Antoine-Augustin Préault

Antoine-Augustin Préault (October 6, 1809 – January 11, 1879) was a French sculptor of the "Romantic" movement. Born in the Marais district of Paris, he was better known during his lifetime as Auguste Préault.

Antoine-Augustin Preault
Auguste Préault by Nadar

Biography

A student of David d'Angers, Préault first exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1833. He was not favorably looked upon by some of the artistic community's elite due to his outspokenness and because he was part of the circle of activists who participated in the French Revolution of 1830. During that period of turmoil, Préault's studio was vandalized and many of his plaster models were destroyed. As a result of these circumstances his work has been largely overshadowed by his contemporaries.[1]

Antoine-Augustin Préault died in Paris in 1879 and was interred in the Père Lachaise Cemetery.

Préault - Le Silence - Roblès 02
Silence (1842), Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris

The fever of poetry, the drunkenness of beauty, the horror of vulgarity, and the madness of glory possessed and tormented Préault

Words of nineteenth century critic describing Préault's work.

[2]

Before this retrospective, Préault's work had fallen into oblivion, three masterpieces excepted: Tuerie (The Killing) (Musée des Beaux Arts, Chartres), Ophelia (Musée d'Orsay) and the Christ in the Eglise Saint Gervais.

The exhibition therefore allowed the public to discover anew the great aspects of his work: subjects inspired by literature (Ophelia, Dante, Virgil) ; portraits and medallions (Delacroix) ; funeral sculpture (Silence), which draws its strength from its atemporality ; and such public commissions as the statue of Clemence Isaure in the Jardin du Luxembourg. By the sheer violence of his subjects, the novelty of his compositions and the spirit of his art, Préault may well deserve, as far as sculpture is concerned, the accolade of the greatest poet of unhappiness

Comments by Musée d'0rsay at time of exhibition held on Preault's work.[3]

Préault is buried in the Pere Lachaise cemetery.[4]

Works

Name Location Photograph Date Notes
Medallion of Virgile Musée d'Orsay
1855 This bas-relief won Préault the Prix de Rome for sculpture in 1855.
Plaster medallion depicting Paul Huet Musée d'Orsay
1869 Huet was an accomplished French painter and Préault executed this medallion featuring Huet in profile in around 1869. The work was later cast in bronze and used on Huet's tomb in the Montparnasse cemetery. The plaster model is held in the collections of the Musée d'Orsay. Until 1985 it had been held by the Huet family before being given to the museum.

[5]

Medallion depicting Eugène Delacroix Musée du Louvre département des Sculptures
1864 Préault executed several medallions and many of these are held by the Musée du Louvre département des Sculptures.

[6]

Medallion depicting Sara Stephann Musée du Louvre département des Sculptures
1832

[7]

Medallion depicting Dr.Devarennes Musée du Louvre département des Sculptures
1838 Devarennes was a doctor practicing at the Paris Hôpital de la Charité.

[8]

Medallion depicting Jean-Barthélémy Hauréau Musée du Louvre département des Sculptures
Préault's executed this bronze medallion depicting the French historian Jean-Barthélémy Hauréau. Hauréau was also the curator of the Bibliothèque nationale and a director of the Imprimerie nationale then a director of the Thiers foundation.

[9]

Medallion depicting Dr.Arthur de Beauvoisy Musée du Louvre département des Sculptures
1837

[10]

Medallion depicting Christophe Pittermann Musée du Louvre département des Sculptures
The date this bronze medallion was executed is not known.

[11]

Head of a young man Musée du Château de Blois
1869 This bronze Préault medallion depicting the "Tête de jeune homme" dates to 1869.

[12]

Medallion depicting Lelia Musée du Château de Blois
1850 Bronze medallion.

[13]

Medallions depicting Auguste Vacquerie and Maximilien de Robespierre Musée des Beaux Arts, Lille
This museum holds medallions depicting Auguste Vacquerie the French journalist and man of letters, and Maximilien de Robespierre

[14] [15] It also holds a medallion depicting Thomas Shotter Boys.[16]

Tomb of Charles-Michel de l'Épée Paris
Preault executed sculptural work for the tomb of Charles-Michel de L'Épée in the église Saint-Roch in Paris. The tomb is located in the chapel of St Suzanne.
La Mendicité
1839 [17]
Vénus et le Sphinx/Jupiter et le Sphinx Château de Fontainebleau
1870 These two works were commissioned for the garden of the Château de Fontainebleau.

[18] [19]

Croix de chemin Ingouville
1861 Préault executed this depiction of Christ on the cross. The figure of Christ is in bronze and the cross limestone.[20]
The tomb of the actor Rouvière
Préault's medallion was used on the tomb of the French actor Philibert Rouvière.[21]
Église Saint-Joseph-des-Carmes Paris
For this Paris church, Préault carved a high-relief in wood depicting two angels on either side of a medallion. This church is located at 70 rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement.
Bust of Nicolas Poussin Amiens
Préault's marble bust of Nicolas Poussin can be seen in the musée de Picardie in Amiens.

[22]

"Cavalier gaulois" on the Pont d'Iéna Paris
1853 This limestone sculpture is one of four equestrian statues on the bridge. The others are a Roman warrior by Louis-Joseph Daumas, an Arab warrior by Jean-Jacques Feuchère and a Greek warrior by François Devault.
The tomb of Jacob Roblès Paris
The sculptural work on this tomb is amongst the most remarkable in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris and features the composition "Le Silence"

[23]

The Institute of Chicago wrote

The rounded known as Le Silence was created for the tomb of Jacob Robles [1782-1842] in the Jewish section of the Parisian cemetery Pere Lachaise. Abandoning traditional funerary imagery, Auguste Préault fashioned an enigmatic and mysterious evocation of death in the skeletal face which is shrouded in drapery with a finger touching the lips. In part the image drew upon the traditional monastic symbol for silence in the cloisters, but here the sculptor also conveys a sense of ambiguity by leaving open whether the figure is living or dead. When Préault exhibited a bronze cast of Le Silence in 1849, it was hailed as "one of the representative works of modern art" and became an icon of Romanticism

[24]

Église St-Gervais-et-St-Protais Paris
This Paris church dates back to 1212 and Préault was the sculptor of the church's statue of Saint Gervais. He also sculpted the figure of Christ in the chapel containing the baptismal fonts. It was at this church that a German shell, fired by the long-range "Paris Gun", fell on 29 March 1918 killing 88 people and wounding 68 others; the explosion collapsed the roof when a Good Friday service was in progress. This was the worst single incident involving a loss of civilian lives during the German bombardment of Paris in 1918. Among those killed was Rose-Marie Ormond Andre-Michel, the niece and a favorite model of John Singer Sargent.

[25]

Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis Paris
This church is located in the rue Saint-Antoine in the "Marais" district of Paris. The church contains many fine sculptures including a statue of St Catherine by Préault.

[26]

Tuerie
Fragment épisodique d'un grand bas-relief
Musée des Beaux-Arts de Chartres
1834

This controversial bronze bas-relief by Préault is held in the Musée des Beaux-arts in Chartres. Tuerie means slaughter and in this stark composition, Préault leaves little to the imagination. [27] [28]

Monument to the Morin-Chalon Family Paris
Préault executed a medallion for this family grave in the Père Lachaise Cemetery.

[29] Préault depicts the head of a woman whose hand covers her face in a stark portrayal of grief.

"Vague" Dijon 1856 This terracotta composition by Préault is thought to date to 1856 and is in fact the only terracotta model of Préault's still surviving. This work is held in Dijon's Musée Magnin.

[30] Préault depicts an ondine. It seems that ondines or water-sprites were a popular subject for the writers of "littérature fantastique" and Paracelsus made reference to them in his writings on alchemy. In European folklore they are depicted as fairy-like creatures.

Medallion depicting Théodore Géricault Rouen
This Préault work depicting the French painter Théodore Géricault is held in the Musée des Beaux Arts of Rouen.

[31]

Medallion depicting Aulus Vitellius Toulouse
This bronze medallion is held in Toulouse in the Musée des Augustins. Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus was Roman Emperor from 16 April to 22 December 69.

[32]

Medallion for the Tomb of Adam Mickiewicz Paris

This composition by Préault is held in the Bibliothèque Polonaise in Paris. [33]

Statues in the gardens of the Château de Versailles Château de Versailles
Préault was commissioned to sculpt statues of André Le Nôtre the gardener, and Jules Hardouin-Mansart the architect, for the Château de Versailles gardens. Hardouin-Mansart was one of the most important European architects of the seventeenth century and much favoured by Louis XIV. Le Nôtre was Louis XIV"s favourite gardener and was responsible for the design and construction of the Palace of Versailles parkland. His work represents the height of the French formal garden style, or "jardin à la française".
Work on the façade of the Louvre Paris
At the two extremities of the façade of the Henri IV and Henri I1 wings in the Louvre's Napoléon courtyard are two large sculptural groups executed by Préault between 1856 and 1857.[34][35] The works are allegories of War and Peace. Also in the so-called "New Louvre" and the Henri II wing of that building there is a statue of André Chénier.[36][37] Chénier was a French poet much associated with the events of the French Revolution. He was guillotined for alleged "crimes against the state", near the end of the Reign of Terror

[38] [39] Finally in the Pavilion de la Bibliothèque is Préault's composition "Les Arts" [40] [41] Préault had been commissioned to design a three-figure allegorical grouping for the Pavilion de la Bibliothèque and he created groups of angels with the theme of the arts and sciences. On the left, an angel twirls a giant sash in a parabolic arch: an ingenious tribute to Mathematics. At the angel’s feet, a pair of cherubs twist to gaze upward at him, one with a long parchment scroll of Architecture draped across his lap. The other plays Music with a lyre, while a mask for Theatre rounds the angle of the plinth ornamented with the spherical astrolabe of Astronomy. The crown in the hand of the brawny angel on the right is Physics, Préault recalling Archimedes’ experiment in buoyancy to test the gold content of King Hiero’s crown. The palm branch waving triumphantly in the angel’s other hand symbolizes Grammar, while at his feet is Geometry, a grinning cherub with a compass. His counterpart, holding palette and brushes, portrays Painting, while Sculpture is evoked by the fine feminine profile medallion on the plinth. An 1857 critic lauded Préault’s génies—the French term for angels on civic buildings—as "having nothing of that charming preciousness of those of the 18th century: they are strong and dense children, as a well-grounded art could form them: they dare to have muscles and stand out in vigorous contours against the sky." [42]

Works in the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Washington
1856 There are two Préault works in this museum in Washington, United States. One is a medallion featuring "Rachel" and a second bronze medallion depicts Harriet Smithson[43]
Sculpture of Mary Magdalene Paris
Préault was responsible for the carving of Mary Magdalene in the La Madeleine. Mary is kneeling before some relics. An interesting observation by Préault on the "cult of the relic" popular amongst French intellectuals at the time.

[44] [45]

Clémence Isaure Paris
1843 Préault was the sculptor of the statue of Clémence Isaure in the Jardin de Luxembourg in Paris. This was one of a series of sculptures entitled "The Queens of France and Famous Women" comprising 20 marble sculptures arranged around a large pond in front of the Palais du Luxembourg. Louis-Philippe I himself chose the women to be portrayed and most of the sculptures were commissioned around 1843 and for around 12,000 francs each. They were exhibited in the Paris Salons of 1847 or 1848. The musée du Louvre holds a bronze version of the work, cast by Thiebault.

[46] [47] [48] [49]

Jacques Coeur Bourges
Préault was the sculptor of the statue of Jacques Coeur in Bourges.

[50] [51]

Statue of François Séverin Marceau Chartres, place des Epars 1845 [52]
Ondine Beaune This bronze work by Préault is located in the Beaune Musée des Beaux-Arts. The museum wrote:-

This sculpture taken from contemporary literature was placed in the Bouzaise Park in Beaune until 1996. At the government's request it was put back in the museum after having been exhibited at the Musée d'Orsay in a one-man exhibition of the sculptor's work. The work is extremely interesting and original. The general movement in a spiral, the violence between the opposition of the position of shoulders and hips, all combine to give this figure a feeling of unrest

[53]

Ophelie musée d'Orsay

Ophelia is shown drifting lifeless on the water. With closed eyes and parted mouth, she escapes the stiffness of death. The waves intermingle with the folds of the wet sheet wound around the girl, emphasising the curve of her limbs. Designed like a funerary plaque from the Middle Ages or the Renaissance, the sculpture is nonetheless presented as a picture. Its sad, poetic mood is typical of the Romantic artists' reading of the work of the English playwright

Extract from Musée d'Orsay article.[54]

This plaster relief, subsequently cast in bronze by Thiebaut, dates to 1876. It was turned down by the Paris Salon of 1849 but accepted and shown in 1850-1851. Purchased by the French State in 1876, the work was subsequently deposited in the musée de Saint-Florentin in Yonne in 1879 but destroyed during the Second World War. The musée d'Orsay holds the original plaster model of this work. [55]

Medallion depicting Dante muséee d'Orsay
1852 This Préault work dates to around 1852 and it was cast in bronze by Eck and Durand. Dante is shown in high-relief and on the medallion Préault includes the words

LA / VITA-NUOVA / LA / DIVINA / COMMEDIA

h.g. : DANTE / ALIGHIERI / NE : A / FLORENCE / 1265 / MORT / 1321

The Musée d'Orsay hold Préault's plaster model. [56]

Statue of Sainte Valère in the église Sainte Clotilde Paris
[57]

Gallery

P1000362 Paris I Eglise Saint-Roch Cenotaphe Abbe de l Epee reductwk

Tomb of Charles-Michel de L'Épée by Antoine-Augustin Préault in the Saint-Roch church in Paris.

Cavalier gaulois pont d'iena RG am face

"Cavalier gaulois" by Antoine-Augustin Préault. Sculpture on Pont d'Iéna

Jacques Coeur tête

The head of Jacques Coeur. Jacques Coeur's statue by Préault is located in Bourges.

Médaillon Rouvière par Préault

Antoine-Augustin Préault medallion on Rouvière's tomb.

Père-Lachaise - Division 55 - Desnoyers 02

Antoine-Augustin Préault medallion on the tomb of Desnoyers in Père-Lachaise cemetery.

Versailles Statue Mansart

Statue of the architect J.H. Mansart at Versailles by Antoine-Augustin Préault.

Versailles Statue Le Nôtre

Antoine-Augustin Préault's statue of André Le Nôtre a landscape architect and the gardener of King Louis XIV of France. He was most notably responsible for the construction of the park of the Palace of Versailles

Préault 12-513842

Preault's composition "Vague"- Study of the contorted body of a water-sprite

Préault - Le Silence - Roblès 05

Préault's enigmatic composition called "Le Silence" used on the tomb of Jacob Roblès

Préault Auguste Tuerie 1834-1850 musée de Chartres Eure-et-Loir France

Tuerie, 1834, musée des beaux-arts de Chartres.

Statue de Marceau à Chartres

Marceau statue in Chartres, 1845.

Clemence Isaure Jardin du Luxembourg

Clémence Isaure by Préault, Jardin du Luxembourg

References A

  1. ^ [1] Retrieved 1 February 2014
  2. ^ Critical comment The J. Paul Getty Museum. Retrieved 2 February 2014
  3. ^ Musée d'Orsay Retrieved 1 February 2014
  4. ^ "Details of burial". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  5. ^ "Paul Huet". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  6. ^ "Eugène Delacroix". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  7. ^ "Sara Stephann". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  8. ^ "Le Docteur Devarennes". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  9. ^ "Jean-Barthélémy Hauréau". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  10. ^ "Arthur de Beauvoisy". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  11. ^ "Christophe Pittermann". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  12. ^ "Tête de jeune homme". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  13. ^ "Lelia". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  14. ^ "Auguste Vacquerie". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  15. ^ "Robespierre". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  16. ^ "Thomas Shotter Boys". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  17. ^ La Mendicité. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  18. ^ "Vénus et le Sphinx". Archived from Vénus et le Sphinx the original Check |url= value (help) on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  19. ^ "Jupiter et le Sphinx". Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  20. ^ "Croix de chemin in Ingouville". Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  21. ^ "The tomb of the actor Rouvière". Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  22. ^ "Bust of Nicolas Poussin". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  23. ^ "Le Silence". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  24. ^ "Le Silence". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  25. ^ "Église Saint-Gervais et Saint-Protais". Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  26. ^ "St Catherine". Archived from the original on 15 January 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  27. ^ La Tuerie "La Tuerie" Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  28. ^ [2] Retrieved 4 February .2014
  29. ^ "Monument to the Morin-Chalon Family". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  30. ^ "Vague". Archived from the original on 22 July 2004. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  31. ^ "Theodore Gericault". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  32. ^ "Aulus Vitellius". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  33. ^ "Adam Mickiewicz". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  34. ^ [3] Retrieved 3 February 2014
  35. ^ Guerre Retrieved 3 February 2014
  36. ^ André Chénier "André Chénier" Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  37. ^ "Louvre". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  38. ^ "Louvre". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  39. ^ "Louvre". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  40. ^ Les Arts "Louvre" Check |url= value (help). Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  41. ^ "Louvre". Retrieved 3 February 2014.
  42. ^ "The Louvre angels". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  43. ^ "Hirshhorn museum". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  44. ^ "La Madeleine". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  45. ^ "Sculpture of Mary Magdalenen See figure 9 in article". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  46. ^ Clémence Isaure Retrieved 1 February 2014
  47. ^ "Clémence Isaure". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  48. ^ Clémence Isaure Retrieved 1 February 2014
  49. ^ Clémence Isaure Retrieved 2 February 2014
  50. ^ "Statue of Jacques Coeur". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  51. ^ "Jacques Coeur". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  52. ^ "François Séverin Marceau". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  53. ^ "Ondine". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  54. ^ Ophelia Retrieved 2 February 2014
  55. ^ "Ophelie". Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  56. ^ "Dante". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
  57. ^ "Statue of St.Valère". Retrieved 1 August 2014.

References B

  • Auguste Préault : sculpteur romantique, . Author: compilation. (1997) Gallimard

External links

1834 in art

Events from the year 1834 in art.

Consistori del Gay Saber

The Consistori del Gay Saber (Occitan: [kunsisˈtɔɾi ðel ˈɣaj saˈβe]; "Consistory of the Gay Science") was a poetic academy founded at Toulouse in 1323 to revive and perpetuate the lyric poetry of the troubadours.

Also known as the Acadèmia dels Jòcs Florals ("Academy of the Floral Games"), it is the most ancient literary institution of the Western world. It was founded in 1323 in Toulouse and later restored by Clémence Isaure as the Consistori del Gay Saber with the goal of encouraging Occitan poetry. The best verses were given prizes at the floral games in the form of different flowers, made of gold or silver, such as violets, rose hips, marigolds, amaranths or lillies. The Consistori eventually became gallicised. It was renewed by Louis XIV in 1694 and still exists today. The Académie des Jeux Floraux has had such prestigious members as Ronsard, Marmontel, Chateaubriand, Voltaire, Alfred de Vigny, Victor Hugo and Frédéric Mistral.

François-Léon Sicard

François-Léon Sicard (April 21, 1862 – July 8, 1934) was a French sculptor in the late 19th and early 20th century. His credits include work on the adornments of the Louvre, and numerous sculptures around the world.

Sicard was born in Tours, studied with Louis-Ernest Barrias, and is known for his lithography and his fiercely patriotic original works of art. Despite the prolific populace of noted works throughout Europe, surprisingly little is known about Sicard himself. His work is very similar to that of Gustave Crauk (1827–1920) and Antoine-Augustin Préault (1809–1879), and he may have worked in collaboration with Crauk on some of his sculptures during the early 20th century.

Jardin du Luxembourg

The Jardin du Luxembourg, also known in English as the Luxembourg Gardens, is located in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France. It was created beginning in 1612 by Marie de' Medici, the widow of King Henry IV of France, for a new residence she constructed, the Luxembourg Palace. The garden today is owned by the French Senate, which meets in the Palace. It covers 23 hectares and is known for its lawns, tree-lined promenades, flowerbeds, model sailboats on its circular basin, and picturesque Medici Fountain, built in 1620.. The name Luxembourg comes from the Latin Mons Lucotitius, the name of the hill where the garden is located.

List of sculptors in the Web Gallery of Art

The List of sculptors in the Web Gallery of Art is a list of the named sculptors in the Web Gallery of Art (WGA). The online collection contains roughly 34,000 images by 4,000 artists, but only named artists with sculptures in the database are listed alphabetically here. The sculptor's name is followed by a title of one of their works and its location, which is hosted on the WGA website. For sculptors with more than one work in the WGA collection, or for works by unnamed or unattributed artists, see the Web Gallery of Art website or the corresponding Wikimedia Commons category. Of the 623 sculptors in the WGA database, there are only 2 women, namely Properzia de' Rossi, and Marie-Anne Collot.

For the complete list of artists and their artworks in the WGA collection, the database can be downloaded as a compressed file from the website.

Pont d'Iéna

Pont d'Iéna ("Jena Bridge") is a bridge spanning the River Seine in Paris. It links the Eiffel Tower on the Left Bank to the district of Trocadéro on the Right Bank.

Romanticism

Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, education, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. It had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and nationalism.The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic (as in the musical impromptu). In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and industrialism.

Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were also proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism. The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism.

St-Gervais-et-St-Protais

The Church of Saint-Gervais-et-Saint-Protais (French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃ʒɛʁvɛ e sɛ̃pʁɔtɛ]) is located in the 4th arrondissement of Paris, on Place Saint-Gervais in the Marais district, east of City Hall (Hôtel de Ville). The current church was built between 1494 and 1657, on the site of two earlier churches; the facade, completed last, was the first example of the French baroque style in Paris. The organists of the church included Louis Couperin and his nephew François Couperin, two of the most celebrated composers and musicians of the Baroque period; the organ they used can still be seen today. The church contains remarkable examples of medieval carved choir stalls, stained glass from the 16th century, 17th century sculpture, and modern stained glass by Sylvie Gaudin and Claude Courageux. Saint-Gervais was a parish church until 1975, when it became the headquarters of the Monastic Fraternities of Jerusalem.

Ștefan Fălcoianu

Ștefan Fălcoianu (June 6, 1835–January 22, 1905) was a Romanian army general who served as Chief of the General Staff and War Minister.

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