Antoine-Louis Barye (24 September 1795 – 25 June 1875) was a Romantic French sculptor most famous for his work as an animalier, a sculptor of animals. His son and student was the known sculptor Alfred Barye.
Portrait by Léon Bonnat
|Born||24 September 1795|
|Died||25 June 1875 |
|Education||École des Beaux Arts|
|Parent(s)||Pierre and Marguerite Barye|
Born in Paris, France, Barye began his career as a goldsmith, like many sculptors of the Romantic Period. He first worked under his father Pierre, and around 1810 worked under the sculptor Guillaume-Mertin Biennais, who was a goldsmith to Napoleon. After studying under sculptor Francois-Joseph Bosio in 1816, and painter Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, he was in 1818 admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts. But it was not until 1823, while working for the goldsmith Emile Fauconnier that he discovered his true predilection from watching the animals in the Jardin des Plantes, making vigorous studies of them in pencil drawings comparable to those of Delacroix, then modeling them in sculpture on a large or small scale.
In 1819 while he was studying at the École des Beaux-Arts, Barye sculpted a medallion named Milo of Crotana Devoured by a Lion, in which the lion bites into Milo's left thigh. Milo's theme was the school's official theme for the medallion competition of 1819, where Barye earned an honorable mention. c. 1820 Barye sculpted Hercules with the Erymanthean Boar, depicting Hercules's fourth Labor, where he had to capture a live wild boar from Mount Erymanthos.
Barye was no less successful in sculpture on a small scale, and excelled in representing animals in their most familiar attitudes. Barye sculpted the portrait medallion Young Man in a Beret (1823) in bronze, as well as Portrait of the Founder Richard (1827), in which only a head and neck are shown. He also sculpted Poised Stag (1829), a much larger sculpture, which had a height of 48 cm, and was one-third life size.
Barye didn't only want to be known as a sculptor of small bronzes, he wanted to be known as a sculpteur statuaire (a sculptor of large statues). In 1831 he exhibited much larger statues, Tiger Devouring a Gavial Crocodile, which was a plaster sculpture 41 cm high and 103 cm long, and Lion Crushing a Serpent, 138 cm high and 178 cm long, made in bronze. In 1832 had truly mastered a style of his own in the Lion with a Snake.
Barye, though engaged in a perpetual struggle with want, exhibited year after year studies of animals, admirable groups which reveal him as inspired by a spirit of true romance and a feeling for the beauty of the antique, as in his Theseus and the Minotaur (1843), Roger and Angelica on the Hippogriff (1846)), Lapitha and Centaur (1848), Jaguar Devouring a Hare (1850), and numerous minor works now very highly valued. The latter two works were exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1850, causing Théophile Gautier to observe:"The mere reproduction of nature does not constitute art; Barye aggrandizes his animal subjects, simplifying them, idealizing and stylizing them in a manner that is bold, energetic, and rugged, that makes him the Michelangelo of the menagerie."
Examples of his larger work include the Lion of the Column of July, of which the plaster model was cast in 1839, various lions and tigers in the gardens of the Tuileries, and the four groups War, Peace, Strength, and Order (1854).
While Barye excelled at sculpture, he often faced financial burdens due to his lack of business knowledge. In 1848 he was forced to declare bankruptcy, and all of his work and molds were sold to a foundry. The foundry began making inferior work from 1848 to 1857, and his reputation suffered during this time. In 1876 what remained of Barye's inventory, 125 models, were sold to the Ferdinand Barbedienne foundry. The 1877 Barbedienne catalogue offered all of the models in bronze in variable sizes, and the Barbedienne castings were of superb quality.
Fame did not come until later in life. In 1854 he was made Professor of Drawings at the Museum of Natural History, and was elected to the Académie des beaux-arts in 1868. He produced no new works after 1869.
The mass of admirable work left by Barye entitles him to be regarded as one of the great animal life artists of the French animalier school, and the refiner of a class of art which has attracted such men as Emmanuel Frémiet, Paul-Édouard Delabrièrre, Auguste Cain, and Georges Gardet.
There is a public square on the eastern tip of Île Saint-Louis in Paris dedicated to him.
Barye had a son, Alfred Barye, who studied under him and also became an animalier sculptor. Alfred, although very competent in his own right as a sculptor, would struggle to gain notoriety working in the shadow of his more famous father. Antoine-Louis was not pleased when his son began signing work as "A. Barye" because he thought this created confusion between his work and that of his son. He forced his son to sign as "A. Barye, fils" or "Alf Barye" in order to distinguish their works. The senior Barye signed only one way throughout his entire career, simply marking his bronzes "Barye".
Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Frantz, Henri (1911). . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 456. This in turn cites
Events from the year 1796 in France.1796 in art
Events from the year 1796 in art.1840 in architecture
The year 1840 in architecture involved some significant architectural events and new buildings.1840 in art
Events from the year 1840 in art.1875 in France
Events from the year 1875 in France.1875 in art
Events from the year 1875 in art.Alfred Barye
Alfred Barye "Le Fils" or Alf Barye (Paris, France, 21 January 1839 – Paris, France, 1882) was a French sculptor, of the Belle Époque, pupil of his father the artist Antoine-Louis Barye. In cooperation with Émile-Coriolan Guillemin, Barye did the artwork for "The Arab Warrior Knight on Horseback". Included in Barye's oeuvre were animalier bronzes as well as Oriental subjects. At his father's request, he signed his work as "fils" to differentiate his work from his father's.Alfred Dubucand
Alfred Dubucand (25 November 1828 – 1894) was a French animalier sculptor who worked in the mid-to-late 19th century. His works were often juried into the annual Salon art exhibition in Paris where he contributed works over the course of his career. Dubucand made his debut at the 1867 Salon with a wax model of a dead pheasant.Animalier
An animalier is an artist, mainly from the 19th century, who specializes in, or is known for, skill in the realistic portrayal of animals. "Animal painter" is the more general term for earlier artists. Although the work may be in any genre or format, the term is most often applied to sculptors and painters.
Animalier as a collective plural noun, or animalier bronzes, is also a term in antiques for small-scale sculptures of animals, of which large numbers were produced, often mass-produced, primarily in 19th-century France and to a lesser extent elsewhere in continental Europe.
Although many earlier examples can be found, animalier sculpture became more popular, and reputable, in early 19th-century Paris with the works of Antoine-Louis Barye (1795–1875), for whom the term was coined, derisively, by critics in 1831, and of Émile-Coriolan Guillemin. By the mid-century, a taste for animal subjects was very widespread among all sections of the middle-classes.
In French, a parc animalier is a zoo.Animalier school
Animalier school or animalier movement was a roughly late 18th century to late 19th century movement and school of art, which took as its subject in various figurative forms the animal kingdom or Kingdom Animalia. The movement predominantly centered around Paris, France, and Italy, with some offshoots in England, Germany, and North America.
Some examples of animalier artists and their subjects are George Stubbs and Jules Moigniez (paintings and sculpture of horses), Antoine-Louis Barye (sculpture of bulls and humans), and Rembrandt Bugatti (felines, human figures, and zoo animals).Guy Hain
Guy Hain is a French art forger who produced number of fake bronze sculptures.
Guy Hain began as a seller of veterinary products. In his job he met a number of veterinarians who had antique bronze sculptures of animals and developed an interest in them. In 1962 he spent 550,000.00 French francs for Rodin's The Kiss. When he could not find a job as a salesman, he became an art dealer. He opened a gallery "Aux ducs de Bourgogne" in the Louvre des Antiquaires - a shopping mall not far from the Louvre that is leased mostly by antiques dealers . He closed the gallery in 1988.
Hain approached the foundry of Rudier that was one of the foundries that had produced Rodin's bronze sculptures at the beginning of the 20th century. He convinced the owners Georges and Bernard Rudier to use the original molds to recast known Rodin works. He set up a chasing shop in Nogent-sur-Marne and 1990 bought the Balland foundry in Luxeuil-les-Bains and managed them with his wife.
Since the bronzes were based on the original moulds, the experts could not see the difference. Some of the bronzes were also made based on production plaster copies used 75–90 years previously.
Hain sold thousands of new bronzes to art dealers as originals, using the signature of Alexis Rudier, the original caster for Rodin. He earned equivalent to FFR 130 million ($18.2 million). He later claimed that he had a contract to use the name of Alexis but the Rudiers contested that.
He expanded to the production of copies from other sculptors like Antoine-Louis Barye, Alfred Barye, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Camille Claudel, Christophe Fratin, Emmanuel Frémiet, Aristide Maillol, Pierre-Jules Mene and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. He practically flooded the art market with his copies.
In January 1992, police inspectors from Dijon, in Burgundy, arrested Hain and seized about twenty metric tons of bronze sculptures in various foundries in Burgundy and Paris.
On 17 January 1996 Hain appeared in court in Lure, central France, accused of forgery. On 28 June 1997 he was sentenced to four years in jail but served only 18 months.
The auctioneers Rey et Faure of Rambouillet were also charged with complicity for selling the bronzes of Hain in their auctions between 1987 and 1991. They had sold copies worth about $3 million. A big would-be-Rodin bronze called "The Kiss" was sold for Fr4.5 million (about US$800.000). Charges were later dropped.
Other auction houses such as Christie's and Sotheby's had also sold copies by Hain to their customers.
On 27 January 2006 a public auction organized by DNID (Direction Nationale d'Interventions Domaniales) was held in Dijon, France, with 73 bronzes in the exhibition. Five pieces were removed from the sale and 68 remained.
"Angélique et Roger montés sur l'hippogriffe", "after" Antoine Barye, unmounted, sandcast bronze sculpture without inscription was adjuged €54,000.
An original piece was sold for a record price of $310,000.00 at Christie's on 25 April 2003.When Hain was released, he continued the practice: he had the bronzes produced in stages, one foundry doing the casting, one the chasing and one the patination. In 2000 he registered the names of Alexis and Georges Rudier - along with a number of other foundries - as trademarks he was wishing to be allowed to use. However, Georges Rudier sued him to get the names back.
Hain was rearrested in 2002 and appeared in court in April. Evidence collected by the Dijon police department included some 1,100 copies of the works of 98 different French sculptors. The prosecutor asked for five years in prison and a fine of two million Francs.
Many art dealers and collectors became very suspect of bronze works. Art expert Gilles Perrault calculated that Hain had produced over 6,000 copies beyond those the police had found and confiscated. Only one-third of the copies had been traced.Hippolyte Moulin
Hippolyte Alexandre Julien Moulin, sometimes given as Julien-Hippolyte Moulin or Hypolite Moulin, (1832–1884) was a 19th-century French sculptor.
Moulin, a shopkeeper's son, entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1855 but was unable to afford to continue the lessons and had to become a language teacher in Paris to support himself. He subsequently studied with Auguste-Louis-Marie Ottin and with Antoine-Louis Barye.
His bronze statue A Lucky Find at Pompeii (Une Trouvaille à Pompei) (1863) depicts a nude boy with a spade dancing for joy with one leg raised, because he has unearthed a Roman statuette. His nude pose reflects that of the statuette itself, possibly indicating that the statue depicts the excavator imagining himself in the original statuette's pose. The statue won a medal at the Paris Salon of 1864 and became his most famous work. The life-size original was bought by the French Government for 7,000 francs and exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in 1867. It now stands on a tall pedestal in the Musée d'Orsay alongside Alexandre Falguière's Winner of the Cockfight on an adjacent pedestal - another bronze nude dancing boy poised on one leg that had also been exhibited at the 1864 Salon.
Moulin won further Salon medals in 1867 and 1869, and another at the Exposition Universelle, 1878.
His other works include Victoria Mars (plaster exhibited at the Salon of 1872) and A Secret from On High (Secret d'en Haut) (plaster 1873; marble 1875, now also in the Musée d'Orsay alongside other marble statues.)
A Secret from On High depicts a life-size adolescent nude Mercury (Hermes) whispering a secret to a herm - a pillar topped by a bust of himself - knowing that it will never repeat what he tells it.
Moulin spent his last few years in a rest home for the mentally ill.Jean-François-Théodore Gechter
Jean-François-Théodore Gechter (1795, Paris - 1844, Paris) was a French sculptor. A student of François Joseph Bosio and baron Gros, he is now most noted for his bronzes. He first exhibited in 1824, in a show of classical and mythological subjects. From 1830 he shifted to smaller sculptures and animal subjects, like Antoine-Louis Barye, another student of Bosio and Gros. He also had a talent for historical scenes with figures in elaborate costumes.
Gechter's penchant and gift in depicting historical scenes reached new heights when in 1833 he exhibited his Combat of Charles Martel and Abderame, King of the Saracens. The bronze work was commissioned by the ministry of commerce and industry. Gechter's motif of dressing his subjects in elaborate dresses and depicting scenes of battles or hunts from the Renaissance could be considered as belonging to the genre known as troubadour. But the uniqueness of Gechter was that he managed to infuse emotions into the genre. Examples of this are Death of Tancred (1827) and Wounded Amazon (1840). This exceptional ability resulted in numerous public commissions. He created a marble relief of the Battle of Austerlitz (1833–6) for the Arc de Triomphe and a marble statue of Louis Philippe, which was commissioned in 1839.Lion with a Snake
Lion with a Snake (French: Lion au serpent) is an 1832 sculpture by Antoine-Louis Barye.
It measures 1.35 by 1.78 by 0.96 metres (4 ft 5 in × 5 ft 10 in × 3 ft 2 in).
The original plaster was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1833 and is in the Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon.
It was cast in bronze using the lost-wax process in 1835 by Honoré Gonon.
The original cast was acquired by Louis Philippe I and - after being exhibited in the Tuileries Gardens from 1836 to 1911 - is now in the Louvre.
A stone version is sited in the Tuileries.
Another bronze cast was made in 1891 by Barbedienne and was the first bronze installed in Rittenhouse Square in Philadelphia the following year, where it is known as Lion Crushing a Serpent.List of artwork associated with Agnes E. Meyer
List of artwork associated with Agnes E. Meyer includes works donated by her and her husband Eugene Meyer to the National Gallery of Art, or works of her.List of public art in Baltimore
This list of public art in Baltimore provides an introduction to public art which is accessible in an outdoor public space in Baltimore. Because the collection of public art is extensive and continues to grow, the list is incomplete. A fuller picture is available externally at:
Baltimore City Public Art Inventory as of 2012
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Art Inventories Catalog – database for BaltimoreOlga Hirshhorn
Olga Zatorsky Hirshhorn (April 26, 1920 – October 3, 2015) was an American collector of 19th and 20th century art and supporter of art museums.Pierre Louis Rouillard
Pierre Louis Rouillard (Paris, 16 January 1820 – Paris, 2 June 1881) was a French sculptor known for his sculptures of animals. He was one of a "school of French animalières", which also included Pierre-Jules Mêne, Antoine-Louis Barye, Auguste Caïn and François Pompon. He worked mainly in cast iron rather than bronze.
Rouillard attended the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he was a pupil of Jean-Pierre Cortot. He was a professor of sculpture at the École des Arts décoratifs from 1840 to 1881. François Pompon studied with him.
His works include sculptures for the Opéra de Paris, Palais du Louvre and the Fontaine Saint-Michel.
He was commissioned to travel to Istanbul, by Sultan Abdulaziz. He has many sculptures in different locations of Istanbul, including a bull sculpture at the center of Istanbul's Kadikoy district.
He was awarded the Ordre des Palmes Académiques and made a Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur. He is buried at Issy.The Sladmore Gallery
The Sladmore Gallery is a London art dealership with two premises, one at 32 Bruton Place off Berkeley Square (held since its foundation in 1965) and the other established at 57 Jermyn Street in 2007. Its speciality is animalier sculptors (with the Bruton Place premises specialising in contemporary sculptors and Jermyn Street specialising in 19th- and early 20th-century sculptors).
Its Directors are Edward Horswell, Nona Horswell and Gerry Farrell.The Gallery has posthumously held exhibitions for Auguste Rodin, Aristide Maillol, Edgar Degas, Rembrandt Bugatti, Prince Paul Troubetzkoy and Antoine-Louis Barye. Living exhibitors at the London premises have included Mark Coreth, Geoffrey Dashwood
, Sophie Dickens and Nic Fiddian-Green
.The Sladmore Gallery also puts on shows and fairs in New York, Maastricht, Paris and London.
The Sladmore Gallery is a member of the British Antique Dealers' Association and the Society of London Art Dealers.