Anton Reicha

Anton (Antonín, Antoine) Reicha (Rejcha) (26 February 1770 – 28 May 1836) was a Czech-born, later naturalized French composer. A contemporary and lifelong friend of Beethoven, he is now best remembered for his substantial early contributions to the wind quintet literature and his role as teacher of pupils including Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz and César Franck. He was also an accomplished theorist, and wrote several treatises on various aspects of composition. Some of his theoretical work dealt with experimental methods of composition, which he applied in a variety of works such as fugues and études for piano and string quartet.

None of the advanced ideas he advocated in the most radical of his music and writings, such as polyrhythm, polytonality and microtonal music, were accepted or employed by other nineteenth-century composers. Due to Reicha's unwillingness to have his music published (like Michael Haydn before him), he fell into obscurity soon after his death and his life and work have yet to be intensively studied.

Anton Reicha 01
Anton Reicha, 1815

Life

1770–1805: Early years, first visit to Paris and the Viennese period

Reicha was born in Prague. His father Šimon, the town piper of the city, died when Anton was just 10 months old.[1] Apparently Reicha's mother was not interested in her son's education, and so in 1780 he ran away from home following a sudden impulse – as he recounted in his memoirs, he jumped onto a passing carriage.[2] He first visited his paternal grandfather in Klatovy, and then his paternal uncle Josef Reicha, a virtuoso cellist, conductor and composer living in Wallerstein, Bavaria, who adopted him.[1] Josef and his wife, being childless, could give young Anton their full attention: Josef taught him violin and piano, his wife insisted on his being taught French and German, and he was also taught the flute.[3]

In 1785 the family moved to Bonn, where Reicha became a member of the Hofkapelle of Max Franz, Elector of Cologne, playing violin and second flute in the court orchestra under his uncle's direction.[1] The young Beethoven entered the Hofkapelle as violist and organist in 1789 and Reicha befriended him. Christian Gottlob Neefe, one of the most important figures in the musical life of the city at the time, may well have instructed both Reicha and his gifted piano pupil Beethoven in composition and introduced them to the works of Johann Sebastian Bach, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier.

From about 1785 Reicha studied composition secretly, against his uncle's wishes, composing and conducting his first symphony in 1787 and entering the University of Bonn in 1789, where he studied and performed until 1794, when Bonn was attacked and captured by the French. He managed to escape to Hamburg,[1] vowed never to perform in public again and began to earn a living teaching harmony, composition and piano. He continued composing and studied mathematics, philosophy and, significantly, methods of teaching composition. In 1799 he moved to Paris, hoping to achieve success as an opera composer. These hopes were dashed, however: he could neither get his old librettos accepted nor find suitable new ones despite support from friends and influential members of the aristocracy, and moved on to Vienna in 1801.

Once there, like Beethoven and the young Schubert, he studied with Antonio Salieri and Johann Georg Albrechtsberger.[1] Both were renowned teachers, and Albrechtsberger was also an important theorist and acknowledged authority on counterpoint and fugal theory. Reicha called on Haydn, whom he had met several times in Bonn and Hamburg during the 1790s, and renewed his friendship with Beethoven, whom he had not seen since 1792, when the latter moved from Bonn to Vienna. At this time (late 1802–3) Beethoven's Eroica symphony was in gestation, and it is likely that the two men exchanged ideas on fugues in modern composition.[4] Reicha's move to Vienna marked the beginning of a more productive and successful period in his life. As he wrote in his memoirs, "The number of works I finished in Vienna is astonishing. Once started, my verve and imagination were indefatigable. Ideas came to me so rapidly it was often difficult to set them down without losing some of them. I always had a great penchant for doing the unusual in composition. When writing in an original vein, my creative faculties and spirit seemed keener than when following the precepts of my predecessors."[5] In 1801, Reicha's opera L'ouragan, which failed in Paris, was performed at the palace of Prince Joseph Franz von Lobkowitz, a prominent patron of Beethoven. Empress Maria Theresa commissioned another opera after this performance, Argine, regina di Granata, which was only privately performed. His studies in Hamburg came to fruition here with the publication of several semi-didactic, encyclopedic works such as 36 Fugues for piano (published in 1803, dedicated to Haydn)[1] and L'art de varier, a large-scale variation cycle (composed in 1803/04 for Prince Louis Ferdinand), and the treatise Practische Beispiele (published in 1803), which contained 24 compositions.

1806–36: Departure from Vienna and life in Paris

Reicha's life and career in Vienna were interrupted by Napoleon's November 1805 occupation of the city by French troops. In 1806 Reicha travelled to Leipzig to arrange a performance of his new work, the cantata Lenore (stopping at Prague to see his mother for the first time since 1780), but because Leipzig was blockaded by the French, not only was the performance cancelled but he could not return to Vienna for several months. When he did return it was not for long, because by 1808 the Austrian Empire was already preparing for another war, the War of the Fifth Coalition, so Reicha decided to move back to Paris.[1] This time three of his many operas were produced, but they all failed; yet his fame as theorist and teacher increased steadily, and by 1817 most of his pupils became professors at the Conservatoire de Paris. The following year, Reicha himself was appointed professor of counterpoint and fugue at the Conservatoire with the support of Louis XVIII, despite opposition from its director Luigi Cherubini.

AntonReicha
Anton Reicha's gravestone at Père Lachaise, Paris

This second Paris period produced several important theoretical writings. Cours de composition musicale, published by 1818, became the standard text on composition at the Conservatoire; the Traité de mélodie of 1814, a treatise on melody, was also widely studied. Another semi-didactic work, 34 Études for piano, was published by 1817. It was also in Paris that Reicha started composing the 25 wind quintets which proved to be his most enduring works[1] (far more conservative musically than the experimental fugues he had written in Vienna, but exploiting the skill of his virtuosi from the Opéra Comique to extend significantly the technique and musical ambitions of future players of the still evolving wind instruments). In 1818 he married Virginie Enaust, who bore him two daughters. In 1819 he began teaching harmony and music theory to Louise Farrenc; after interrupting her studies for her own marriage, she completed studies at the Paris Conservatory with Reicha in 1825.[6]

Reicha stayed in Paris for the rest of his life. He became a naturalized citizen of his adopted country in 1829[7] and Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur in 1835. That same year, he succeeded François-Adrien Boieldieu at the Académie française. He published two more large treatises, Traité de haute composition musicale (1824–6) (Treatise on advanced musical composition) and Art du compositeur dramatique (1833) (Art of dramatic composition), on writing opera. His ideas expressed in the former work sparked some controversy at the Conservatoire. In 1826 Franz Liszt, Hector Berlioz and Henri Cohen became students of his, as did Charles Gounod and Pauline Viardot[8] sometime later. Berlioz in his Memoirs[9] (pp20–21) acknowledges that Reicha was 'an admirable teacher of counterpoint' who cared about his pupils and whose 'lessons were models of integrity and thoroughness' – high praise indeed from one so critical of the Conservatoire in general. Frédéric Chopin considered studying with him in 1829 shortly after arriving in Paris from his native Poland, but ultimately decided otherwise. From June 1835 until Reicha's death in May 1836, the young César Franck took private lessons. His notebooks survive (in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris) with Reicha's annotations (and a later cryptic comment possibly by Erik Satie),[10] showing how hard Reicha worked his 12-year-old pupil. Reicha was buried at the Père Lachaise Cemetery, and Luigi Cherubini resumed the teaching of counterpoint at the Conservatoire, replacing Reicha's heretical work on fugue with his own as the standard text.

Works

It is difficult to present a coherent list of Reicha's works, because the opus numbers assigned to them at the time of publication are in disarray, some pieces were supposedly lost, and many works were published several times, sometimes as part of larger collections. His surviving oeuvre covers a vast array of genres and forms, from opera to piano fugues. He is best known today for his 25 wind quintets, composed in Paris between 1811 and 1820, which were played all over Europe shortly afterward. Reicha claimed in his memoirs that his wind quintets filled a void: "At that time, there was a dearth not only of good classic[al] music, but of any good music at all for wind instruments, simply because the composers knew little of their technique."[11] Indeed, Reicha's experiences as a flautist must have helped in the creation of these pieces, in which he systematically explored the possibilities of the wind ensemble and invented an extended sonata form variant that could accommodate as many as five principal themes.[12]

Reicha - Etudes ou exercices - No. 20, on four staves, opening
The final piano exercise of Reicha's Op. 30, featuring two staves of music for each hand, and four different clefs

Musically, the wind quintets represent a more conservative trend in Reicha's oeuvre when compared to his earlier work, namely the compositions of the Viennese period. In the quintets, as he describes in his preface, Reicha wanted to expand the technical limits of the five still evolving wind instruments (hand horn, 'un-rationalised' flute and clarinet, double reeds with fewer keys) and thereby the ambitions of amateur wind players by establishing a nucleus for a corpus of substantial work like that available to string players (and consciously more serious than the Harmoniemusik of the last century). His writing combines virtuoso display (often still very challenging today, yet idiomatic for each instrument), popular elements (from the comic opera his soloists played, from his Bohemian folk heritage, from the military background to his life – many marches, 'walking' themes and fanfares), and his lifelong more academic interests in variation form and counterpoint. Four of the quintets have trios in passacaglia form, the repeating theme however being on different instruments in each case so not necessarily in the bass. The earlier Beethoven connection, now severed,[4] is revisited in the scherzo of the quintet in E-flat Op. 100 no. 3, which contains clear musical quotations (most obvious in the horn part) from both the scherzo of his Eroica (also in E-flat major) and the first movement of his 5th symphonies. Berlioz[9] says the quintets "enjoyed a certain vogue in Paris for a number of years. They are interesting pieces but a little cold", while Louis Spohr, who was visiting Paris in 1820 and reserved judgment until he had heard several performed, assessed them in a letter home (which he included in his autobiography) as having too many ideas linked carelessly or not at all, but excelling in the Minuets where this charge does not apply.[13] Spohr was generally impressed by the virtuosity of the wind soloists and was very pleased with their performance of his own piano and wind quintet. Berlioz[9] also comments on two of the players (in other works): "Joseph Guillou, the first flute...has to dominate...so he transposes the flute line up an octave, thus destroying the composer's intention" (p. 56); of Gustave Vogt's cor anglais playing he says (p. 23): "However remarkable the singer...I find it hard to believe she can ever have made it sound as natural and touching as it did on Vogt's instrument".

Technical wizardry also prevails in compositions that illustrate Reicha's theoretical treatise Practische Beispiele (Practical Examples) of 1803, where techniques such as bitonality and polyrhythm are explored in extremely difficult sight-reading exercises.[14] 36 fugues for piano, published in 1803, was conceived as an illustration of Reicha's neue Fugensystem, i.e. those new ideas about fugues which had piqued Beethoven.[4] Reicha proposed that second entries of fugue subjects in major keys could occur in keys other than the standard dominant), to widen the possibilities for modulations and undermine the conservative tonal stability of the fugue.[15] The fugues of the collection not only illustrate this point, but also employ a variety of extremely convoluted technical tricks such as polyrhythm (no. 30), combined (nos. 24, 28), asymmetrical (no. 20) and simply uncommon (no. 10 is in 12/4, no. 12 in 2/8) meters and time signatures, some of which are derived from folk music, an approach that directly anticipates that of later composers such as Béla Bartók.[16] No. 13 is a modal fugue played on white keys only, in which cadences are possible on all but the 7th degree of the scale without further alteration. Six fugues employ two subjects, one has three, and No. 15 has six. In several of the fugues, Reicha established a link with the old tradition by using subjects by Haydn (no. 3), Bach (no. 5), Mozart (no. 7), Scarlatti (no. 9), Frescobaldi (no. 14) and Handel (no. 15). Many of the technical accomplishments are unique to fugue literature.

Reicha - Fugue a 6 sujets, opening (2 staves) (facsimile)
Fugue No. 15 from 36 Fugues of 1803 features six subjects developed simultaneously

The études of op. 97, Études dans le genre fugué, published in Paris by 1817, are similarly advanced. Each composition is preceded by Reicha's comments for young composers. Thirty of the 34 études included are fugues, and every étude is preceded by a prelude based on a particular technical or compositional problem. Again an exceptionally large number of forms and textures is used, including, for example, the variation form with extensive use of invertible counterpoint (no. 3), or an Andante in C minor based on the famous Folia harmonic progression. Reicha's massive cycle of variations, L'art de varier, uses the same pedagogical principle and includes variations in the form of four-voice fugues, program music variations, toccata-like hand-crossing variations, etc., foreshadowing in many aspects not only Beethoven's Diabelli Variations, but also works by Schubert, Wagner and Debussy.[17]

Many of Reicha's string quartets are similarly advanced, and also anticipate numerous later developments. The eight Vienna string quartets (1801–5) are among his most important works. Though largely ignored since Reicha's death, they were highly influential during his lifetime and left their mark on the quartets of Beethoven and Schubert,[18] much as Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier was ignored by the public but well known to Beethoven and Chopin. Reicha also wrote prolifically for various kinds of ensembles other than wind quintets and string quartets, including violin sonatas, piano trios, horn trios, flute quartets, various works for solo wind or string instruments accompanied by strings, and works for voice. He also wrote in larger-scale genres, including at least eight known symphonies, seven operas, and choral works such as a Requiem.

Much of Reicha's music remained unpublished and/or unperformed during his life, and virtually all of it fell into obscurity after his death. This is partly explained by Reicha's own decisions he reflected on in his autobiography: "Many of my works have never been heard because of my aversion to seeking performances [...] I counted the time spent in such efforts as lost, and preferred to remain at my desk."[5] He also frequently advocated ideas, such as the use of quarter tones, that were too far ahead of his time to be understood by his contemporaries.[19]

Writings

Reicha's major theoretical and pedagogical works include the following:

  • Practische Beispiele: ein Beitrag zur Geistescultur des Tonsetzers ... begleitet mit philosophisch-practischen Anmerkungen (1803), a didactic work that includes 25 sight-reading exercises of extreme difficulty, some of which were later published separately or in collections such as the 36 fugues. The exercises are divided into three groups: one for polyrhythm, one for polytonality and one that included exercises written on four staves and so required knowledge of the alto and tenor clefs.
  • Traité de mélodie (Paris, 1814), on melody, translated into German by Czerny
  • Cours de composition musicale, ou Traité complet et raisonné d'harmonie pratique (1818), on composition, translated into German by Czerny (From Chapter 9 of Czerny's Letters to a Young Lady: "My view was only to give you a general idea of Harmony or Thorough Bass; and when you begin the study of it in a regular manner - and I hear with pleasure that you are shortly about to do so, and that your worthy teacher has selected for the purpose the excellent Treatise on Harmony by Reicha...")
  • Traité de haute composition musicale (2 vols. 1824–1826), translated into German by Czerny around 1835. In this late treatise Reicha expressed some of his most daring ideas, such as the use of quarter tones and folk music (which was almost completely neglected at the time).[20] An article in this treatise deals with the problem of irregular resolution of dissonant chords, formulating a simple law for its successful employment; this article was so innovative and celebrated, that it was published even by itself in the past and in the present, the latest English translation being the one by Lorenzo M. A. Giorgi (A new theory for the resolution of discords, according to the Modern Musical System, 2017).[21]
  • L'art du compositeur dramatique (4 vols., 1833), on the writing of opera. Provides an exhaustive account of contemporary performance techniques and is supplemented with examples from Reicha's own operas.

In addition to these, a number of smaller texts by him exist. These include an outline of Reicha's system for writing fugues, Über das neue Fugensystem (published as a foreword to the 1805 edition of 36 fugues), Sur la musique comme art purement sentimental (before 1814, literally "On music as a purely emotional art"), Petit traité d'harmonie pratique à 2 parties (c. 1814, a short "practical treatise" on harmony), a number of articles and the poem An Joseph Haydn, published in the preface to 36 fugues (which were dedicated to Haydn).

Notable recordings

  • Complete Wind Quintets (1990). The Albert Schweitzer Quintet. 10 CDs, CPO, 9992502[22]
  • Complete Wind Quintets: The Westwood Wind Quintet. 12 CDs, Crystal Records, CD260[23]
  • 36 Fugues Op. 36 (1991–92). Tiny Wirtz (piano). 2 CDs, CPO 999 065-2[24]
  • 36 Fugues (2006). Jaroslav Tůma (fortepiano Anton Walter, 1790). 2 CDs, ARTA F101462[25]
  • Complete Symphonies (2011). Ondřej Kukal conducting Prague Radio Symphony Orchestra. 2 CDs, Radioservis, CR0572-2[26]
  • Reicha Rediscovered, Volume 1 (2017). Ivan Ilić (piano). 1 CD, CHAN 10950[27]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Černušák, Gracián; Štědroň, Bohumír; Nováček, Zdenko, eds. (1963). Československý hudební slovník II. M–Ž (in Czech). Prague: Státní hudební vydavatelství. p. 415.
  2. ^ Hoyt, Peter A.; Sotolova, Olga; Viney, Deryck (March 1993). "Review of Olga Sotolova's 'Antonin Rejcha' (Deryck Viney, translator)". Notes, 2nd Series. Music Library Association. 49 (3): 996–8. doi:10.2307/898945. JSTOR 898945.
  3. ^ Demuth 1948, p. 166.
  4. ^ a b c Rice, John A. "Beethoven, Reicha, and the Eroica". Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  5. ^ a b Reicha's autobiography, Notes sur Antoine Reicha, quoted in Ron Drummond, "Program Notes for a Performance of Antonín Rejcha's C Minor String Quartet".
  6. ^ Friedland, Bea (1980). Louise Farrenc, 1804–1875: Composer, Performer, Scholar. UMI Research Press. pp. 10–14. ISBN 0-8357-1111-0.
  7. ^ Demuth 1948, p. 167.
  8. ^ Jezic, Diane Peacock; Wood, Elizabeth (1994). Women Composers: The Lost Tradition Found. Feminist Press at the University of New York. p. 103. ISBN 1-55861-074-X.
  9. ^ a b c Berlioz, Hector, translated by Cairns, David (1865, 1912, 2002). The Memoirs of Hector Berlioz. Hardback. Everyman's Library/Random House. ISBN 0-375-41391-X
  10. ^ Stove 2012, pp. 22–23.
  11. ^ Reicha's autobiography, Notes sur Antoine Reicha, quoted in Bill McGlaughlin's "A World Of Winds: Making Your Own Quintet – The Father of the Wind Quintet", see [1]
  12. ^ Ron Drummond, "Anton Reicha: A Biographical Sketch"
  13. ^ "Louis Spohr's Selbstbiographie", 2 vols., Kassel und Göttingen 1860/61; a near-contemporary English translation has been re-published by the Travis & Emery Music Bookshop in Charing Cross Road, London
  14. ^ Demuth 1948, p. 171.
  15. ^ Walker, Alan (1987). Franz Liszt: Volume One, the Virtuoso Years, 1811–1847. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. p. 94. ISBN 0-8014-9421-4.
  16. ^ Václav Jan Sýkora. Preface to an edition of 36 Fugues for Piano, Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1973, #19117–119.
  17. ^ Jan Racek. Foreword to the critical edition of "L'art de varier", Praha: Státní hudební vydavatelství, 1961
  18. ^ Ron Drummond: "The String Quartets of Anton Reicha – Introduction"
  19. ^ Demuth 1948, pp. 169–170.
  20. ^ Demuth 1948, p. 172.
  21. ^ Giorgi, Lorenzo MA (2017). A new theory for the resolution of discords, according to the Modern Musical System. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1546308607.
  22. ^ "Reicha's Wind Quintets". Presto Classical. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  23. ^ "Complete Recordings of Reicha's Wind Quintets by Westwood Wind Quintet". Crystal Records. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  24. ^ "Reicha: 36 Fugues, Op. 36". ArkivMusic. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  25. ^ "Reicha: 36 Fugues for Piano". Amazon. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  26. ^ "Reicha: Four Symphonies". Amazon. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  27. ^ "Reicha Rediscovered, Volume 1". ArkivMusic. Retrieved 12 September 2017.

References

  • Demuth, Norman (April 1948). "Antonin Reicha". Music & Letters. 29 (2): 165–172. doi:10.1093/ml/29.2.165. JSTOR 730884.
  • Olga Šotolová, Antonín Rejcha: A Biography and Thematic Catalogue. Deryck Viney, translator. Supraphon, Prague, 1990. ISBN 80-7058-169-7. (The standard monograph on Reicha. Contains numerous errors, but is richly informative on many aspects of Reicha's life; see Hoyt (1993) above.)
  • Peter Eliot Stone. "Antoine Reicha". In Deane L. Root (ed.). Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. (subscription required)
  • Stove, R. J. (2012). César Franck: His Life and Times. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-8207-2.

External links

General reference

Scores

24 Horn Trios (Reicha)

24 Horn Trios, Op. 82 is a collection of horn trios composed by Anton Reicha. The trios are scored for 3 horns or 2 horns and a bassoon. The work was published in Paris before 1815 (the exact date of publication is unknown) and is well established in the horn repertoire today.Reicha was a flautist in his youth and composed a large number of works for wind instruments, among which were duos, trios and quartets for wind ensembles. Compositions for several identical instruments were apparently a particular favorite, as witnessed by, for example, flute quartets Op. 12 and Op. 27, or Variations for two flutes Op. 20. The trios of Op. 82 are part of this trend, and also reflect Reicha's interest in pedagogy, as well as his affinity for counterpoint. The collection is divided into four parts, six trios each. Numerous genres and forms are represented: there are canonic trios and a full-fledged fugue, a set of variations, dances such as minuet and musette, character pieces and short technical exercises or jokes such as Trio No. 15, subtitled Tritonus, in which the upper voice is restricted to using only the three tones.

36 Fugues (Reicha)

36 Fugues, sometimes assigned opus number 36, is a cycle of fugues for piano composed by Anton Reicha. It was first published by the composer in 1803 and served as an illustration of a nouveau système (Fr. "new system") Reicha invented for fugue composition. This system involved, among other things, extensive use of polyrhythms, derived from traditional music, and fugal answers on any and all scale degrees, rather than just the dominant, which was standard at the time.

Adolphe Adam

Adolphe Charles Adam (French: [adolf adɑ̃]; 24 July 1803 – 3 May 1856) was a French composer and music critic. A prolific composer of operas and ballets, he is best known today for his ballets Giselle (1841) and Le corsaire (1856, his last work), his operas Le postillon de Lonjumeau (1836), Le toréador (1849) and Si j'étais roi (1852)

and his Christmas carol Minuit, chrétiens! (1844), later set to different English lyrics and widely sung as "O Holy Night" (1847). Adam was a noted teacher, who taught Delibes and other influential composers.

Albert Grisar

Albert Grisar (born in Antwerp on December 25, 1808 – died in Asnières on June 15, 1869) was a Belgian composer.

Grisar's family had intended for him to pursue a tradesman's career, but he defied their wishes to devote himself to music. He studied in Antwerp with Joseph Janssens, in Paris under Anton Reicha, and in the mid-1840s in Naples with Saverio Mercadante. Grisar was a successful comic opera composer, first winning success in Brussels in 1833 and in Paris later in the decade. He collaborated with Flotow on L'eau merveilleuse (1839) and with François-Adrien Boieldieu on L'opéra à la cour (1840). When he received a grant from the Belgian government in 1840 to study music of Belgian composers in Italy, he instead used his time in Rome and Naples to study compositional techniques of the comic opera. His Parisian works of the late 1840s and early 1850s were particularly well received by audiences.

Auguste Barbereau

Mathurin Auguste Balthasar Barbereau (born 14 November 1799 in Paris – 14 July 1879 ibid) was a French composer and music theorist. He entered the Conservatoire de Paris in 1810 and was awarded numerous times. He was awarded with the Prix de Rome in 1824 for his cantata Agnes Sorel, with text by Pierre-Ange Vieillard, publishing it shortly thereafter. He conducted many orchestras in several theaters, especially the Teatre Italià between 1836-38.

Many times he replaced Anton Reicha, who had been his teacher in the class of composition of the Conservatory. Among his disciples are Ambroise Thomas and Ernest Guiraud. He wrote the score of the opera Les Sybarites de Florence, and took part in a variety of symphonies and concert works, but the real contribution of Barbereau is his theoretical work, among them his Traité d'harmonie Theoretical et pratique (1843-1845), considered the most important scientific work published hitherto on this subject. After this work he published a curious Etude sur l'origine du système musical (Paris, 1852), which gave rise to great controversy. Auguste Barbereau died suddenly in an omnibus in Paris, after he had been teaching at the Conservatory.

Bassoon quintet

A Bassoon quintet is a piece of chamber music for bassoon and four other instruments, normally a string quartet.

Quintets for bassoon and string quartet include the Quintet by Graham Waterhouse, compositions by Gordon Jacob and Franz Danzi, and works by Anton Reicha, including his Bassoon quintet and his Variations for bassoon and string quartet.

Charles Dancla

(Jean Baptiste) Charles Dancla (19 December 1817 – 10 October 1907) was a French violinist, composer and teacher.

César Franck

César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (10 December 1822 – 8 November 1890) was a composer, pianist, organist, and music teacher who worked in Paris during his adult life.

He was born at Liège, in what is now Belgium (though at the time of his birth it was part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands). He gave his first concerts there in 1834 and studied privately in Paris from 1835, where his teachers included Anton Reicha. After a brief return to Belgium, and a disastrous reception to an early oratorio Ruth, he moved to Paris, where he married and embarked on a career as teacher and organist. He gained a reputation as a formidable improviser, and travelled widely in France to demonstrate new instruments built by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll.

In 1858 he became organist at Sainte-Clotilde, a position he retained for the rest of his life. He became professor at the Paris Conservatoire in 1872; he took French nationality, a requirement of the appointment. His pupils included Vincent d'Indy, Ernest Chausson, Louis Vierne, Charles Tournemire, Guillaume Lekeu and Henri Duparc. After acquiring the professorship Franck wrote several pieces that have entered the standard classical repertoire, including symphonic, chamber, and keyboard works.

Friedrich von Flotow

Friedrich Adolf Ferdinand, Freiherr von Flotow /flo:to/ (27 April 1812 – 24 January 1883) was a German composer. He is chiefly remembered for his opera Martha, which was popular in the 19th century and the early part of the 20th.

Henri Cohen (composer)

Henri Cohen (1808 - 17 May 1880) was a French music theorist and composer of Dutch birth. Born in Amsterdam, Cohen moved with his family to Paris at a young age. He studied in Paris with Anton Reicha (music theory and composition), François Lays (singing), and Felice Pellegrini (singing). In 1832-34 and 1838-1839 he was active as an opera composer in Naples, with some of his works premiering under the name Carlo Coen. In 1841 his opera Antonio Foscarini premiered successfully at the Teatro Comunale di Bologna, prompting a revival the following year at the Teatro Regio di Torino. He was thereafter active as music teacher in Paris, including teaching at the Conservatoire de Paris, and was for a time director of the conservatory in Lille. He was also curator of the numismatics collection at the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. He died in Bry-sur-Marne.

Henri Vieuxtemps

Henri François Joseph Vieuxtemps (French: [ɑ̃ʁi fʁɑ̃swa ʒɔzɛf vjøtɑ̃] 17 February 1820 – 6 June 1881) was a Belgian composer and violinist. He occupies an important place in the history of the violin as a prominent exponent of the Franco-Belgian violin school during the mid-19th century. He is also known for playing upon what is now known as the Vieuxtemps Guarneri del Gesù, a violin of superior workmanship.

L'art de varier

L'Art de varier ("The Art of Varying"), Op. 57, is a set of variations for piano composed by Anton Reicha. It was composed around 1803–4 and published in Leipzig. The set comprises a theme in F major and 57 variations, ranging from very easy to extremely virtuosic pieces.

The work was composed for, and dedicated to, Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, a gifted musician and composer to whom Beethoven dedicated his Third Piano Concerto. Reicha's behaviour is slightly surprising, given that a few years before L'art de varier, in 1801, he rejected an invitation to become Louis Ferdinand's Kapellmeister and teacher.

List of compositions by Anton Reicha

This article lists compositions by Anton Reicha. At present there exists no definitive catalogue of the composer's works, and his music, for the most part, has yet to be studied by scholars. Two principal work lists exist: one by Olga Šotolová in her book Antonín Rejcha: A Biography and Thematic Catalogue and another by Peter Eliot Stone in his article for the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The former list contains a number of errors; these were corrected by Stone in his list.

The present article contains two overlapping lists derived from Stone, several editions of Reicha's music and a number of library catalogues listed in the References and Notes section. The first list presents only works that were published and assigned opus numbers by Reicha's publishers. These numbers, as is usual, follow the order in which the works were published, rather than the order in which they were composed. The second list is organized by genre. Compositions are sorted chronologically; those with composition and publication dates unknown are listed last. Not included in either lists are works currently considered lost, fragments, and works for which details other than title are unknown. Dates of publication and/or composition are given in parentheses where known.

Ludwig Schuncke

Christian Ludwig Schuncke (21 December 1810 – 7 December 1834) was a German pianist and composer, and close friend of Robert Schumann. His early promise was eclipsed by his death from tuberculosis at the age of 23.

He was generally known as Ludwig, and that name also appears as Louis in some references. His surname appears as either Schuncke or Schunke.

Martin-Joseph Mengal

Martin-Joseph Mengal (27 January 1784 - 4 July 1851) was a Belgian composer and teacher.

Mengal came from a musical family and received horn and violin lessons as a child, and by the age of 13 played first horn at the Ghent opera. From 1804 Mengal moved to Paris to study at the Conservatoire de Paris with Frédéric Duvernoy and Charles Simon Catel, but in December the same year he joined the French military service and marched in the War of the Third Coalition against Italy, Austria and Prussia under Napoleon I.

Mengal's connections with composer Anton Reicha and with the diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord made it possible to stage his operatic work at the Paris Opéra-Comique. In 1825 Mengal returned to Ghent, becoming conductor of the Opera Orchestra in Antwerp in 1830, and shortly afterward took the same position in The Hague. Mengal was the founding director of the Royal Conservatory of Ghent in 1835 and served as director there until his death. His students there included François-Auguste Gevaert.

His operas include Les infidèles (1823, Paris), Le Vampire ou L'Homme du néant (1826, Ghent), Apothéose de Talma (1826, Ghent), and the comic opera Un jour à Vaucluse ou Le Poète ambassadeur (1830, Ghent).

A few compositions from his younger brother Jean-Baptiste Mengal (1792–1878) have also survived.

Napoléon Henri Reber

Napoléon Henri Reber (21 October 1807, Mulhouse, Alsace – 24 November 1880, Paris) was a French composer.

Reich (surname)

Reich (German; /raɪx/, American: /raɪʃ/) is a German surname that may refer to

Béla Rajki-Reich (1909–2000), Hungarian swimming coach and water polo coach

Charles A. Reich ((born 1928), American professor of law

Christopher Reich (born 1961), American author

David Reich (disambiguation), multiple people

Eli Thomas Reich (1913–1999), Vice-Admiral of the US Navy

Ferdinand Reich (1799–1882), German chemist

Frank Reich (born 1961), American football player and coach

Günter Reich (1921–1989), German-Israeli baritone

Herman Reich (1917–2009), American baseball player and manager

Jens Reich (born 1939), German scientist and civil rights campaigner

Kathy Reichs, American anthropologist and crime writer

Lilly Reich (1885–1947), German modernist designer

Marcel Reich-Ranicki (1920–2013), German literary critic

Marco Reich (born 1977), German association football player

Michael Reich (born 1945), Polish-born economist

Otto Reich (born 1945), Cuban-American diplomat

Robert Reich (born 1946), American political commentator, college professor, and former Secretary of Labor

Sam Reich (born 1984), American producer, director, writer, actor, and performer

Sarah Reich (born 1989), American tap dance instructor, choreographer and performer

Stephen C. Reich (1971–2005), American soldier and Minor League Baseball player

Steve Reich (born 1936), American composer of classical music

Steven Reich, American attorney

Wilhelm Reich (1897–1957), Austrian-American psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and founder of orgonomy

Zinaida Reich (1894–1939), Russian actressAdditional surnames derived from Reich:

Anton Reicha (1770–1836), Czech composer

Irma Reichová (1859–1930), Czech operatic soprano

Kathy Reichs (born 1948), American crime writer, forensic anthropologist and academic

Ron Drummond

Ronald N. Drummond (b. 1959 in Seattle, Washington) is a writer, editor, and independent scholar.

Waldemar Thrane

Waldemar Thrane (8 October 1790 – 30 December 1828) was a Norwegian composer, violinist and conductor.Waldemar Thrane was born in Christiania (now Oslo), Norway. He was the son of Paul Thrane (1751–1830), a businessman and timber merchant, and was an uncle of the author and journalist Marcus Thrane.From 1814 to 1815, he studied music in Paris. In 1819, Thrane made his debut concert in Oslo as conductor, violinist and composer. He served as conductor of the Christiania Public Theatre Orchestra (Christiania offentlige Theaters orkester) and The Musical Lyceum (Det musikalske Lyceum) until he fell ill and was replaced by Ole Bull in 1828. He died at 38 years of age. Waldemar Thranes gate (Waldemar Thrane Street), located in St. Hanshaugen in Oslo, is named in his honor.

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