Antoine Saugrain

Dr. Antoine François Pierre Saugrain (Paris, 17/02/1763 FranceSt. Louis, Missouri, 05/03/1820) was a French-born physician and chemist.

Born in Versailles, Saugrain was educated in Paris as a physician and chemist by Antoine Fourcroy and Mathurin Jacques Brisson; Saugrain was brother-in-law to Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, who had married Louise Saugrain, Antoine's sister. In 1783 he traveled to North America to serve as a mineralogist for Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent at New Orleans, where he was admitted to the practice of surgery. He also collaborated with his brother-in-law on the development of vaccines. In 1787 Dr. Saugrain traveled to the United States bearing a letter of introduction from Benjamin Franklin. He became part of a scientific expedition to explore the Ohio River led by the botanist Picque in 1788. However, Saugrain was injured during an Indian raid and returned to France. Dr. Saugrain was soon forced to flee France because of his royalist beliefs at the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789 (Saugrain's family line had held the position of royal librarian for over 250 years by the time of the Revolution).

He returned to the United States and helped found a French émigré community at Gallipolis, Ohio. It was there that he married Genevieve Rosalie Michau on 20/03/1793. In 1799 the Saugrains moved to St. Louis. Dr. Saugrain was the city's only physician until the United States took possession of St. Louis following the Louisiana Purchase.

Saugrain prepared specimens for Meriwether Lewis to send to President Thomas Jefferson in early 1804. He also provided the Lewis and Clark Expedition with medical supplies.

Dr. Saugrain was the first physician west of the Mississippi River to use the Jenner cowpox vaccine to prevent smallpox, beginning in 1809. From a public health perspective, his willingness to vaccinate anyone, regardless of ability to pay is especially noteworthy. The Missouri State Historical Society has a copy of an advertisement of Dr. Saugrain’s offering vaccine to all persons of indigent circumstances as well as to doctors who lived outside his practice area.

Outside medicine Dr. Saugrain also had interests in mineralogy, physics and chemistry. Saugrain experimented with early versions of phosphorus matches and manufactured thermometers and barometers at Gallipolis.

His daughter Rosalie Saugrain (1797–1787) was married to the St.Louis pioneer businessmen Henry Von Phul (1784–1874), brother of the American artist Anna Maria von Phul. He was the grandfather of Frank (Francis) von Phul (1835–1922).

In 1944 Liberty ship SS Antoine Saugrain was named in his honor.

Dr Antoine Francois Saugrain
Dr. Antoine Saugrain

Sources

Alan A. Dale

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German submarine U-2530

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German submarine U-877

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HMS Dakins (K550)

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Damaged by a mine in late 1944, she was not repaired before the end of the war. Following the war, she was used as a depot ship until sold for scrapping.

HMS Empire Dace

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The ship was built in 1915 by the Kawasaki Shipbuilding Corporation in Kobe for the Osaka Shosen Kaisha shipping company. It served as an ocean liner and sailed to Vancouver, Seattle, New Orleans, Cape Town and Buenos Aires.On 29 September 1941, Hawaii Maru was requisitioned by the Japanese Imperial Army as a troop transport-ship and was used as such during the invasion of the Philippines. In April 1943 the ship transported some 1000 Dutch prisoners from Singapore to Moji. Several Dutch soldiers died during the three-week journey. On 26 November 1943 Hawaii Maru again transported 1,230 Dutch and 150 British POWs from Singapore to Moji, and survived an attack of B-25 Mitchell bombers, which sank Hakone Maru. On 27 April 1944, Hawaii Maru was hit by a torpedo fired by the American submarine USS Trigger, but stayed afloat.On 30 November 1944, Hawaii Maru sailed as a troop transport from Moji, Japan for Miri, Borneo via Manila in convoy MI-29. On 2 December 1944 around 04h00, the convoy was attacked by US Navy submarine USS Sea Devil in the East China Sea west of Yakushima Island (30°24′N 128°17′E). Hawaii Maru was hit and sank very fast; 1,843 troops of the IJA 23rd Infantry Division, 60 other troops, 83 gunners and 148 crewmen were killed.

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Japanese destroyer Kiyoshimo

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Japanese destroyer Uzuki (1925)

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Japanese gunboat Hira

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Japanese gunboat Hozu

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On August 13, 1937 Hozu and other IJN ships bombarded Chinese positions at Shanghai. On December 13 Hozu and other ships engaged Chinese positions at Xiaguan and attacked Chinese boats and rafts on the Yangtze River. On December 5, 1944 Hozu and the gunboat Hira ran aground near Anking. They were subsequently bombed by Chinese aircraft, Hira was damaged and Hozu was sunk. The wreck was scrapped 1945

SS Antoine Saugrain

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