in Balanchine’s Apollon Musagète in 1928. Later, the Ballet Russes would introduce him to Anna Pavlova, whom further inspired his journey into the world of dance. Tudor reached out to Cyril Beaumont, the owner of a ballet book shop in the Charing Cross Road district in London, to seek advice regarding training and was instructed to study with Marie Rambert, a former Diaghilev Ballet dancer who taught the Cecchetti method.

He began dancing professionally with Marie Rambert in 1928, becoming general assistant for her Ballet Club the next year. A precocious choreographer, at age twenty-three he created for her dancers Cross Garter'd, then Lysistrata, The Planets and other works at the little Mercury Theatre, Notting Hill Gate, and his two most revolutionary, Jardin Aux Lilas (Lilac Garden) and Dark Elegies, before the age of thirty, himself dancing the main roles.

In 1938, he founded the London Ballet with Rambert members, including his future life partner, Hugh Laing,[2] Andrée Howard, Agnes de Mille, Peggy van Praagh, Maude Lloyd and Walter Gore. With the onset of World War II, in 1940 he was invited with them to New York, joining Richard Pleasant's and Lucia Chase's reorganized Ballet Theater. Chase's company was later to become the American Ballet Theatre, with which Tudor was closely associated for the rest of his life.

He was a resident choreographer with Ballet Theater for ten years, restaging some of his earlier works but also creating new works, his great Pillar of Fire (1942), Romeo and Juliet, Dim Lustre and Undertow, on that company by the end of the war. Retiring from dancing in 1950, he headed the faculty of the Metropolitan Opera Ballet School, taught at the Juilliard School recurrently from 1950 onwards, and was artistic director for the Royal Swedish Ballet from 1963-64. He choreographed three works for the New York City Ballet. Tudor continued his teaching career as Professor of Ballet Technique at the Department of Dance, University of California, Irvine from 1973 (work curtailed by a serious heart condition), while rejoining American Ballet Theatre in 1974 as associate artistic director, creating The Leaves Are Fading and Tiller In the Fields, his last major work, in 1978. With Laing, he continued seasonal residence in Laguna Beach, California.

Muses in which specific ballets where created for include Maude Lloyd, Hugh Laing and Nora Kaye. While specific ballets were not created for them, Diana Adams and Sallie Wilson can also be considered as muses of Mr. Tudor.

As a teacher, Tudor was known for focusing on physical and psychological details to strip away the ego allowing the dancer to be pushed outside their comfort zone and extend their potential. In an interview with Dick Cavett, Tudor is noted as saying, "You’ve got to get rid of the personal mannerisms to get to the character in the ballet and dancers don't want to let go. Breaking down a person isn't hard. But you cannot break them down unless you are willing to pick up the ashes right away and turn them into the Phoenix. That's the tough thing. You're terribly tempted to lay them flat and walk on them. "

Boston Ballet
Boston Ballet dancers perform Antony Tudor's Dark Elegies (2008)

Tudor was awarded a creative arts medal by Brandeis University, the Dance Magazine and Capezio awards, New York City's Handel Medallion, and both Kennedy Center and Dance/USA National Honors.[3] Tudor was inducted into the Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame at the National Museum of Dance in 1988.

Legacy & Trust

Tudor is generally accepted as of the great originals of modern dance forms. Along with George Balanchine, he is seen as a principal transformer of ballet into a modern art, but of a genius that uses, rather than proceeds from, ballet forms. His work is usually considered as modern “psychological” expression, but — like their creator - of austerity, elegance and nobility, remarkably primarily using only classical forms. Mikhail Baryshnikov said, "We do Tudor's ballets because we must. Tudor's work is our conscience."[4] A disciplined Zen Buddhist, Tudor died on Easter Sunday in his residence at the First Zen Institute of America, aged 79.[5]

Thirty of Tudor's dances have been documented in Labanotation[6] by the Dance Notation Bureau. The scores' introductory material contains history of the dances, cast lists, stylistic notes, background on Tudor, and information needed to stage the works (costumes, sets, lighting, music).

The Antony Tudor Ballet Trust was established to continue staging Mr. Tudor’s works. His Last Will and Testament appointed Sally Brayley Bliss as the sole Trustee of his ballets upon his Will submission to The Surrogate’s Court of the State of New York in 1987.

The Trust includes the following répétiterus: Diana Byer, John Gardner, Airi Hymninen, James Jordan, Donald Mahler, Amanda McKerrow, Christopher Newton, Kirk Peterson, David Richardson, Willy Shives, Lance Westwood, Celia Franca (in memoriam) and Sallie Wilson (in memoriam). Tara McBride is the Administrator for the trust.

Major works[7]

(* Ballets Available for Production )

  • Adam and Eve (1932)
  • Atalanta of the East (1933)
  • Britannia Triumphans (1953)
  • Cereus * (1971)
  • Choreographer Comments, A * (1960)
  • Concerning Oracles (1966)
  • Constanza's Lament (1932)
  • Continuo * (1971)
  • Cross Garter'd (1931)
  • Dance Studies (less Orthodox) * (1961)
  • Dark Elegies * (1937)
  • Day Before Spring, The (1945)
  • Dear Departed, The (1949)
  • Decent of Hebe, The (1935)
  • Dim Lustre * (1943)
  • Divine Horsemen, The * (1969)
  • Echoing of Trumpets * (1963)
  • Elizabethan Dances (1953)
  • Fandango * (1963)
  • Exercise Piece * (1953)
  • Gala Performance * (1938)
  • Galant Assembly (1937)
  • Gloire, La (1952)
  • Goya Pastoral (1940)
  • Hail and Farewell (1959)
  • Judgment of Paris * (1938)
  • Knight Errant (1968)
  • Lady of Camellias (1951)
  • Leaves are Fading * (1975)
  • Legend of Dick Whittington, The (1934)
  • Leyenda de Jose, La (1958)
  • Lilac Garden (Jardin Aux Lilas) * (1936)
  • Little Improvisations * (1953)
  • Lysistrata (1932)
  • Mains Gauches, Les * (1951)
  • Mr. Roll's Quadrilles (1932)
  • Nimbus (1950)
  • Offenbach in the Underworld *(1954)
  • Paramour (1934)
  • Pas de Trois * (1956)
  • Passamezzi (1962)
  • Pavane pour une Infante Defunte (1933)
  • Pillar of Fire * (1942)
  • Planets, The * (1934)
  • Romeo and Juliet, The Tragedy of * (1943)
  • Ronde du Printemps (1951)
  • Seven Intimate Dances (1938)
  • Shadow of the Wind (1948)
  • Shadowplay * (1967)
  • Soiree Musicale * (1938)
  • Suite of Airs (1937)
  • Sunflowers * (1971)
  • Tiller in the Fields, The (1978)
  • Time Table (1941)
  • Trio con Brio * (1952)
  • Undertow * (1945)


  1. ^ "Antony Tudor - Beginnings". Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  2. ^ Re: Laing (1911-1988), see his entry in The Encyclopedia of Dance & Ballet, Mary Clarke and David Vaughan, eds (New York: Putnam, 1977), pp. 202f; and William Como, "Editor's log: Hugh Laing", Dance Magazine (July 1988), p. 32
  3. ^ For these and other cited facts, see the obituary statement by Gary Parks, "Antony Tudor, 1908-1987", Dance Magazine 61 (August 1987): 19; Tudor's entry in The Encyclopedia of Dance & Ballet, Mary Clarke and David Vaughan, eds (New York: Putnam, 1977), pp. 341f; and On Point (Friends of American Ballet Theatre) 13, no. 1 (Fall 1986): pp. 3-4
  4. ^ On Point 13, no.1, p. 3
  5. ^ For an essay interpretation of the man and his art, see Olga Maynard, "Antony Tudor: A Loving Memoir", Dance Magazine: 61 (August 1987): pp. 18-19, illustrated. For closer interpretation of Tudor's work through the 1950s, see Olga Maynard, The American Ballet (Philadelphia: Macrae Smith Company, 1959), 'Antony Tudor', pp. 127-38
  6. ^ "Dance Notation Bureau's On-line Notated Theatrical Dances Catalog". Dance Notation Bureau. Dance Notation Bureau. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  7. ^ "Antony Tudor - Ballets". Retrieved 22 June 2017.

Further reading

  • Chazin-Bennahum, Judith (1994). The Ballets of Antony Tudor: Studies in Psyche and Satire. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Perlmutter, Donna (1995). Shadowplay: The Life of Antony Tudor. NYC: Limelight Editions. ISBN 978-0-87910-189-3.

External links

Annabelle Lyon

Annabelle Lyon (New York City, January 8, 1916 – November 4, 2011, Mansfield, Massachusetts) was an American ballerina. She was a principal dancer with American Ballet Theatre.

She was raised in Memphis, where her father Max ran a chain of grocery stores. She took her first ballet lessons there and, showing talent, received a scholarship to Michel Fokine's school in New York and lived with relatives in Brooklyn.

Lyon was a member of George Balanchine’s American Ballet, founded by Lincoln Kirstein in 1936, and danced in the original casts of Le baiser de la fée, Jeu de cartes and Serenade. Three years later she was one of the original dancers of Ballet Theatre, now known as American Ballet Theatre. On January 12, 1940, she was the company's first Giselle, partnered by Anton Dolin. The next year, on October 31, she danced her former teacher Fokine's Le Spectre de la Rose; she and her partner Ian Gibson were the last dancers taught the rôles by the choreographer.

Her repertory included classical as well as contemporary works by the company's founders Antony Tudor and Agnes de Mille; de Mille's 1941 Three Virgins and a Devil (as The Lustful One), Tudor’s 1942 Pillar of Fire. On May 12, 1947, she danced with Jerome Robbins in the premiere of his Summer Day at New York City Center.

Leaving Ballet Theater, Lyon danced on Broadway in Carousel (1945–47) and in Juno (1959), both choreographed by de Mille. She married businessman Julius Borah in 1946, their son Joshua survives them.

Aubert Vanderlinden

Aubert Vanderlinden is an international award winning ballet dancer and choreographer, he was born in 1985, in Uccle, Belgium.

After starting ballet with Piotr Nardelli in Brussels, Aubert Vanderlinden continued his classes at the Paris Opera Ballet school and later on, joined the prestigious ballet company in 2003.

During the season 2004-2005, we could particularly appreciate his talent in the creation of Suzanne Linke ich bin.... With the Paris Opera Ballet, he performed ballets by George Balanchine, Jerome Robbins, William Forsythe, Patrice Bart, Rudolf Noureev and so on.

In 2006, Aubert makes his "debut" as a choreographer at the Bastille opera with a piece entitled "In Memoriam".Among other awards and prizes, Aubert Vanderlinden won the Bronze medal in the senior category of the 22nd international ballet competition of Varna, in Bulgaria.In 2007, Aubert Vanderlinden joined the San Francisco Ballet. Among other pieces, he danced a principal role in the creation the ruins proclaim the building was beautiful.. choreographed by James Kudelka at the occasion of the new works festival 2008 organized for the 75th anniversary of the San Francisco Ballet, he also danced Ibsen's House of Val Caniparoli created for the same occasion. In San Francisco, Aubert Vanderlinden performed ballets by Antony Tudor, Helgi Tomasson, Jerome Robbins, Yuri Possokhov and so on.In 2009, Aubert Vanderlinden joined the Dutch National Ballet, he choreographed a piece entitled "Satyriasis" for the 2010 New Moves program of the company.

Bar aux Folies-Bergère (ballet)

Bar aux Folies-Bergère is a one-act ballet created in 1934, with scenario and choreography by Ninette de Valois, and designs by William Chappell after Manet. The music consists of piano works by Emmanuel Chabrier, selected and arranged by Constant Lambert.

The Ballet Rambert in 1934 had a dancer, Elisabeth Schooling, who had a very similar appearance to the barmaid in Manet’s Un bar aux Folies Bergère. Ashley Dukes, Marie Rambert’s husband suggested there might be a ballet around the picture, also introducing can-can dancers. In fact the role was created by Pearl Argyle, but Schooling danced it subsequently. The original owner of Manet’s 1882 painting was Chabrier; it now hangs in the Courtauld Institute of Art in London.

Bar aux Folies-Bergère was first performed on 15 May 1934 by Ballet Rambert at the Ballet Club at the Mercury Theatre, Notting Hill, London. The cast included Alicia Markova as the can-can dancer La Goulue, Frederick Ashton as the waiter Valentin le Désossé, Pearl Argyle as the Barmaid, with Diana Gould, Mary Skeaping, Tamara Svetlova and Mona Kimberley (Can-can dancers), William Chappell and Walter Gore (Adolphe and Gustave, habitues of the Bar), Oliver Reynolds (an old man) and Suzette Morfield (a servant). Antony Tudor was the production stage manager.

Donald Mahler

Donald Mahler is an American ballet dancer, choreographer and stage director. As a dancer and later choreographer, Mahler had a long career with the Metropolitan Opera in New York City from 1962 to 1986. Today he is mainly active as a director of ballets, and is particularly known for his stagings of the works of Antony Tudor.

Gelsey Kirkland

Gelsey Kirkland (born December 29, 1952) is an American ballerina. Kirkland joined the New York City Ballet in 1968 at age 15, at the invitation of George Balanchine. She was promoted to soloist in 1969, and principal in 1972. She went on to create leading roles in many of the great twentieth century ballets by Balanchine, Jerome Robbins, and Antony Tudor, including Balanchine's revival of The Firebird, Robbins' Goldberg Variations, and Tudor's The Leaves are Fading. Balanchine re-choreographed his version of Stravinsky's The Firebird specifically for her. She left the New York City Ballet to join the American Ballet Theatre in 1974.

She is perhaps most famous to the general public for dancing the role of Clara Stahlbaum in Baryshnikov's 1977 televised production of The Nutcracker. She left the American Ballet Theatre in 1984.

Genia Melikova

Evgenia "Genia" Melikova (January 6, 1924 – March 5, 2004) was a well-known ballet dancer in Europe in the 1950s and 60s who then established a long and prestigious teaching career in the United States.

Melikova was born in Marseilles, France to Russian parents. She began her ballet training in Nice with Julia Sedova. At an early age, she joined the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo under the direction of Leonide Massine. Following World War II, Melikova emigrated to the United States with her parents, where she continued her studies under the direction of Anatole Vilzak, Lubov Egorova, Igor Schwezoff and Antony Tudor. She performed briefly with American Ballet Theatre before joining the Paris-based Grand Ballet du Marquis de Cuevas company (1954–1962), the first European troupe to feature ballets by American choreographers and American dancers. Her roles included Aurora and the Lilac Fairy in The Sleeping Beauty and Odette-Odile in Swan Lake.

Ms. Melikova was the first Western ballerina to perform with Rudolf Nureyev after his defection to the West in 1961. They danced together numerous times - The Sleeping Beauty and the Black Swan Pas de deux - in France, Italy, and Israel (Ballet Today April 1964). She also danced with the Grand Ballet Classique de France and the London Festival Ballet (1963–64) before moving to New York where she performed at Radio City Music Hall and on Broadway.

In 1969, the ballet choreographer Antony Tudor suggested Ms. Melikova join the dance faculty at The Juilliard School. She was a gifted teacher and taught there for 26 years where she choreographed and directed Vivaldiana (March 1985) and restaged the Pas de trois from George Balanchine's Paquita. She also taught at the Igor Youskevitch School of Ballet and the Alvin Ailey American Dance Center, directed the Bridgeport Ballet Company in Connecticut and was a guest instructor at Randolph-Macon Woman's College.

Genia Melikova died on March 5, 2004 at the age of 74 in New York City.

Hugh Laing

Hugh Laing (6 June 1911 – 10 May 1988) was one of the most significant dramatic ballet dancers of the 20th-century. He danced with Marie Rambert's Ballet Club and New York City Ballet. He was the partner of choreographer Antony Tudor.

Jardin aux Lilas

Jardin aux Lilas (Lilac Garden) is a ballet in one act choreographed by Antony Tudor to a composition by Ernest Chausson entitled Poème, Op. 25. With scenery and costumes designed by Hugo Stevenson, it was first presented by Ballet Rambert at the Mercury Theatre, London, on 26 January 1936. It is considered to be the first of the genre of psychological ballets.

London Ballet

London Ballet was a short lived British ballet company founded by the British choreographer and former Ballet Rambert dancer Antony Tudor in 1938, along with Rambert members Hugh Laing, Andrée Howard, Agnes de Mille, Peggy van Praagh, Maude Lloyd and Walter Gore. With the onset of World War II, in 1940 they were invited to New York, joining Richard Pleasant's and Lucia Chase's reorganized Ballet Theater, which later became the American Ballet Theatre.

In 1961 Walter Gore founded a new company, also called London Ballet. He was its director from 1961 until it closed in 1963.

Louisville Ballet

The Louisville Ballet is a ballet school and company based in Louisville, Kentucky and is the official state ballet of The Commonwealth of Kentucky. It is currently led by Artistic and Executive Director Robert Curran. More than 100,000 people attend the company's productions annually of which most are accompanied by the Louisville Orchestra. The company performs at three venues in the city, The Brown Theatre, The Kentucky Center, and, rarely, The Louisville Palace.

The Louisville Ballet was founded in 1952 and it achieved professional status and admitted its first students in 1975. It is the only regional company with which Mikhail Baryshnikov has performed in repertoire productions (He danced with the company during the 1978–79 and 1979–80 seasons). The Ballet has more than 60 world premieres to its credit with a repertoire of about 150 pieces choreographed by the likes of Sir Frederick Ashton, Erik Bruhn, George Balanchine, Antony Tudor, John Cranko, Jack Carter, Kurt Jooss, Choo San Goh, Jose Limon, Paul Taylor, David Parsons, Eugene Loring, Saeko Ichinohe and Domy Reiter-Soffer, along with Fokine and Bournonville ballets. The Ballet also presents several full length ballets each year including Swan Lake, The Sleeping Beauty, Coppelia, Romeo and Juliet, Cinderella, Giselle and Don Quixote. In addition to the regular subscription series, the Louisville Ballet presents The Nutcracker each holiday season in association with the Brown-Forman Corporation.

The Louisville Ballet building, designed by Louisville architects Bravura Corporation, is a $2.2 million facility built in 1995 houses two large rehearsal studios and administrative offices. The Louisville Ballet Center received the Honor Award for Excellence in Architectural Design by the Kentucky chapter of the American Institute of Architects and was featured in the May 1997 edition of Architecture Magazine. It is located at 315 East Main St. in downtown Louisville.

The Louisville Ballet School is the official school and training center connected with the Louisville Ballet. The Louisville Ballet Youth Ensemble is the student performing group of the School. Alumni of the Ensemble have gone on to dance professionally with the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, Ailey II, American Ballet Theatre, Aspen Santa Fe Ballet, Ballet Magnificat!, Barcelona Ballet (formerly Corella Ballet), Boston Ballet II, Colorado Ballet, Ft. Wayne Ballet, Houston Ballet, Louisville Ballet, Missouri Ballet Theatre, New York City Ballet, Peridance and Sarasota Ballet, and those who have continued their dance education at NYU, Fordham (Ailey), Butler University, Florida State, University of Arizona, Ohio State University, Pointe Park University and Southern Methodist University. Many students also went on to study with professional training programs including Boston Ballet, Harid Conservatory, Next Generation Ballet, Pacific Northwest Ballet, San Francisco Ballet and the School of American Ballet. The school also hosts a summer camp for aspiring dancers.

Minnesota Ballet

The Minnesota Ballet is a ballet company and school located in Duluth, Minnesota. Founded in 1965 by Donna Harkins and Jan Gibson as the Duluth Civic Ballet, the company has since expanded into a touring company with seventeen professional artists. From 1992–2007 the Artistic Executive Director of the Minnesota Ballet was Allen Fields, who retired to become Artistic Director Emirtus. Fields acquired rights to works by master choreographer's like Agnes de Mille, Antony Tudor, and George Balanchine. He was succeeded by current Artistic Director Robert Gardner. The Minnesota Ballet is entering its 53rd season in 2018/19.

New York Theatre Ballet

New York Theatre Ballet or NYTB was founded in 1978 by Diana Byer, who became its artistic director. Dedicated to the principles of the Cecchetti-Diaghilev tradition, the company both reprises classic masterworks and produces original ballets.

New York Theatre Ballet has performed works by choreographers including Richard Alston, Frederick Ashton, George Balanchine, Gemma Bond, August Bournonville, Michel Fokine, David Gordon, José Limón, John Taras, and Antony Tudor. The company tours its family and adult programs both nationally and abroad, and has become the most widely seen chamber ballet company in the United States.

Pas de quatre (ballet)

Pas de quatre (literally, "step of four") is a French term used to identify a ballet dance for four people. Pas de quatre are usually plotless dances performed as divertissements within the context of a larger work. However, narrative pas de quatre and pas de quatre that stand alone are not unknown.

Pillar of Fire

Pillar of Fire can refer to:

Pillar of Fire (theophany), a manifestation of God in the Tanakh

Pillar of Fire International, a Christian organization

Pillar of Fire (novel) by Judith Tarr

Pillar of Fire (documentary), mini series on the history of Zionism and Israel

Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963–65, the second volume of Taylor Branch's trilogy on Martin Luther King, Jr.

Pillar of Fire and Other Plays by Ray Bradbury

A short story included in the anthology S Is for Space

Pillar of Fire (ballet) by Antony Tudor

Pillar of Fire (sculpture), an outdoor sculpture in Washington, D.C.

A sculpture of stylized flames by Egon Weiner at the site of origin of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871

The Pillar of Fire, an 1899 French short silent trick film

Pillar of Fire (ballet)

Pillar of Fire is a 30-minute dramatic ballet choreographed by Antony Tudor to Arnold Schoenberg's Verklärte Nacht (Transfigured Night), Op. 4.

Royal Swedish Ballet

The Royal Swedish Ballet is one of the oldest ballet companies in Europe. Based in Stockholm, Sweden, King Gustav III founded the ballet in 1773 as a part of his national cultural project in response to the French and Italian dominance in this field; he also founded the Royal Swedish Opera and the Royal Dramatic Theatre. All of these were initially located in the old theatre of Bollhuset. The troupe was founded with the opening of the Royal Swedish Opera, which has served as its home since that time.

Sallie Wilson

Sallie Wilson (1932–2008) was a noted ballerina who appeared with New York City Ballet where she danced opposite Martha Graham in the premiere of Graham and George Balanchine's collaboration at NYCB, Episodes in May, 1959, and subsequently with American Ballet Theatre, where she was associated with several ballets created by Antony Tudor. In 1966, she achieved a triumph as Hagar in ABT's revival of Tudor's ballet Pillar of Fire, set to the music of Arnold Schoenberg's Transfigured Night. The ballet is loosely based on the poem that inspired Schoenberg piece (although rather loosely) rather than the Biblical story of Hagar.Ms. Wilson made one television appearance, as Mrs. Stahlbaum, the mother of Clara (Gelsey Kirkland), in Mikhail Baryshnikov's television version of Tschaikovsky's The Nutcracker, and one film appearance, in the 1973 PBS documentary American Ballet Theatre: A Close-Up in Time. She also appeared on Merv Griffin's television special "Sidewalks of New England" in 1968, performing a dance from Agnes DeMille's "Fall River Legend".

Ms. Wilson was a Ballet Mistress for New York Theatre Ballet when she died of cancer in Manhattan, on April 27, 2008.

Song of the Earth (ballet)

Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth), a symphonic work written by the Austrian composer Gustav Mahler in 1908–1909 and scored for two voices and orchestra, has been used for ballets by several well-known choreographers. Among them are Antony Tudor (1908–1987), Kenneth Macmillan (1929–1992), Heinz Spoerli (born 1940), and John Neumeier (born 1942).

The Precipice (Hugh MacLennan novel)

The Precipice is a 1948 novel written by Hugh MacLennan. It won the Governor General's Award for Fiction. MacLennan partly based The Precipice on the ballet Pillar of Fire, whose cast included Nora Kaye and Antony Tudor.


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