Antoine, Duke of Lorraine

Antoine (4 June 1489 – 14 June 1544), known as the Good, was Duke of Lorraine from 1508 until his death in 1544.

Antoine
Hans Holbein d. J. 036
Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1543
Duke of Lorraine
Reign10 December 1508 - 14 June 1544
PredecessorRené II
SuccessorFrancis I
Born4 June 1489
Bar-le-Duc
Died14 June 1544 (aged 55)
Bar-le-Duc
SpouseRenée de Bourbon
IssueFrancis I, Duke of Lorraine
Nicholas, Duke of Mercœur
Anna, Princess of Orange
HouseLorraine
FatherRené II, Duke of Lorraine
MotherPhilippa of Guelders

Biography

Antoine was born at Bar-le-Duc, the son of René II, Duke of Lorraine and Philippa of Guelders.[1] He was raised at the court of King Louis XII together with his brother Claude, and also made friends with the Duke of Angoulême, the future King Francis I.

In 1509 he entrusted the reins of the Duchy to his mother and Hugues des Hazards, bishop of Toul, and followed Louis XII in his campaign in northern Italy, where he took part in the Battle of Agnadello of that year.[2] After Louis' death, he went again to Italy under Francis I, participating in the battle of Marignano (14/15 September 1515).[3] However, called back home by problems in Lorraine, he was absent at the decisive battle of Pavia (1525), in which Francis was taken prisoner and his brother François, comte de Lambesc, was killed.[3]

In Lorraine, Antoine had to face the spreading of Protestant Reformation, against which he published an edict on 26 December 1523.[4] The situation worsened the following year, when a rebellion, known as German Peasants' War, broke out in Alsace. The insurrectionists captured Saverne and tried to conquer Saint-Dié, while the peasants of Bitscherland also rose in May 1525. Antoine launched an expedition which reconquered Saverne on 17 May and crushed a peasant army on 20 May near Sélestat. He subsequently promulgated other edicts against the Protestants.

Antoine was able to enlarge his duchy through heritages and acquisitions. Starting from 1525, he preferred to remain neutral in the wars which ensued between Francis I and Emperor Charles V. With the Treaty of Nuremberg (26 August 1542), he obtained by Charles V the independence of the Duchy of Lorraine

In 1538, he claimed the titles of Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen upon the death of Charles of Egmond, but was unable to gain possession of them.

By 1539, Antoine suffered from gout and asked his niece, Mary of Guise, to send him a Scottish hackney horse which he hoped to find easier to ride with his condition.[5]

Family

On 26 June 1515, he married Renée of Bourbon, daughter of Gilbert de Bourbon, Count of Montpensier by Clara Gonzaga.[3]

He had six children:

Ancestry

8. Antoine, Count of Vaudémont
4. Frederick II, Count of Vaudémont
9. Marie d'Harcourt
2. René II, Duke of Lorraine
10. René of Anjou
5. Yolande, Duchess of Lorraine
11. Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine
1. Antoine, Duke of Lorraine
12. Arnold of Egmond, Duke of Gelderland
6. Adolf of Egmond, Duke of Guelders
13. Catherine of Cleves
3. Philippa of Guelders
14. Charles I, Duke of Bourbon
7. Catharine of Bourbon
15. Agnes of Valois-Burgundy

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Carroll 2009, p. 310.
  2. ^ Bogdan 2013, p. 108.
  3. ^ a b c Bogdan 2013, p. 109.
  4. ^ Bogdan 2013, p. 110.
  5. ^ Wood 1923, p. 33-34.

Sources

  • Bogdan, Henry (2013). La Lorraine des ducs (in French). Tempus.
  • Carroll, Stuart (2009). Martyrs and Murderers: The Guise Family and the Making of Europe. Oxford University Press.
  • Wood, Marguerite, ed. (1923). Balcarres Papers. vol.1. SHS.
Preceded by
René II
Duke of Lorraine and Bar
Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson

1508–1544
Succeeded by
Francis I
1489

Year 1489 (MCDLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Albert VI, Duke of Bavaria

Albert VI of Bavaria (German: Albrecht VI., der Leuchtenberger, Landgraf von Bayern-Leuchtenberg; 26 February 1584 – 5 July 1666) son of William V, Duke of Bavaria and Renata of Lorraine, born and died in Munich.

Catherine of Lorraine (1573–1648)

Catherine of Lorraine (3 November 1573 – 7 March 1648) was the Abbess of Remiremont.

Count of Vaudémont

The title Count of Vaudémont was granted to Gérard 1st of Vaudémont in 1070, after he supported the succession of his brother, Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine to the Duchy of Lorraine. Counts of Vaudémont served as vassals of the Dukes of Lorraine. After 1473 the title was held by the Duke of Lorraine and was bestowed on younger sons of the Duke. It was later restyled "Prince of Vaudémont".

Counts and Dukes of Châteauroux

The titles of Count of Châteauroux and Duke of Châteauroux take their name from the commune of Châteauroux, located in the Indre département of central France, and have changed hands several times.

After initially being awarded in 1616 by the head of the main branch of the Bourbon-Conde family, Henry II de Bourbon, prince de Condé, to his son Armand of Bourbon, it remained in the Armand line until its extinction in 1685, when it was passed along with the entirety of Armand's estate to his younger brother, François Louis de Bourbon.

Fearing disunity in the Bourbon line, it became one of the estates confiscated by Constable de Bourbon, and was given by Francis I and Louise of Savoy to Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, and his wife, Renée of Bourbon, sister of the Constable. Nicolas of Lorraine, son of Duke Antoine, was created Duke of Mercœur and a peer of France in 1569. His son Philippe Emmanuel left a daughter, who married the duc de Vendôme in 1609.

Dorothea of Lorraine

Dorothea of Lorraine (24 May 1545 – 2 June 1621), was by birth a member of the House of Lorraine and by marriage to Eric II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Calenburg.

Born at the Château de Deneuvre, she was the third child and second daughter of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark. Her paternal grandparents were Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier and her maternal grandparents were Christian II of Denmark and Isabella of Austria.

Duke of Calabria

Duke of Calabria was the traditional title of the heir apparent of the Kingdom of Naples after the accession of Robert of Naples. It was also adopted by the heads of certain Houses that had once claimed the Kingdom of Naples in lieu of the royal title.

There are at present two claimants to the title of Duke of Calabria. In the Spanish context, it is the title for the head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, and in the Italian context it is the title for the heir to the Duke of Castro, the head of the Royal House.

Duke of Mercœur

The Seigneurs and Dukes of Mercœur were a line of powerful lords deriving their name from the estate of Mercœur in Auvergne, France. The line became extinct in the 14th century, and passed by inheritance to the dauphins of Auvergne, counts of Clermont. In 1426 it passed to the Bourbons by the marriage, of Jeanne de Clermont, dauphine of Auvergne, to Louis I, Count of Montpensier. It formed part of the confiscated estates of the Constable de Bourbon, and was given by Francis I and Louise of Savoy to Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, and his wife, Renée of Bourbon, sister of the Constable. Nicholas of Lorraine, son of Duke Antoine, was created Duke of Mercœur and a peer of France in 1569. His son Philippe Emmanuel left a daughter, who married the duc de Vendôme in 1609.

Elisabeth of Lorraine

Elisabeth of Lorraine (9 October 1574 – 4 January 1635), was a Duchess and an Electress consort of Bavaria by marriage to Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria.

Francis I, Duke of Lorraine

Francis I (French: François Ier de Lorraine) (23 August 1517 – 12 June 1545) was Duke of Lorraine from 1544–1545.

Gilbert, Count of Montpensier

Gilbert de Bourbon, Count of Montpensier (1443 – 15 October 1496, Pozzuoli) was the son of Louis de Bourbon and Gabrielle La Tour, Count of Montpensier and Dauphin d'Auvergne. He was appointed to the Order of Saint Michael by Charles VIII in October 1483.

List of people with gout

People who suffered from gout.

Magdalene of Bavaria

Magdalene of Bavaria (4 July 1587 – 25 September 1628) was a princess member of the House of Wittelsbach by birth and Countess Palatine of Neuburg and Duchess of Jülich-Berg by marriage.

She was born in Munich, Bavaria, the tenth and youngest child of William V, Duke of Bavaria and Renata of Lorraine.

Maria Maddalena de' Medici

Maria Maddalena de' Medici (29 June 1600 – 28 December 1633) was a Tuscan princess, the eighth daughter of Ferdinando I and Christina of Lorraine, making her the sister of Cosimo II.

Nicolas, Duke of Mercœur

Nicolas of Lorraine, Duke of Mercœur (16 October 1524 – 23 January 1577) was the second son of Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée de Bourbon.

Philippa of Guelders

Philippa of Guelders (French: Philippe de Gueldres) (9 November 1467 – 28 February 1547), was a Duchess consort of Lorraine. She served as regent of Lorraine during the absence of her son.

Renata of Lorraine

Renata of Lorraine (20 April 1544 – 22 May 1602), was by birth a member of the House of Lorraine and by marriage Duchess of Bavaria.

Born in Nancy, France, she was the second child and eldest daughter of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark. Her paternal grandparents were Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier and her maternal grandparents were Christian II of Denmark and Isabella of Austria.

Renée of Bourbon

Renée of Bourbon, Duchess of Lorraine (1494 – 26 May 1539), also called, Renée, Lady of Mercœur, was a Duchess consort of Lorraine. She was a daughter of Gilbert de Bourbon, Count of Montpensier by Clara Gonzaga, and sister of Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon.

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