Antoine Saugrain

Dr. Antoine François Pierre Saugrain (Paris, 17/02/1763 FranceSt. Louis, Missouri, 05/03/1820) was a French-born physician and chemist.

Born in Versailles, Saugrain was educated in Paris as a physician and chemist by Antoine Fourcroy and Mathurin Jacques Brisson; Saugrain was brother-in-law to Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, who had married Louise Saugrain, Antoine's sister. In 1783 he traveled to North America to serve as a mineralogist for Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent at New Orleans, where he was admitted to the practice of surgery. He also collaborated with his brother-in-law on the development of vaccines. In 1787 Dr. Saugrain traveled to the United States bearing a letter of introduction from Benjamin Franklin. He became part of a scientific expedition to explore the Ohio River led by the botanist Picque in 1788. However, Saugrain was injured during an Indian raid and returned to France. Dr. Saugrain was soon forced to flee France because of his royalist beliefs at the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789 (Saugrain's family line had held the position of royal librarian for over 250 years by the time of the Revolution).

He returned to the United States and helped found a French émigré community at Gallipolis, Ohio. It was there that he married Genevieve Rosalie Michau on 20/03/1793. In 1799 the Saugrains moved to St. Louis. Dr. Saugrain was the city's only physician until the United States took possession of St. Louis following the Louisiana Purchase.

Saugrain prepared specimens for Meriwether Lewis to send to President Thomas Jefferson in early 1804. He also provided the Lewis and Clark Expedition with medical supplies.

Dr. Saugrain was the first physician west of the Mississippi River to use the Jenner cowpox vaccine to prevent smallpox, beginning in 1809. From a public health perspective, his willingness to vaccinate anyone, regardless of ability to pay is especially noteworthy. The Missouri State Historical Society has a copy of an advertisement of Dr. Saugrain’s offering vaccine to all persons of indigent circumstances as well as to doctors who lived outside his practice area.

Outside medicine Dr. Saugrain also had interests in mineralogy, physics and chemistry. Saugrain experimented with early versions of phosphorus matches and manufactured thermometers and barometers at Gallipolis.

His daughter Rosalie Saugrain (1797–1787) was married to the St.Louis pioneer businessmen Henry Von Phul (1784–1874), brother of the American artist Anna Maria von Phul. He was the grandfather of Frank (Francis) von Phul (1835–1922).

In 1944 Liberty ship SS Antoine Saugrain was named in his honor.

Dr Antoine Francois Saugrain
Dr. Antoine Saugrain


Alan A. Dale

Alan A. Dale was a cargo ship that served under United States control during World War II. Originally the Danish ship Nordvest, she was requisitioned in 1941, and sunk off the Netherlands in late 1944.

German submarine U-2530

German submarine U-2530 was a Type XXI U-boat (one of the "Elektroboote") of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine, built for service in World War II. She was ordered on 6 November 1943, and was laid down on 1 October 1944 at Blohm & Voss, Hamburg, as yard number 2530. She was launched on 25 November 1944, and commissioned under the command of Kapitänleutnant Max Bokelberg, on 30 December 1944.

German submarine U-877

German submarine U-877 was a Type IXC/40 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during the Second World War. The ship was ordered on 2 April 1942, laid down on 22 May 1943, and launched on 10 December 1943. She was commissioned into the Kriegsmarine under the command of Kapitänleutnant Eberhard Findeisen on 24 March 1944. Initially assigned to the 4th U-boat Flotilla, she was transferred to the 33rd U-boat Flotilla on 1 December 1944.

HMCS Clayoquot

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HMS Affleck (K462)

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Originally destined for the US Navy as a Buckley-class destroyer escort, HMS Affleck was provisionally given the name USS Oswald (later this name was reassigned to DE-767). However, the delivery was diverted to the Royal Navy before the launch.

Commanding Officers were Lt E I Pilditch on commissioning, then Cdr C Gwinner RN (Senior Officer 1st Escort Group).

HMS Bullen (K469)

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The commanding officer was Lt Cdr A.H. Parrish RN.

HMS Capel (K470)

HMS Capel was a Captain-class frigate, built in the United States as a Evarts-class destroyer escort, and transferred to the Royal Navy under the terms of Lend-Lease, which served in World War II.

The ship was laid down as USS Wintle (DE-266) on 11 March 1943 by the Boston Navy Yard, Boston, Massachusetts, and launched on 22 April 1943, sponsored by Mrs. Mary Clyde Wintle. On 14 June 1943 the ship was allocated to the United Kingdom; and she was transferred to the Royal Navy and commissioned as HMS Capel on 16 August 1943. The ship was named after Admiral Sir Thomas Bladen Capel (1776-1853).

HMS Dakins (K550)

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Damaged by a mine in late 1944, she was not repaired before the end of the war. Following the war, she was used as a depot ship until sold for scrapping.

HMS Empire Dace

HMS Empire Dace was a 716 GRT coastal ferry that was built in 1942 as a merchant ship by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom for the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT). In 1943, she was requisitioned by the Royal Navy. She served until December 1944, when she struck a mine and sank in Greek waters.

Hawaii Maru

Hawaii Maru was a 9,482-ton Japanese troop transport during World War II, which sank on 2 December 1944 with great loss of life.

The ship was built in 1915 by the Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation in Kobe for the Osaka Shosen Kaisha shipping company. It served as an ocean liner and sailed to Vancouver, Seattle, New Orleans, Cape Town and Buenos Aires.On 29 September 1941, Hawaii Maru was requisitioned by the Japanese Imperial Army as a troop transport-ship and was used as such during the invasion of the Philippines. In April 1943 the ship transported some 1000 Dutch prisoners from Singapore to Moji. Several Dutch soldiers died during the three-week journey. On 26 November 1943 Hawaii Maru again transported 1,230 Dutch and 150 British POWs from Singapore to Moji, and survived an attack of B-25 Mitchell bombers, which sank Hakone Maru. On 27 April 1944, Hawaii Maru was hit by a torpedo fired by the American submarine USS Trigger, but stayed afloat.On 30 November 1944, Hawaii Maru sailed as a troop transport from Moji, Japan for Miri, Borneo via Manila in convoy MI-29. On 2 December 1944 around 04h00, the convoy was attacked by US Navy submarine USS Sea Devil in the East China Sea west of Yakushima Island (30°24′N 128°17′E). Hawaii Maru was hit and sank very fast; 1,843 troops of the IJA 23rd Infantry Division, 60 other troops, 83 gunners and 148 crewmen were killed.

Japanese destroyer Kishinami

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Japanese destroyer Kiyoshimo

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Japanese destroyer Uzuki (1925)

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Japanese gunboat Hira

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On 13 December 1937, Hira and other IJN ships engaged Chinese positions at Xiaguan, China and attacked Chinese boats and rafts on the Yangtze River. On 17 August 1944 Hira was damaged by US 14th Air Force aircraft at Kiukiang, China. On 26 November 1944 Hira and the gunboat Hozu ran aground near Anking, China. Chinese aircraft subsequently bombed and sunk Hozu and severely damaged Hira. Hira was scrapped in July 1945.

Japanese gunboat Hozu

Hozu (保津) was a river gunboat of the Imperial Japanese Navy, part of the 11th Gunboat Sentai, that operated on the Yangtze River in China during the 1930s, and during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

On August 13, 1937 Hozu and other IJN ships bombarded Chinese positions at Shanghai. On December 13 Hozu and other ships engaged Chinese positions at Xiaguan and attacked Chinese boats and rafts on the Yangtze River. On December 5, 1944 Hozu and the gunboat Hira ran aground near Anking. They were subsequently bombed by Chinese aircraft, Hira was damaged and Hozu was sunk. The wreck was scrapped 1945

SS Antoine Saugrain

SS Antoine Saugrain was a Liberty ship of the United States that served in World War II. The ship was built at the Permanente Metals Corporation Yard No. 2 in Richmond, California under Maritime Commission Contract 1728. Laid down on 26 July 1943, the ship was launched on 15 August, and delivered on 28 August. She was torpedoed off Leyte on 5 December 1944, and sank the next day.

SS Revoljucija

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USS Abbot (DD-184)

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USS Cooper

USS Cooper (DD-695), an Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer, is the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Elmer Glenn Cooper, a naval aviator who died in a seaplane accident in 1938. Cooper was launched 9 February 1944 by Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey; sponsored by Mrs. Elmer G. Cooper; and commissioned 27 March 1944, Commander J. W. Schmidt in command.

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