Antoine Bourdelle

Antoine Bourdelle (30 October 1861 – 1 October 1929), born Émile Antoine Bordelles,[1] was an influential and prolific French sculptor and teacher. He was a student of Auguste Rodin, a teacher of Giacometti and Henri Matisse, and an important figure in the transition from the Beaux-Arts style to modern sculpture.

His studio became the Musée Bourdelle, an art museum dedicated to his work, located at 18, rue Antoine Bourdelle, in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, France.

Antoine Bourdelle
Antoine Bourdelle b Meurisse 1925
Antoine Bourdelle

October 30, 1861
DiedOctober 1, 1929, age 67
Le Vésinet, near Paris
Known forSculpture


Émile Antoine Bourdelle was born at Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne on 30 October 1861. His father was a wood craftsman and cabinet-maker. In 1874, at the age of thirteen, he left school to work in his father's workshop, and also began carving his first sculptures of wood. In 1876, with the assistance of writer Émile Pouvillon, he received a scholarship to attend the School of Fine Arts in Toulouse, though he remained fiercely independent and resisted the formal program.[2] In 1884, at the age of twenty-four, he earned second place in the competition to enter the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. There he worked in the studio of Alexandre Falguière and frequented the studio of Jules Dalou, who was his neighbor.[3] In 1885 he participated in the annual Salon of artists and won an honorable mention for his work, The First Victory of Hannibal. He rented a studio at 16 Impasse du Main, next to the painters Eugène Carrière and Jean-Paul Laurens. He worked in this studio until his death.[4]

In 1887, he quit the studio of Falguièr, and, moved by the music of Beethoven, he made his first of what would eventually be some forty sculptures of the composer. In September 1893 Bourdelle joined the studio of Auguste Rodin. His collaboration with Rodin lasted fifteen years. In 1895, he received his first official commission, a war monument for the city of Montauban. His proposed plans, different from traditional monuments, created a scandal. Rodin intervened on his behalf, and the monument was finally erected in 1902.[5]

In 1900, Bourdelle demonstrated his independence from Rodin's style with a bust of Apollo. In the same year, Bourdelle, Rodin and the sculptor Desbois opened a free school of sculpture, the Institut Rodin-Debois-Bourdelle. One of the students was Henri Matisse, who later produced some remarkable sculpture, but the school did not last long.[6]

Bourdelle et Grace Christie (1)
Bourdelle in his studio sketching Grace Christie

In 1905, Bourdelle had his first personal exhibition, in the gallery of the foundry-owner Hébrand. With the support of Hébrand and the material assistance of his foundry, Bourdelle was able to make larger works and earn greater recognition. His father died in 1906, and Bourdelle changed his first name to simply Antoine, after his father. He married his second wife, Cléopatre Sevastos (1892-1972), who was of Greek origin. She and their daughter, Rhodia, became a frequent inspiration for his works.[7]

In 1908 Bourdelle left the studio of Rodin and set out on his own. In 1909 he exhibited a new work, Hercules the Archer at the annual Salon of the Societé Nationale des Beaux-Arts. He began to teach at the Académie de la Grande-Chaumière, where his students included Giacometti.

In 1913 the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées was inaugurated, with decoration on the facade and the interior atrium designed by Bourdelle. This work announced the debut of the Art Deco style, and was an important step towards modernism.[8] He was a participant in the 1913 Armory Show in New York, a founder and vice-president of the Parisian Salon des Tuileries.

He remained in Paris during the First World War, working on a commission for an art patron from Argentina, Rodolfo Acorta, a monument to General Alvear, which was inaugurated in Buenos Aires in 1925.

In 1929, the first major work of public sculpture in Paris by Bourdelle, the monument to the Polish hero Mickiewicz, was inaugurated on Place d'Alma. Bourdelle, in health, died at Le Vésinet, near Paris, on 1 October 1929 and was interred in the Cimetière du Montparnasse, Paris, France.[9]

In 1949, the atelier of Bourdelle on the impasse du Maine was opened as the Musée Bourdelle, and the street was renamed as rue Antoine Bourdelle.

Bourdelle's son, Pierre Bourdelle (1903–1966), became an artist most active in the United States, notable for his work at Cincinnati Union Terminal in 1933.


In 1909 he was named Knight of the Legion of Honor, in 1919 Officier of the Legion of Honor, and in 1924 became a Commander of the Legion of Honor.


Antoine Bourdelle - A Primeira Vitória de Anibal

Hannibal's First Victory (1885)

The Great Warrior of Montauban - Washington, D.C.

The Great Warrior of Montauban, bronze, (1898), Hirshhorn Museum, Washington, D.C.

Le Jour et la Nuit par Antoine Bourdelle

Day and Night, marble, 1903, Musée Bourdelle, Paris

Bourdelle sculptress p1070128

The Sculptress at Work, 1906, bronze, Stanford Museum, Stanford University, California

Herakles the Archer - MET - 24.232

Hercules the Archer (1909), Metropolitan Museum of Art

Antoine Bourdelle, 1910-12, Apollon et sa méditation entourée des neuf muses, bas-relief, Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, Paris DSC09314

Apollo with three of the nine muses, Theatre des Champs-Elysees (1910–12)

Antoine Bourdelle - Pénélope 1912 - Montauban

La Grande Penelope, bronze, 1912, Montauban

Dallas Crow Center 15 Bourdelle Horse for Alvear monument 1

Monument to Alvear Horse, Trammell Crow Sculpture Garden, Dallas, Texas (1913–25)

Antoine Bourdelle - La mort du dernier centaure - Montauban

Dying Centaur, 1914, bronze, Musée Ingres, Montauban

Bourdelle Osaka01s3200

La Liberté, Daido Life Insurance Company, Osaka, Japan

The Virgin Of Alsace by Emile-Antoine Bourdelle

The Virgin of Alsace, 1919–21, Edinburgh, Scotland

Antoine Bourdelle, ca.1922, Monument La France, H. 9 m, bronze, Hohwiller founder, erected 18 June 1948, Palais de Tokyo, Paris

Monument titled La France) (1922), erected 18 June 1948, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Palais de Tokyo

Bust of Jean Moreas, National Garden, Athens

Bust of Jean Moreas, bronze, National Sculpture Garden, Athens, Greece

Antoine Bourdelle - Sapho 1925 - Montauban

Sappho, 1925 Montauban France


Monument Mickievicz (Paris) b
Monument to Mickiewicz, 1929, Jardin d'Erevan, 8th arr., Paris

Today the Musée Bourdelle in Paris sits amidst brick houses at 18 rue Antoine Bourdelle, a small street between the Gare Montparnasse and the offices of the famous French newspaper Le Monde. The museum consists of Bourdelle's house, studio, and garden where he worked from 1884 to 1929. A second Bourdelle garden-museum, in Égreville, was established by his heirs in the late 1960s hosts another 56 of his sculptures.

His work is also exhibited in public collections worldwide, including Musée d'Orsay (Paris), Aichi Arts Center (Japan), Cleveland Museum of Art, National Museum of Art of Romania, Courtauld Institute of Art (London), Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna (Rome), Harvard University Art Museums (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Hermitage Museum (Saint Petersburg, Russia), Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden (Washington D.C.), Honolulu Museum of Art, Kimbell Art Museum (Fort Worth, Texas), Kröller-Müller Museum (Otterlo, Netherlands), the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes (Buenos Aires), the National Galleries of Scotland, National Gallery of Australia, Musée Ingres (Montauban), the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Middelheim Open Air Sculpture Museum (Antwerp, Belgium), and the Museum of Fine Arts (St. Petersburg, Florida).


Artists who studied with Antoine Bourdelle included:

For a first hand account of Bourdelle's teaching style see Arnold Ronnebeck's article from 1925, published in The Arts 8, no. 4 titled "Bourdelle Speaks to His Pupils: From a Paris Diary."

Notes and citations

  1. ^ Birth certificate of Émile Antoine Bordelles, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Leonore
  2. ^ Lemoine, Colin, Bourdelle, Cercle d'Art, (2004), pg. 8
  3. ^ Ruth Butler, Rodin: The Shape of Genius, Yale University Press, 1993, page 266, ISBN 978-0-300-06498-8
  4. ^ Lemoine (2004), pg. 8
  5. ^ Lemoine (2004), pg. 8
  6. ^ Lemoine (2004), pg. 8
  7. ^ Lemoine (2004), pg.
  8. ^ Lemoine (2004), pg. 8
  9. ^ Lemoine (2004), pg. 8


  • Colin Lemoine, Antoine Bourdelle. L'oeuvre à demeure, Paris, Paris-Musées, 2009
  • Bourdelle, Émile-Antoine, "Émile-Antoine Bourdelle, Sculptures and Drawings", Perth, Western Australian Art Gallery, 1978.
  • Jeancolas, Claude, Sculpture Française, CELIV, Paris (1992), (ISBN 978-2-86535-162-6)
  • Ottawa.National Gallery of Canada, "Antoine Bourdelle, 1861-1929", New York, C. E. Slatkin Galleries, 1961.
  • Colin Lemoine, Antoine Bourdelle, Paris, Cercle d'art, 2004,(ISBN 978-2-7022-0749-9)
  • Antoine Bourdelle, passeur de la modernité, exhibition catalogue (curators Roxana Theodorescu, Juliette Laffon and Colin Lemoine / Catalogue Colin Lemoine), Bucarest, National Museum of Art, 2006
  • Colin Lemoine, Le Fruit : une œuvre majuscule d'Antoine Bourdelle, Ligeia, January–June 2005, n°57-58-59-60, p. 60-78
  • Colin Lemoine, "...sans ce modelé à la Rodin, à la XVIIIe siècle qui beurre le tout : Bourdelle et la question d'un primitivisme occidental", Bulletin du musée Ingres, May 2006, n° 78, p. 49-66
  • Cléopâtre Sevastos, Ma vie avec Bourdelle, Paris-Musées-Editions des Cendres, 2005 (annoted edition by Colin Lemoine)
  • Véronique Gautherin, L'Oeil et la main (2000)
  • Antoine Bourdelle, d'un siècle l'autre. L'eurythmie de la modernité, exhibition catalogue by Colin Lemoine, Japan (Kitakyushu, Niigata, Takamatsu, Iwaki, Nagoya, Seoul), 2007-2008.

External links

1861 in France

Events from the year 1861 in France.

Adam (sculpture)

Adam is an outdoor 1889 bronze sculpture by Antoine Bourdelle, installed at the Lillie and Hugh Roy Cullen Sculpture Garden in Houston, Texas, in the United States.

Alfred Jean Halou

Alfred Jean Halou (born in Blois in 1875 and died in Paris in 1939) was a French sculptor.

He followed the class of Alexandre Falguière at the École des Beaux Arts and was also a pupil of Auguste Rodin. He was then part of the band named "la bande à Schnegg", including Lucien Schnegg, Antoine Bourdelle, Charles Despiau, Robert Wlérick, Léon-Ernest Drivier, François Pompon, Louis Dejean, Charles Malfray, Auguste de Niederhausern, Henry Arnold, Jane Poupelet and Yvonne Serruys.

Alfredo Bigatti

Alfredo Bigatti (1898–1964) was an Argentine sculptor, medalist, and visual artist.

Born in Buenos Aires, Bigatti studied and then taught at the Academy of Fine Arts, and then toured numerous countries in Europe from 1924 through 1928, including studying in Paris with Antoine Bourdelle.

Bigatti's major work is probably the National Flag Memorial in Rosario, Santa Fe, in collaboration with architects Ángel Guido and Alejandro Bustillo, and fellow sculptors José Fioravanti and Eduardo Barnes.

In 1936 Bigatti married the Expressionist painter Raquel Forner.


Bourdelle is a surname of French origin. People with that name include:

Antoine Bourdelle (born Émile Antoine Bordelles, 1861-1929), French sculptor, painter, and teacher

List of works by Antoine Bourdelle

Musée Bourdelle, Paris

Thomy Bourdelle (1891-1972), French actor

Germaine Richier

Germaine Richier (16 September 1902 – 21 July 1959) was a French sculptor.Born in Grans, Richier began her studies at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Montpellier, in the atelier of Louis-Jacques Guigues; in 1926 she went to work with Antoine Bourdelle, remaining in his studio until his death in 1929. There she became acquainted with Alberto Giacometti, although the two were never close. Richier for her part was more interested in a classical approach to sculpture, preferring to work from a live model and then reworking the final product. She also met César Baldaccini at this stage in her career. She married Otto Bänninger on 12 December 1929. In 1936, she won the Prix Blumenthal. During the war, she met Marino Marini, in exile in Switzerland.

Hercules the Archer

Hercules the Archer is a sculpture by Antoine Bourdelle, originally made in 1909, which now exists in many versions. It was a commission of the financier and philanthropist Gabriel Thomas, as a single copy in gilt-bronze in April 1909; Bourdelle worked on the sculpture in the summer of 1909. It was cast by Eugène Rudier, and it was exhibited at the National Society of Fine Arts in 1910, and much appreciated. The dimensions were 2.50 m × 2.40 m.

The second version was developed around 1923. It differed from the first version with additions of reliefs on the rock right, representing the Lernaean Hydra and the Nemean Lion. Finally a banner along the base of the sculpture and the monogram completed the work.

List of works by Antoine Bourdelle

List of works by Antoine Bourdelle is an incomplete list of artworks by the French artist Antoine Bourdelle.

Antoine Bourdelle (31 October 1861 – 1 October 1929), born Émile Antoine Bordelles, was an influential and prolific French sculptor, painter, and teacher. His studio became the Musée Bourdelle, an art museum dedicated to his work, located at 18, rue Antoine Bourdelle, in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, France.

In 1905, he mounted an exhibition of his work at the Galerie Hébrard in Paris, showing 38 sculptures, 18 paintings and 21 drawings. The sculptures included La Nonne from 1888 as well as the Head of Apollo and his Great Tragic Mask of Beethoven. Bourdelle's father died in 1906 and in 1909 he left Rodin's studio. The year 1910, saw his Héraklès tue les oiseaux du lac Stymphale of 1909 shown at the Salon and this was a huge success! A version of this work is held in the Musée d'Orsay. Whilst working as a sculptor he also taught at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Montparnasse, his pupils including Alberto Giacometti, Aristide Maillol, René Iché and Germaine Richier. 1910 also saw his divorce from Stéphanie Van Parys and in 1911 Rhodia Bourdelle was born to him and Cléopâtre Sévastos. In 1913 an exhibition of modern art in New York included his Héraklès and Tête d’Apollon, the commission for the monument to Genéral Alvéar in Argentina was formalized and he carried out the sculptures for the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées. He founded and was vice president of the Salon des Tuileries.Many works by Bourdelle can be seen in the Musée Bourdelle- Buste de Beethoven, Adam, Le bélier rétif, Centaure mourant, La Liberté and Vierge à l'enfant. From 1922 to 1923 he worked on La Vierge à l’offrande and completed the maquette for La France. He also completed La Naissance d’Aphrodite for the Marseille Opera House. In 1925 he exhibited at the Exposition internationale des Arts décoratifs showing Sappho, Le Livre and Masque de Bourdelle in the Pavillon du livre. 1926 finally saw his Alvéar monument inaugurated after 10 years of work and a version of La France was exhibited at the Salon des Tuileries. 1928 saw a retrospective exhibition to celebrate the inauguration of the Brussels Palais des Beaux-Arts and 1929, the year of his death, saw the Monument to Adam Mickiewicz inaugurated. Bourdelle died on the 1 October 1929 at Vésinet whilst a guest of the founder Rudier. In 1931 there was a great retrospective of Bourdelle's work at the Paris Orangerie. He is buried in Montparnasse cemetery. In 1924 he had been made Commandeur de l'Ordre de la Légion d'honneur.

Louis Dejean

Louis Dejean (June 9, 1872 in Paris – January 6, 1953 in Paris), was a French sculptor and engraver. He worked in the workshop of Gaston Schnegg, along with Antoine Bourdelle, Charles Despiau, Robert Wlérick, Léon-Ernest Drivier, François Pompon, Alfred Jean Halou, Charles Malfray, Auguste de Niederhausern, Henry Arnold, Jane Poupelet and Yvonne Serruys.

Monument aux Morts de Montauban

The Monument aux Morts de Montauban is an 1894 sculpture by Antoine Bourdelle. His romantic vision of the monument generated many violent oppositions. Auguste Rodin's intervention in 1897 enabled Bourdelle to do this sculpture without any compromise. The monument was erected in Montauban, in the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, in 1902.

Monument to General Carlos M. de Alvear

The Monumento ecuestre a Carlos María de Alvear located on Plaza Julio de Caro, a landmark in the Recoleta neighbourhood of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and was raised in honor of Carlos María de Alvear (1788-1852).It is a work by French sculptor Antoine Bourdelle. It is considered by the author as his masterpiece in the great monuments.

In 1912, Rodolfo Alcorta, a friend of Bourdelle, invited the sculptor to participate in a concours for the realization of this monument. He received the commission in 1913. The author took nearly ten years to complete the sculpture. Once finished the monument was shipped to Buenos Aires from France in 1925.

The sculpture and the pedestal of polished pink granite adorned with additional bronzes by the artist, stands in its current location since 12 October 1926.

Musée Bourdelle

The Musée Bourdelle is an art museum located at 18, rue Antoine Bourdelle, in the 15th arrondissement of Paris, France. It is open daily, except Mondays. The nearest Paris Métro stations are Falguière and Montparnasse – Bienvenüe.

The museum preserves the studio of sculptor Antoine Bourdelle (1861–1929), and provides an example of Parisian ateliers from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was Bourdelle's active studio from 1885-1929.

In 1922 he began plans to turn his studio into a museum; in the early 1930s Gabriel Cognacq provided funds to purchase the studio and thus avoid dispersing the artist's remaining works. The museum was inaugurated in 1949, and expanded in 1961 by architect Henri Gautruche and again in 1992 by Christian de Portzamparc.

Today the museum contains more than 500 works including marble, plaster, and bronze statues, paintings, pastels, fresco sketches, and Bourdelle's personal collection of works by artists including Eugène Carrière, Eugène Delacroix, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Adolphe Joseph Thomas Monticelli, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, and Auguste Rodin. It contains the original plaster casts of some of his finest works including 21 studies of Ludwig van Beethoven, as well as document archives and his copies of Greek and medieval works.

Since June 2012, museum's visitors follow a different path through the permanent collections: educational, chronological and attuned to the work, highlighting Bourdelle’s artistic evolution.

Bourdelle Museum is one of the 14 City of Paris' Museums that have been incorporated since January 1st 2013 in the public institution Paris Musées.

A second Bourdelle garden-museum, in Égreville, was established by his heirs in the late 1960s. It hosts another 56 of his sculptures.

Musée Ingres

The Musée Ingres (In English: Ingres Museum) is located in Montauban, France. It houses a collection of artworks and artifacts related to Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, and works by another famous native of Montauban, Antoine Bourdelle.

In 1851, Ingres, at 71 years of age, gave part of his collection, including copies, work of pupils, and Greek vases, as a gift to the city of his birth. The Ingres room was inaugurated in 1854. The death of Ingres in January 1867 led to a considerable enrichment of the collection with additional works, in particular several thousands of drawings.

The museum is located in a building that once served as the residence of the bishops of Montauban. The structure belongs chiefly to the 17th century, but some portions are much older, notably an underground chamber known as the Hall of the Black Prince (Salle du Prince Noir). During World War II, the Musée Ingres served as one of the temporary places of storage for the Mona Lisa, evacuated from the Louvre at the beginning of the war. A renovation carried out between 1951–1958 made Musée Ingres a modern institution according to the designs of the time, equipped with additional inventories.

Among the paintings by Ingres in the collection are the following:

Joseph Ingres (1804)

Jean-François Gilibert (1804)

Lorenzo Bartolini (1805)

The Dream of Ossian (1813)

Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter (1820)

Roger Freeing Angelica (1841 version)

Madame Henri Gonse (1845–1852)

Jesus among the Doctors (1862)

Opéra de Marseille

L’Opéra de Marseille, known today as the Opéra Municipal, is an opera company located in Marseille, France. In 1685, the city was the second in France after Bordeaux to have an opera house which was erected on a tennis court.

However, the first real theatre, the Grand-Théâtre or Salle Bauveau was constructed in 1787. During its period of great opulence following the Revolution, it was the site of many major opera presentations, including Verdi’s Rigoletto and Il Trovatore in 1860 and performances in 1866 of Lucia di Lammermoor and Il Barbiere di Siviglia by the famous soprano, Adelina Patti. Also, French premieres of major operatic works were given in the theatre: these include Aida (1877), La Fanciulla del West (1912), and an historic performance by Dame Nellie Melba in Ambroise Thomas’ Hamlet in 1890. Some years following the installation of electricity, in November 1919 a fire destroyed the 18th century theatre, leaving only its shell and an exterior stone colonnade.

The present day opera house, the Opéra Municipal de Marseille, dates from its opening on 4 December 1924. It seats 1,800. It features a classic urn-shaped auditorium, three rings of boxes, two balconies and a gallery. A large sculpted frieze by sculptor Antoine Bourdelle frames the stage.

Designed by the three architects Ebrard, Castel, and Raymond, the theatre preserved the stone colonnade and, located the surviving original box office in the centre of the entrance hall, up from which led two staircases to the elegant main foyer. Beauvert describes it as "an Art Deco temple", the "soul mate" of the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées in Paris.

Many well-known contemporary singers made their French debuts in this opera house. Among them are Alfredo Kraus, Plácido Domingo, and Renata Scotto. The house has a reputation for its very critical audience, especially those members seated in the top gallery, "the gods". Past music directors of the company have included János Fürst.After World War II the Marseille opera house staged Sigurd by Ernest Reyer in 1963 and 1995.

Raoul Josset

Raoul Jean Josset (1892 in Tours – 1957) was a French-born American sculptor.During the First World War, he worked as an interpreter for American forces in France. He was a pupil of Antoine Bourdelle between 1920 and 1926. He came to Chicago, Illinois, in 1932 with his longtime collaborator Jose Martin to pursue a job with the Northwestern Terra Cotta Company only to find the job closed, but developed plenty of work, first in Illinois, briefly with Cowan Pottery in Lakewood, Ohio, and then principally in Texas. In 1953 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate Academician.

Rudier Foundry

The Rudier Foundry (Fonderie Rudier) was a foundry run by Alexis Rudier (died 1897) and his son Eugène Rudier (1875-1952). It worked with some of the most notable sculptors of the 19th and 20th centuries, including Auguste Rodin, Antoine Bourdelle, Gustave Miklos, Aristide Maillol and Daumier. Their casts were signed "Alexis RUDIER Fondeur PARIS".

Salon des Tuileries

The Salon des Tuileries was an annual art exhibition for painting and sculpture, created June 14, 1923, co-founded by painters Albert Besnard and Bessie Davidson, sculptor Antoine Bourdelle, architect Auguste Perret, and others.

The first year's exhibition was conducted in former barracks at the Porte Maillot of the city gates of Paris, near the Bois de Boulogne in a "Palais du Bois" hastily constructed by the Perret brothers. Its location varied afterwards. The Salon, together with the 1884 Société des Artistes Indépendants, the 1903 Salon d'Automne and others, was organized in opposition to the Academy's official Salon system. Annual exhibitions continued at least into the 1950s.

The Fruit

The Fruit, sculpted in 1906, is the work of Antoine Bourdelle. The statue is an anatomical study of a nude female who stands confidently, with fruit cupped in her right hand, her left arm bent behind and her ankles crossed.

The Great Warrior of Montauban

The Great Warrior of Montauban is a bronze sculpture by Antoine Bourdelle.It was commissioned in 1897, by the village of Montauban to commemorate the Franco-Prussian War.

It was modeled in 1898 to 1900, and cast in 1956.It is an edition of ten; number three is at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden.

It appeared in LIFE magazine.

Antoine Bourdelle (works)
Contemporary sculptors

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