Antonio Candido

Antonio Candido de Mello e Souza (July 24, 1918 – May 12, 2017) was a Brazilian writer, professor, sociologist and literary critic.[1] As a critic of Brazilian literature, he is regarded as having been one of the foremost scholars on the subject by Brazilian universities. He was the co-winner of the Prêmio Jabuti for essays in 1965 and was awarded the Prêmio Machado de Assis in 1993, the Camões Prize in 1998 and the Alfonso Reyes International Prize in 2005.

Candido was professor-emeritus at the University of São Paulo and São Paulo State University and doctor honoris causa by the University of Campinas.

Antonio Candido
Antonio Candido at the Literature Festival of Paraty in 2011 Foto: André Gomes de Melo.
Antonio Candido at the Literature Festival of Paraty in 2011
Foto: André Gomes de Melo.
BornAntonio Candido de Mello e Sousa
July 24, 1918
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
DiedMay 12, 2017 (aged 98)
São Paulo, Brazil
OccupationAuthor, literary critic, sociologist, professor
Notable awardsPrêmio Jabuti, Prêmio Camões, Prêmio Machado de Assis, Alfonso Reyes International Prize
SpouseGilda de Melo e Sousa


Son of Aristides Candido de Mello e Souza, M.D., and Clarisse Tolentino de Mello e Souza, most of Antonio Candido's childhood was spent in the Brazilian countryside, in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo. During this period, he did not attend school, being taught at home by his mother. In 1937 he and his family settled down in São Paulo, where he received formal education. In 1939, Candido began studying Law at the University of São Paulo School of Law, a course he would eventually abandon in order to study philosophy at the same university.

His first critical works were published in 1941, in the magazine Clima, co-founded by himself, and, in the following year, he began teaching at the University of São Paulo, first in the department of sociology and later, a position he would hold, although with a brief interval from 1958 to 1960, for thirty-six years. Candido also taught Brazilian Literature at the University of Paris from 1964 to 1966, and became visiting scholar at Yale University two years later.

His major work of literary criticism was published in 1959, entitled Formação da Literatura Brasileira (literally, "Formation of Brazilian Literature), a highly polemic and influential study of the foundations of his country's literary arts.

Candido was also active in politics during many periods of his life: he was a militant against Getúlio Vargas's Estado Novo and helped to found the Worker's Party in 1980.

Candido married Gilda de Melo e Sousa in 1943, a Brazilian essayist and fellow professor at the University of São Paulo, with whom he has three daughters.

Candido was hospitalized at Albert Einstein Hospital in São Paulo days before his death on May 12, 2017 due to a hiatus hernia.[2] He was 98.[1][3]

Major Works

  • Introdução ao Método Crítico de Sílvio Romero - 1945
  • Brigada Ligeira - 1945
  • Ficção e Confissão - 1956
  • O Observador Literário - 1959
  • Formação da Literatura Brasileira - Momentos Decisivos - 1959
  • Presença da Literatura Brasileira - 1964 - com J. Aderaldo Castello
  • Tese e Antítese - 1964
  • Os Parceiros do Rio Bonito - 1964
  • Literatura e Sociedade - 1965
  • Literatura e Cultura de 1900 a 1945 - 1970
  • Vários Escritos - 1970
  • Teresina Etc. - 1980
  • Na Sala de Aula - 1985
  • A Educação pela Noite e Outros Ensaios - 1987
  • O Discurso e a Cidade - 1993
  • Recortes - 1993
  • O Romantismo no Brasil - 2002
  • Um Funcionário da Monarquia - 2002
  • O Albatroz e o Chinês - 2004
  • Iniciação à Literatura Brasileira - 2004

Partial bibliography

  • Antonio Candido: On Literature and Society by Antonio Candido with Howard S. Becker as translator. (Princeton University Press: May 5, 1995) ISBN 0-691-03630-6
  • Antonio Candido's entry at Enciclopédia Itaú Cultural


  1. ^ a b "Morre Antonio Candido aos 98 anos". Estadão (in Portuguese). May 12, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  2. ^ Rizzo, Sergio (May 12, 2017). "Brazilian Literary Critic and Sociologist Antonio Candido Dies in São Paulo at Age 98". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  3. ^ Martins, Miguel (May 12, 2017). "Um "radical de ocasião": Antonio Candido morre aos 98 anos". CartaCapital (in Portuguese). Retrieved May 12, 2017.
1918 in Brazil

Events in the year 1918 in Brazil.

1998 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1998.

Alfonso Reyes International Prize

The Alfonso Reyes International Prize is a Mexican award given for meritorious lifetime contributions to literary research and criticism. It was founded in 1972 by the economist turned author/critic, Francisco Zendejas and was named in honor of Alfonso Reyes, a well-known Mexican literary critic, author and poet.Since its creation, the prize has been awarded by the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (INBA), in cooperation with the Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (Conaculta), the Sociedad Alfonsina Internacional, the government of Nuevo León, the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, the Universidad Regiomontana and the Instituto Tecnológico de Monterrey.

The first award was presented in 1973. No awards were given from 1996-1999.

António Cândido

António Cândido, or in Brazilian Portuguese Antônio Cândido is a double-barreled masculine first name.

Antonio Candido (literary critic), pen-name of Antônio Cândido de Mello e Souza, Brazilian literary critic

António Cândido Gonçalves Crespo, Brazilian-born Portuguese poet

António Cândido Gonçalves Crespo

António Cândido Gonçalves Crespo (11 March 1846 – 11 June 1883) was a Brazilian-born Portuguese poet. Born to a slave mother on the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro on 11 March 1846, he moved to Portugal at the age of ten. He was educated at the University of Coimbra, but "devoted himself almost exclusively to the Muses at Lisbon." His poetry was deeply informed by Parnassianism. He occasionally collaborated with his wife Maria Amália Vaz de Carvalho, also a noted writer. He died in Lisbon on 11 June 1883, aged 37.

António Paris

António Cândido Duarte Paris (born 13 June 1957) is a former Portuguese footballer who played as a defender.

Brazilian literature

Brazilian literature is the literature written in the Portuguese language by Brazilians or in Brazil, including works written prior to the country’s independence in 1822. Throughout its early years, literature from Brazil followed the literary trends of Portugal, whereas gradually shifting to a different and authentic writing style in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, in the search for truly Brazilian themes and use of the Portuguese language.

Portuguese is a Romance dialect and the sole official language of Brazil. Lyrically, the poet Olavo Bilac, named it " (...) desconhecida e obscura./ Tuba de alto clangor, lira singela,/ Que tens o trom e o silvo da procela,/ E o arrolo da saudade e da ternura! ", which roughly translates as "(...) unknown and obscure,/ Tuba of high blare, delicate lyre,/ That holds the frill and the hiss of the tempest/ And the singing of the saudade and of the tenderness!"

Brazil’s most significant literary award is the Camões Prize, which it shares with the entire Portuguese sprachraum. As of 2016, Brazil has eleven recipients of the prize. Brazil also holds its own literary academy, the Brazilian Academy of Letters, a non-profit cultural organization pointed in perpetuating the care of the national language and literature.Brazilian literature has been very prolific. Having as birth the letter of Pero Vaz de Caminha, the document that marks the discovery of Brazil, the country’s literature has encompassed several significant writers. Major figures include novelists Machado de Assis, Guimarães Rosa, Jorge Amado, Clarice Lispector and Graciliano Ramos; poets such as João Cabral de Melo Neto, Mario de Andrade, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Vinicius de Moraes, Ferreira Gullar and Manuel Bandeira; dramatists like Nelson Rodrigues and Augusto Boal, and literary critics and theorists as Antonio Candido and Otto Maria Carpeaux, among others.

Camões Prize

The Camões Prize (Portuguese, Prémio Camões, Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpɾɛmju kaˈmõĩ̯ʃ]), named after Luís de Camões, is the most important prize for literature in the Portuguese language. It is awarded annually by the Portuguese Direcção-Geral do Livro e das Bibliotecas (National Book Department) and the Brazilian Fundação Biblioteca Nacional (National Library Foundation) to the author of an outstanding oeuvre of work written in Portuguese. The monetary award is of €100,000, making it among the richest literary prizes in the world.


Candido is both a given name and a surname. Notable people with the name include:

Given name:

Candido Amantini (1914–1992), Italian Roman Catholic priest

Candido Camero known simply as "Candido" (born 1921), Cuban percussionist

Candido Jacuzzi (1903–1986), Italian-American inventor

Candido Portinari (1903–1962), Brazilian painterSurname:

Antonio Candido (1918–2017), writer, professor, and literary critic

Candy Candido (1913–1999), American actor and bass player

Chris Candido (1972–2005), American professional wrestler

Giacomo Candido (1871–1941), Italian mathematician

Johnny Candido (born 1982), American professional wrestlerPseudonym

Jose Martinez Ruiz (1873-1967) Spanish essayist


Clima (meaning Climate in English) was a cultural magazine published in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Ismail Xavier argues that although it existed just for three years from 1941 to 1944, the magazine significantly influenced cultural criticism in Brazil.

Emir Sader

Emir Simão Sader (born July 13, 1943) is a Brazilian sociologist and political scientist of Lebanese origin. He received all his higher education credentials from the University of São Paulo. He did his bachelor’s degree in philosophy, his master’s degree in political philosophy and his doctoral degree in political science. He also worked at the University of São Paulo as a professor of philosophy and later of political science. He also worked as a professor of political science at University of Campinas in Brazil and as a researcher at the Center for Socioeconomic Studies at the University of Chile. After his retirement from the University of São Paulo, he joined the State University of Rio de Janeiro as director of the Public Policies Laboratory (LPP). He currently teaches Sociology at the State University of Rio de Janeiro and serves as the executive secretary of the Latin American Council of Social Sciences

Known to be a Marxist thinker, Sader has worked with national and foreign publications. He was a member of the editorial board of the New Left Review, a 160-page journal published every two months from London that examines world politics; the global economy, state powers and protest movements; contemporary social theory, history and philosophy; cinema, literature, heterodox art and aesthetics. NLR is also published in Spanish. Sader’s contributions to the NLR include The Worker’s Party in Brazil (1987); Beyond Civil Society (2002); Taking Lula’s Measure (2005); and The Weakest Link? Neoliberalism in Latin America (2008).Between 1997 and 1999, Sader chaired the Latin American Sociological Association (LASA), the largest professional association in the world for individuals and institutions engaged in the study of Latin America. Sader was also one of the World Social Forum organizers (WSF). First held in Brazil, the WSF is an annual meeting of civil society organizations. One of the main goals behind organizing the WSF is an effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalization . Nonetheless, Sader grew more critical of the WSF for their exclusion of political parties. He believed that in confining themselves to the social sphere, the WSF is "unable to create the instruments needed to fight political hegemony."In 2005 Sader published an article on the website of the news agency Carta Maior in response to a statement made by Senator Jorge Bornhausen. Representing the PFL, Liberal Front Party (renamed to Democrats), the senator was asked if he was unhappy with the political crisis of corruption facing Brazil then. He responded that he was happy because "we would be free from this race for the next 30 years," in reference to politicians from the Worker’s Party, President Lula’s party. Sader’s article accuses Santa Catarina state's Senator Jorge Bornhausen of being elitist, bourgeois, fascist and racist. Reacting against the article, Bornhausen filed a criminal defamation lawsuit against the professor, based on the defamation provisions of the 1967 Press Law. In October 2006 Sader was sentenced to one year of prison and to dismissal from his position as a professor with the University of Rio de Janeiro. Following those events intellectuals headed by Antônio Cândido circulated a petition in support of Sader and condemning the sentence . According to the manifesto, the judicial decision goes against freedom of expression, inhibiting and criminalizing "critical thinking", and "university autonomy ." Due to compulsory legal provisions, the prison sentence was converted to community service for 8 hours a week for the same period.In 2011, Sader was nominated for the presidency of the Casa de Rui Barbosa Foundation. The foundation is a federal public institution, linked to the ministry of culture, founded to promote intellectual work and to preserve national memory. After his nomination, Sader was critical of Ana Buarque de Hollanda, the minister of culture with Folha de S. Paulo newspaper, because of her silence in reaction to the budget cuts imposed on the ministry of culture. Some believe that Sader’s criticisms played a part in the abortion of his nomination.Sader’s experience is mainly in the area of political science, with emphasis on state and government. His work mainly focuses on the following: Brazil, Lula, Latin America, and politics. He is the author of The Revenge of History and The New Mole among others.

João Guimarães Rosa

João Guimarães Rosa (Portuguese: [ˈʒwɐ̃w ɡimaˈɾɐ̃js ˈʁɔzɐ]; 27 June 1908 – 19 November 1967) was a Brazilian novelist, short story writer and diplomat.Rosa published four books of short story in his lifetime, all of them revolving around the life in the sertão, but addressing themes of universal literature and of existential nature. Rosa only wrote one novel, Grande Sertão: Veredas (known in English as The Devil to Pay in the Backlands), a revolutionary text for its blend of archaic and colloquial prose and frequent use of neologisms, taking inspiration from the spoken language of the Brazilian backlands. For its profoundly philosophical themes, the critic Antonio Candido described the books as a "metaphysical novel". It is often considered to be the Brazilian equivalent of James Joyce's Ulysses.

In a 2002 poll by the Bokklubben World Library, "Grande Sertão: Veredas" was named among the best 100 books of all time.

List of University of São Paulo alumni

This is a list of notable persons who have graduated from the University of São Paulo.

List of University of São Paulo faculty

This is a list of professors from the University of São Paulo.

Marcos Júnior (footballer, born 1995)

Marcos Antônio Candido Ferreira Júnior (born 13 May 1995), commonly known as Marcos Júnior, is a Brazilian footballer who currently plays as a midfielder for Bangu.

Maria Amália Vaz de Carvalho

Maria Amália Vaz de Carvalho (1 February 1847 – 24 March 1921) was a Portuguese writer and poet. She was the first woman to join the Portuguese Academy of Sciences (Academia das Ciências de Lisboa).

The daughter of José Vaz de Carvalho and Maria Cristina de Almeida e Albuquerque, she was married to the poet António Cândido Gonçalves Crespo.

She wrote for several newspapers in Portugal (Diário Popular, Repórter, Artes e Letras) and Brazil (Jornal do Comércio, Rio de Janeiro), under the pseudonym Maria de Sucena.

As well as poetry, she wrote short stories, essays, biographies, and literary criticism. The collection of stories for children she wrote with her husband, Contos para os nossos filhos ("Tales for our Children", 1886) was approved by the Board of Public Instruction for use in schools.

Her house was the first literary salon in Lisbon; they were hosts to Eça de Queiroz, Camilo Castelo Branco, Ramalho Ortigão and Guerra Junqueiro.

In 1993, the municipality of Loures (where she had lived as a child) established a literary award in her name. She died in Lisbon, aged 74, and was buried in the Prazeres Cemetery.

Progressive Party (Portugal)

The Progressive Party (Portuguese: Partido Progressista), along with their opponent the Partido Regenerador, was a political party in Portugal during the constitutional monarchy at the end of the 19th century.

Prêmio Machado de Assis

The Prêmio Machado de Assis (the Machado de Assis Prize) is a literary prize awarded by the Brazilian Academy of Letters, and possibly the most prestigious literary award in Brazil. The prize was founded in 1941, named in memory of the novelist Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis (1839–1908). It is awarded in recognition of a lifetime's work.

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