Antiphellus or Antiphellos (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίφελλος) was city that acted as the port of Phellus (Phellos) in Lycia. It was at the head of a bay on the south coast.[1] Sir Francis Beaufort, the discoverer of this ancient site, gave the contemporary name of Vathy to the bay at the head of which Antiphellus stands.[2]

Pliny says that its ancient (i.e. pre-Hellenic) name was Habessus;[3] he also remarks on the quality of its sponges.[4] Strabo (14:666) incorrectly places Antiphellus among the inland towns.

The Lycian settlement here left hillside tombs, among which is a sarcophagus on a high base with a long inscription in "Lycian B",[5] now generally identified as Milyan, a Luwian language. Native inscriptions in Lycian language are dated as late as the fourth century BCE. As Antiphellus the site is first recorded in Greek inscriptions of the same century. An inscription copied by Sir Charles Fellows at this place in 1840, contains the ethnic name ΑΝΤΙΦΕΛΛΕΙΤΟΥ.[6] The well-preserved little Hellenistic theater overlooking the sea is complete, with the exception of the proscenium.

As Phellos declined im importance during the Hellenistic period, Antiphellus grew to be the major city of the region.[7] Coins of Antiphellus of the Roman imperial period bear the legend Ἀντιφελλειτων. The site of Antiphellus is now in the municipality of Kaş, Turkey, which before the forcible Population exchange between Greece and Turkey of 1922-23 was Andifili[8] and in the 19th century Andiffelo[9]

Antiphellus, all but deserted by 1828[10] and built up in the following decades, became known during the mid-19th century, both to scholars and travelers.[11] Fellows (1841) gave a page of drawings of specimens of ends of sarcophagi, pediments, and doors of tombs, and there is a ground-plan of Antiphelius in Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt's Travels in Lycia, Milyas, and the Cibyratis, 1847.

Antiphellus Ancient Theatre - 2014.10 - panoramio
The ancient Greek theatre overlooking the sea


The bishopric of Antiphellus was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Myra, the capital of the Roman province of Lycia. Its bishop Theodorus took part in the Council of Chalcedon in 451. He also attended the provincial synod held in 458 in connection with the murder of Proterius of Alexandria, but because of health difficulties affecting his hands, the acts of the meeting were signed on his behalf by the priest Eustathius.[12][13]

No longer a residential bishopric, Antiphellus is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[14]

See also


  1. ^ Trevor Bryce, ed. The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia, “Antiphellos”.
  2. ^ Beaufort, Karamania 1818:13.
  3. ^ Pliny's Natural History 5.100: Antiphellos quae quondam Habessus; atque in recessu Phellus; deinde Pyrrha itemque Xanthus….
  4. ^ Pliny 5.131.
  5. ^ Bryce.
  6. ^ Fellows, An Account of Discoveries in Lycia 1841:186, noted in William Smith, ed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography: “Antiphellus”. (London: John Murray) 1854-57.
  7. ^ Bryce.
  8. ^ Bryce.
  9. ^ Murray’s Handbook for Travellers in Turkey 3rd ed. 1854:258 “Antiphellus”.
  10. ^ The New Monthly Magazine and Universal Register 1828, part II:316-19 “The vestiges of this ancient city are now deserted… a few miserable huts…”
  11. ^ Murray's Handbook: “The road to Antiphellus lies through magnificent mountain scenery, with infinite variety of view in all directions; the mountain plain of Arvalah has a sarcophagus and wall at the S. extremity. The descent of 7 m. upon Antiphellus is by a broad and good road…”
  12. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 985-986
  13. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 450
  14. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 833

Coordinates: 36°12′00″N 29°38′06″E / 36.199973°N 29.634935°E


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Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


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Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.


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John J. Collins, S.J. (November 15, 1856 – November 30, 1934) was an American-born bishop of the Catholic Church. He served as the Vicar Apostolic of Jamaica from 1907 to 1918. He was also president of Fordham University 1904-1906.


Kaş (Turkish pronunciation: [kaʃ]) is a small fishing, diving, yachting and tourist town, and a district of Antalya Province of Turkey, 168 km west of the city of Antalya. As a tourist resort, it is relatively unspoiled.

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Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Milyan language

Milyan, also known as Lycian B and previously Lycian 2, is an ancient Anatolian language formerly regarded as a variety of Lycian, but now accorded status as a separate language. It is attested from two inscriptions, one of 45 syllables on the Xanthus Stele, and the other, shorter, from a sarcophagus at Antiphellus. The Xanthus inscription is in verse, with strophes marked off by the use of ⟨)⟩. In 1999 the Dutch scholar Alric van den Broek wrote an MA thesis at the Leiden University on the probable metric features of the Lycian B text of the Xanthos stele. Using Ivo Hajnal’s definitions of Lycian B syllables, he indicated that there is a significantly high number of word boundaries around the 11th, 22nd and 33rd syllable before (on the left side of) the phrase ending sign <)>. Therefore, he argued, the text must have been a poem with four lines per phrase – the first one being either 7(+/-1) or 11(+/-1) syllables long and the last three lines counting 11(+/-1) syllables. Moreover, the metrical foot may have counted four syllables, with accents on syllables one, five and nine of each verse. His model also seemed to fit the few things we know of Lycian, Anatolian and Proto-Indo-European accent.


Mithrapata (circa 390-370 BC) was dynast of Lycia in the early 4th century BC, at a time when this part of Anatolia was subject to the Persian, or Achaemenid, Empire.

Present-day knowledge of Lycia in the period of classical antiquity comes mostly from archaeology, in which this region is unusually rich. Believed to have been based at Antiphellus, Mithrapata is known to have competed for power with another man named Arttumpara.The name of Mithrapata, which is of Persian origin, is known from Lycian coins and also from inscriptions. During the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., the Lycian nobility was using Persian names, so Mithrapata may have been one of them. However, it has also been suggested that he may have been a Persian sent to rule Lycia by Artaxerxes II.


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Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).


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Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


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Black Sea
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