Antigonid dynasty

The Antigonid dynasty (/ænˈtɪɡoʊnɪd/; Greek: Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed").

Antigonids

Ἀντιγονίδαι
Antigonidai
306 BC–168 BC
Common languagesGreek
Religion
Ancient Greek religion
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
• 306 BC – 301 BC
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
• 179 BC – 168 BC
Perseus of Macedon
Historical eraHellenistic
• Established
306 BC
• Defeat by Rome
168 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Macedonian Empire
Achaemenid Empire
Macedonia (Roman province)
Seleucid Empire

History

Succeeding the Antipatrid dynasty in much of Macedonia, Antigonus ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. His attempts to take control of the whole of Alexander's empire led to his defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. Antigonus's son Demetrius I Poliorcetes survived the battle, and managed to seize control of Macedon itself a few years later, but eventually lost his throne, dying as a prisoner of Seleucus I Nicator. After a period of confusion, Demetrius's son Antigonus II Gonatas was able to establish the family's control over the old Kingdom of Macedon, as well as over most of the Greek city-states, by 276 BC.[2]

Legacy

It was one of four dynasties established by Alexander's successors, the others being the Seleucid dynasty, Ptolemaic dynasty and Attalid dynasty. The last scion of the dynasty, Perseus of Macedon, who reigned between 179-168 BC, proved unable to stop the advancing Roman legions and Macedon's defeat at the Battle of Pydna signaled the end of the dynasty.[3]

Dynasty

The ruling members of the Antigonid dynasty were:

Antigonid Rulers
King Reign (BC) Consort(s) Comments
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Western Asian Antigonid kingdom) 306–301 BC Stratonice One of Alexander the Great's top generals; a major participant in the so-called "funeral games" following that king's death.
Demetrius I Poliorcetes (Macedon, Cicilia) 294–287 BC Phila
Ptolemais
Deïdameia
Lanassa
?Eurydice
?Unnamed Illyrian woman
Son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus. Demetrius' wife Phila was a daughter of Antipater, and ancestor of all subsequent Antigonid kings of Macedon, except Antigonus III Doson, through her son Antigonus II Gonatas. Antigonus III Doson was descended from the marriage of Demetrius and Ptolemais, who was a daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and mother of Doson's father, Demetrius the Fair, the ephemeral King of Cyrene. Deïdameia was a daughter of Aeacides of Epirus and sister of Pyrrhus, she had one son, Alexander, by Demetrius. Demetrius had a further two sons, Demetrius the Thin and Corrhagus, the former by an unnamed Illyrian woman, the latter by a woman named Eurydice. Demetrius I Poliorcetes was the first Antigonid king of Macedon.
Antigonus II Gonatas (Macedon) 276–239 BC Phila Son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila, grandson of Antigonus I Monophthalmus. His wife, Phila, was the daughter of his sister, Stratonice. Only one known legitimate child, Demetrius II Aetolicus.
Demetrius the Fair (Cyrene) c. 250 BC Olympias of Larissa
Berenice II
Son of Demetrius I Poliorcetes and Ptolemaïs. Father of Antigonus III Doson and, apparently, Echecrates by Olympias.
Demetrius II Aetolicus (Macedon) 239–229 BC Stratonice of Macedon
Phthia of Epirus
Nicaea of Corinth
Chryseis
Son of Antigonus II and Phila. Stratonice of Macedon was a daughter of Antiochus I Soter and Stratonice. Phthia of Epirus was a daughter of Alexander II of Epirus and Olympias II of Epirus. Nicaea of Corinth was the widow of Demetrius' cousin, Alexander of Corinth. Chryseis was a former captive of Demetrius.[4] Only known son, Philip by Chryseis, also had a daughter by Stratonice of Macedon, Apama III.
Antigonus III Doson (Macedon) 229–221 BC Chryseis Son of Demetrius the Fair and Olympias of Larissa. Children unknown.
Philip V of Macedon BM
Philip V (Macedon)
221–179 BC Polycratia of Argos Son of Demetrius II and Chryseis.[4] At least four children: Perseus of Macedon, Apame, Demetrius and Philippus.
Perseus of Macedon BM
Perseus (Macedon)
179–168 BC
(died 166 BC)
Laodice V The last ruler of Macedon. Laodice V was a daughter of the Seleucid king, Seleucus IV Philopator. At least two sons, Philip and Alexander.

The Greek rebel against Rome and last King of Macedonia, Andriscus, claimed to be the son of Perseus.

Family tree of Antigonids

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Derdas III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Derdas III
archon of Elimiotis
 
Machatas of Elimeia
satrap of India
 
Phila of Elimeia
 
Philip II
king of Macedonia
359-336 BC
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Philip
 
wife
 
Periandros of Pella
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Demetrius
 
Stratonice
daughter of Corrhaeus
 
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
king of Macedonia
306-301 BC
 
Ptolemy
 
Marsyas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.Phila
daughter of Antipater
2.Eurydice of Athens
3.Deidamia I of Epirus
daughter of Aeacides of Epirus
 
Demetrius I Poliorketes
king of Macedon
294-288 BC
 
4.Lanassa
daughter of Agathocles of Syracuse
5.Ptolemais
daughter of Ptolemy I of Egypt
 
Philip
prince
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(1) Stratonice of Syria
∞ 1.Seleucus I Nicator
2.Antiochus I Soter
 
(1) Antigonus II Gonatas
king of Macedon
277-274, 272-239 BC
 
Phila
daughter of
Seleucus I Nicator
 
(5) Demetrius the Fair
king of Cyrene
250-249 BC
 
1.Olympias of Larissa
2.Berenice II
daughter of Magas
king of Cyrene
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(2) 1.Stratonice of Macedon
 
Demetrius II Aetolicus
king of Macedonia
239-229 BC
 
2.Nicaea of Corinth
3.Phthia
daughter of
Alexander II of Epirus

4.Chryseis
 
Antigonus III Doson
king of Macedon
229-221 BC
 
Echecrates
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prusias I of Bithynia
 
(1) Apama III
 
(4) Philip V
king of Macedon
221-179 BC
 
Polycratia of Argos
 
 
 
 
 
Antigonos
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prusias II of Bithynia
king of Bithynia
 
Apame IV
 
(illeg.) Perseus
king of Macedon
179-168 BC
 
Laodice V
daughter of
Seleucus IV Philopator
 
Demetrius
prince
 
Philippus
prince
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alexander
prince

Coin gallery

Antigone le Borgne (pièce)

Coin of Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed") (382 BC - 301 BC).

Démétrios Ier Poliorcète (pièce)

Coin of Demetrius I of Macedon ("The Besieger"), (337 BC – 283 BC), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus

Philip VI Andriskos

Coin of Philip VI Andriscus. Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ (King Philip).

See also

References

  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 121. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959.
  2. ^ J. Spielvogel, Jackson (2005). Western Civilization: Volume I: To 1715. Thomson Wadsworth. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-534-64603-4.
  3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Antigonid dynasty, 2008, O.Ed. But Perseus’ failure to deploy his full resources brought about his defeat (168) at Pydna in Macedonia and signaled the end of the dynasty."
  4. ^ a b Eusebius, Chronicle 1.237-8; Syncellus Chronicle 535.19

Further reading

  • Adams, Winthrop Lindsay. 2010. "Alexander's Successors to 221 BC." In A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Edited by Joseph Roisman and Ian Worthington, 208–224. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Anson, Edward M. 2014. Alexander's Heirs: The Age of the Successors. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Edson, Charles F. 1934. "The Antigonids, Heracles, and Beroia." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 45:213–246.
  • O'Neil, James L. 2003. "The Ethnic Origins of the Friends of the Antigonid Kings of Macedon." The Classical Quarterly 53, no. 2: 510-22. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3556219.
3rd century BC

The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.

In the Mediterranean Basin, the first few decades of this century were characterized by a balance of power between the Greek Hellenistic kingdoms in the east, and the great mercantile power of Carthage in the west. This balance was shattered when conflict arose between ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Republic was first humbled and then destroyed by the Romans in the First and Second Punic Wars. Following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean.

In the eastern Mediterranean, the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Kingdom, successor states to the empire of Alexander the Great, fought a series of Syrian Wars for control over the Levant. In mainland Greece, the short-lived Antipatrid dynasty of Macedon was overthrown and replaced by the Antigonid dynasty in 294 BC, a royal house that would dominate the affairs of Hellenistic Greece for roughly a century until the stalemate of the First Macedonian War against Rome. Macedon would also lose the Cretan War against the Greek city-state of Rhodes and its allies.

In India, Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire. The Pandya, Chola and Chera dynasties of the classical age flourished in the ancient Tamil country.

The Warring States period in China drew to a close, with Qin Shi Huang conquering the six other nation-states and establishing the short-lived Qin dynasty, the first empire of China, which was followed in the same century by the long-lasting Han dynasty. However, a brief interregnum and civil war existed between the Qin and Han periods known as the Chu-Han contention, lasting until 202 BC with the ultimate victory of Liu Bang over Xiang Yu.

The Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula. In the following century the Chinese Han dynasty would conquer the Gojoseon kingdom of northern Korea. The Xiongnu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. They defeated the Han Chinese at the Battle of Baideng in 200 BC, marking the beginning of the forced Heqin tributary agreement and marriage alliance that would last several decades.

Antigonid Macedonian army

The Antigonid Macedonian army was the army that evolved from the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia in the period when it was ruled by the Antigonid dynasty from 276 BC to 168 BC. It was seen as one of the principal Hellenistic fighting forces until its ultimate defeat at Roman hands at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC. However, there was a brief resurgence in 150-148 during the revolt of Andriscus, a supposed heir to Perseus.

Starting as just a mere handful of mercenary troops under Antigonus Gonatas in the 270s BC, the Antigonid army eventually became the dominant force in Hellenistic Greece, fighting campaigns against Epirus, the Achaean League, Sparta, Athens, Rhodes and Pergamon, not to mention the numerous Thracian and Celtic tribes that threatened Macedon from the north.

The Antigonid army, as with the army of Philip II and Alexander the Great that came before it, was based principally around the Macedonian phalanx, which was a solid formation of men armed with small shields and long pikes called sarissae. The majority of Macedonian troops serving in the army would have made up the numbers of the phalanx, which took up to one-third to two-thirds of the entire army on campaign. Alongside the phalanx, the Antigonid army had its elite corps, the Peltasts, numerous Macedonian and allied cavalry and always a considerable amount of allied and mercenary infantry and auxiliary troops.

Antigonus, son of Echecrates

Antigonus (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίγονος), son of Echecrates, was the nephew of Antigonus III Doson. He revealed to Philip V of Macedon a few months before his death in 179 BCE, the false accusations of his son Perseus of Macedon against his other son Demetrius, in consequence of which Philip put the latter to death. Indignant at the conduct of Perseus, Philip appointed Antigonus his successor; but on his death, Perseus obtained possession of the throne, and had Antigonus killed.

Antigonus III Doson

Antigonus III Doson (Greek: Ἀντίγονος Γ΄ Δώσων, 263–221 BC) was king of Macedon from 229 BC to 221 BC. He was a member of the Antigonid dynasty.

Antigonus I Monophthalmus

Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίγονος ὁ Μονόφθαλμος, romanized: Antigonos ho Monophthalmos, Antigonus the One-eyed, 382–301 BC), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, satrap and king. During the first half of his life he served under Philip II, after Philip’s death in 336 BC, he served his son Alexander, he was a major figure in the Wars of the Diadochi after Alexander's death, declaring himself king in 306 BC and establishing the Antigonid dynasty.

Antipatrid dynasty

The Antipatrid dynasty (; Greek: Ἀντιπατρίδαι) was a dynasty of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon founded by Cassander, the son of Antipater, who declared himself King of Macedon in 302 BC. This dynasty did not last long; in 294 BC it was swiftly overthrown by the Antigonid dynasty.

Members of the Antipatrid dynasty:

Antipater

Cassander (302–297 BC)

Philip IV of Macedon (297 BC)

Alexander V of Macedon (297–294 BC)

Antipater II of Macedon (296–294 BC)

Antipater Etesias (279 BC)

Apame IV

Apame IV, sometimes known as Apama IV (Greek: Απάμα Δ΄) was a princess from the Antigonid dynasty. Her father was Philip V, King from 221 BC to 179 BC and her brother was Perseus, King from 179 BC to 167 BC. She was the wife of King Prusias II Cynegus of Bithynia, and mother of his successor, Nicomedes II Epiphanes. Her husband was her cousin because her aunt Apama III, was the wife of Prusias I Cholus.

Battle of Cynoscephalae

For the earlier battle fought here, see Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC).

The Battle of Cynoscephalae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Κυνὸς Κεφαλῶν) was an encounter battle fought in Thessaly in 197 BC between the Roman army, led by Titus Quinctius Flamininus, and the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon, led by Philip V.

Demetrius II Aetolicus

For the similarly named Seleucid ruler see Demetrius II Nicator. For the Macedonian prince, see Demetrius the Fair.Demetrius II Aetolicus (Greek: Δημήτριος ὁ Αἰτωλικός) son of Antigonus II Gonatas and Phila, reigned as King of Macedonia from the winter of 239 to 229 BC. He belonged to the Antigonid dynasty and was born in 275 BC.He had already distinguished himself during his father's lifetime by defeating Alexander II of Epirus at Derdia and so saving Macedonia (c. 260 BC). There is a possibilitythat his father had already elevated him to position of power equal to his own before his death. If this had occurred it would be in 256 or 257 BC.

On his accession, Demetrius faced a coalition of enemies which included the two great leagues. Usually rivals, the Aetolian and Achaean Leagues now became allies against the Macedonian power. He succeeded in dealing this coalition severe blows, wresting Boeotia from their alliance. The revolution in Epirus, which substituted a republican league for the monarchy, gravely weakened his position.During his reign, his kingdom extended into Euboea, Magnesia, Thessaly and its environs, excluding Dolopia and possibly Peparethos and Achaea Phthiotis.

In 236 BC, he invaded Boeotia, making the Boeotians submit immediately.

In 234 BC due to a federal republic replacing the monarchy in Epirus, which led to the events of 231 BC, Demetrius hired Agron for military aid against the advancing Aetolians. His kingdom was not threatened by the Illyrian Ardiaei, ruled by Agron, despite them having gathered the greatest force in their history (c. 231 BC), but Epirus needed some sort of force to deter them.

At the end of his reign, Demetrius defended his domain from the tribal peoples of the north. A battle with the Dardanians turned out disastrously, and he died shortly afterwards, leaving Philip, his son by Chryseis, still a child, on the throne.

Demetrius I of Macedon

Demetrius I (; Ancient Greek: Δημήτριος; 337–283 BC), called Poliorcetes (; Greek: Πολιορκητής, "The Besieger"), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a Greek Macedonian nobleman, military leader, and finally king of Macedon (294–288 BC). He belonged to the Antigonid dynasty and was its first member to rule Macedonia.

Demetrius the Fair

For the similarly named Macedonian ruler, see Demetrius II of Macedon.Demetrius the Fair or surnamed The Handsome (Greek: Δημήτριος ὁ Καλός, around 285 BC–249 or 250 BC), also known in modern ancient historical sources as Demetrius of Cyrene, was a Hellenistic king of Cyrene.

Laodice V

Laodice V (flourished 2nd century BC, died 150 BC) was a Seleucid princess. Through marriage to Perseus king of Macedon she was a Queen of the ruling Antigonid dynasty in Macedonia and possibly later of the Seleucid dynasty.

List of ancient Macedonians

This is a list of the Ancient Macedonians

Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus

Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (c. 229 BC – 160 BC) was a two-time consul of the Roman Republic and a noted general who conquered Macedon, putting an end to the Antigonid dynasty in the Third Macedonian War.

Nysa (wife of Nicomedes III of Bithynia)

Nysa or Nyssa (Greek: Νύσ(σ)α, flourished second half of 2nd century BC) was a Princess from the Kingdom of Cappadocia in Anatolia.

Nysa was a monarch of Greek Macedonian and Persian ancestry. She was the daughter and first-born child of the monarchs Ariarathes VI of Cappadocia and Laodice of Cappadocia. Her parents were cousins and her younger brothers were the Kings Ariarathes VII of Cappadocia and Ariarathes VIII of Cappadocia. She was the namesake of her paternal grandmother Nysa of Cappadocia a previous Queen, wife of the previous King Ariarathes V of Cappadocia and mother of Ariarathes VI. She was born and raised in Cappadocia.

At an unknown date, Nysa became the first wife Greek King Nicomedes III of Bithynia, who reigned between from c. 127 BC to c. 94 BC. Nysa and Nicomedes III were distantly related as they held lineage from the Seleucid dynasty, the Antipatrid dynasty and the Antigonid dynasty. Through marriage, she became Queen of Bithynia.

Nysa bore Nicomedes III two sons and a daughter: Nicomedes IV of Bithynia who reigned as king from c. 94 BC to about 74 BC; Socrates Chrestus and Nysa. Not much is known about her life. Nicomedes III married her mother. It is not known weather Nysa died prior to this or whether Nicomedes divorced her.

Perseus of Macedon

Perseus (Greek: Περσεύς, Perseus; c. 212 – 166 BC) was the last king (Basileus) of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in Macedon created upon the death of Alexander the Great. He also has the distinction of being the last of the line, after losing the Battle of Pydna on 22 June 168 BC; subsequently Macedon came under Roman rule.

Philip (son of Antigonus)

Philip (in Greek Φιλιππoς; died 306 BC), son of Antigonus, king of Asia, was sent by his father in 310 BC, at the head of an army, to oppose the revolt of his general Phoenix, and to recover possession of the towns on the Hellespont held by the latter. He died in 306 BC, just as Antigonus was setting out for his expedition against Egypt.

Philip V of Macedon

Philip V (Greek: Φίλιππος; 238–179 BC) was king (Basileus) of the ancient Kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC. Philip's reign was principally marked by an unsuccessful struggle with the emerging power of the Roman Republic. He would lead Macedon against Rome in the First and Second Macedonian Wars, losing both but allying with Rome in the Roman-Seleucid War towards the end of his reign.

Philip was attractive and charismatic as a young man. A dashing and courageous warrior, he was inevitably compared to Alexander the Great and was nicknamed beloved of the Hellenes (ἐρώμενος τῶν Ἑλλήνων) because he became, as Polybius put it, "...the beloved of the Hellenes for his charitable inclination".

Vergina

Vergina (Greek: Βεργίνα) is a small town in northern Greece, part of Veroia municipality in Imathia, Central Macedonia. Vergina was established in 1922 in the aftermath of the population exchanges after the Treaty of Lausanne and was a separate municipality until 2011, when it was merged with Veroia under the Kallikratis Plan. It is now a municipal unit within Veroia, with an area 69.047 km2.Vergina is best known as the site of ancient Aigai (Αἰγαί, Aigaí, Latinized: Aegae), the first capital of Macedon. It was there when in 336 BC Philip II was assassinated in the theatre and Alexander the Great was proclaimed king. The ancient site was discovered in 1976 and excavated under the leadership of archaeologist Manolis Andronikos. The excavation unearthed the burial sites of many kings of Macedon, including the tomb of Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, which, unlike so many other tombs, had not been disturbed or looted. It is also the site of an extensive royal palace. The archaeological museum of Vergina was built to house all the artifacts found at the site and is one of the most important museums in Greece.

Aigai has been awarded UNESCO World Heritage Site status as "an exceptional testimony to a significant development in European civilization, at the transition from classical city-state to the imperial structure of the Hellenistic and Roman periods".

Argeads
Antigonids
Ptolemies
Kings of Cyrene
Seleucids
Lysimachids
Antipatrids
Attalids
Greco-Bactrians
Indo-Greeks
Kings of Bithynia
Kings of Pontus
Kings of Commagene
Kings of Cappadocia
Kings of the
Cimmerian Bosporus

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