Anti-gravity (also known as non-gravitational field) is a theory of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. It does not refer to the lack of weight under gravity experienced in free fall or orbit, or to balancing the force of gravity with some other force, such as electromagnetism or aerodynamic lift. Anti-gravity is a recurring concept in science fiction, particularly in the context of spacecraft propulsion. Examples are the gravity blocking substance "Cavorite" in H. G. Wells's The First Men in the Moon and the Spindizzy machines in James Blish's Cities in Flight.

In Newton's law of universal gravitation, gravity was an external force transmitted by unknown means. In the 20th century, Newton's model was replaced by general relativity where gravity is not a force but the result of the geometry of spacetime. Under general relativity, anti-gravity is impossible except under contrived circumstances.[1][2][3] Quantum physicists have postulated the existence of gravitons, massless elementary particles that transmit gravitational force, but the possibility of creating or destroying these is unclear.

"Anti-gravity" is often used to refer to devices that look as if they reverse gravity even though they operate through other means, such as lifters, which fly in the air by moving air with electromagnetic fields.[4][5]

Hypothetical solutions

Gravity shields

New boston babson monument
A monument at Babson College dedicated to Roger Babson for research into anti-gravity and partial gravity insulators

In 1948 businessman Roger Babson (founder of Babson College) formed the Gravity Research Foundation to study ways to reduce the effects of gravity.[6] Their efforts were initially somewhat "crankish", but they held occasional conferences that drew such people as Clarence Birdseye known for his frozen-food products and Igor Sikorsky, inventor of the helicopter. Over time the Foundation turned its attention away from trying to control gravity, to simply better understanding it. The Foundation nearly disappeared after Babson's death in 1967. However, it continues to run an essay award, offering prizes of up to $4,000. As of 2017, it is still administered out of Wellesley, Massachusetts, by George Rideout, Jr., son of the foundation's original director.[7] Winners include California astrophysicist George F. Smoot, who later won the 2006 Nobel Prize in physics.

General relativity research in the 1950s

General relativity was introduced in the 1910s, but development of the theory was greatly slowed by a lack of suitable mathematical tools. It appeared that anti-gravity was outlawed under general relativity.

It is claimed the US Air Force also ran a study effort throughout the 1950s and into the 1960s.[8] Former Lieutenant Colonel Ansel Talbert wrote two series of newspaper articles claiming that most of the major aviation firms had started gravity control propulsion research in the 1950s. However, there is little outside confirmation of these stories, and since they take place in the midst of the policy by press release era, it is not clear how much weight these stories should be given.

It is known that there were serious efforts underway at the Glenn L. Martin Company, who formed the Research Institute for Advanced Study.[9][10] Major newspapers announced the contract that had been made between theoretical physicist Burkhard Heim and the Glenn L. Martin Company. Another effort in the private sector to master understanding of gravitation was the creation of the Institute for Field Physics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1956, by Gravity Research Foundation trustee Agnew H. Bahnson.

Military support for anti-gravity projects was terminated by the Mansfield Amendment of 1973, which restricted Department of Defense spending to only the areas of scientific research with explicit military applications. The Mansfield Amendment was passed specifically to end long-running projects that had little to show for their efforts.

Under general relativity, gravity is the result of following spatial geometry (change in the normal shape of space) caused by local mass-energy. This theory holds that it is the altered shape of space, deformed by massive objects, that causes gravity, which is actually a property of deformed space rather than being a true force. Although the equations cannot normally produce a "negative geometry", it is possible to do so by using "negative mass". The same equations do not, of themselves, rule out the existence of negative mass.

Both general relativity and Newtonian gravity appear to predict that negative mass would produce a repulsive gravitational field. In particular, Sir Hermann Bondi proposed in 1957 that negative gravitational mass, combined with negative inertial mass, would comply with the strong equivalence principle of general relativity theory and the Newtonian laws of conservation of linear momentum and energy. Bondi's proof yielded singularity free solutions for the relativity equations.[11] In July 1988, Robert L. Forward presented a paper at the AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE 24th Joint Propulsion Conference that proposed a Bondi negative gravitational mass propulsion system.[12]

Bondi pointed out that a negative mass will fall toward (and not away from) "normal" matter, since although the gravitational force is repulsive, the negative mass (according to Newton's law, F=ma) responds by accelerating in the opposite of the direction of the force. Normal mass, on the other hand, will fall away from the negative matter. He noted that two identical masses, one positive and one negative, placed near each other will therefore self-accelerate in the direction of the line between them, with the negative mass chasing after the positive mass.[11] Notice that because the negative mass acquires negative kinetic energy, the total energy of the accelerating masses remains at zero. Forward pointed out that the self-acceleration effect is due to the negative inertial mass, and could be seen induced without the gravitational forces between the particles.[12]

The Standard Model of particle physics, which describes all currently known forms of matter, does not include negative mass. Although cosmological dark matter may consist of particles outside the Standard Model whose nature is unknown, their mass is ostensibly known – since they were postulated from their gravitational effects on surrounding objects, which implies their mass is positive. The proposed cosmological dark energy, on the other hand, is more complicated, since according to general relativity the effects of both its energy density and its negative pressure contribute to its gravitational effect.

Fifth force

Under general relativity any form of energy couples with spacetime to create the geometries that cause gravity. A longstanding question was whether or not these same equations applied to antimatter. The issue was considered solved in 1960 with the development of CPT symmetry, which demonstrated that antimatter follows the same laws of physics as "normal" matter, and therefore has positive energy content and also causes (and reacts to) gravity like normal matter (see gravitational interaction of antimatter).

For much of the last quarter of the 20th century, the physics community was involved in attempts to produce a unified field theory, a single physical theory that explains the four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. Scientists have made progress in unifying the three quantum forces, but gravity has remained "the problem" in every attempt. This has not stopped any number of such attempts from being made, however.

Generally these attempts tried to "quantize gravity" by positing a particle, the graviton, that carried gravity in the same way that photons (light) carry electromagnetism. Simple attempts along this direction all failed, however, leading to more complex examples that attempted to account for these problems. Two of these, supersymmetry and the relativity related supergravity, both required the existence of an extremely weak "fifth force" carried by a graviphoton, which coupled together several "loose ends" in quantum field theory, in an organized manner. As a side effect, both theories also all but required that antimatter be affected by this fifth force in a way similar to anti-gravity, dictating repulsion away from mass. Several experiments were carried out in the 1990s to measure this effect, but none yielded positive results.[13]

In 2013 CERN looked for an antigravity effect in an experiment designed to study the energy levels within antihydrogen. The antigravity measurement was just an "interesting sideshow" and was inconclusive.[14]

General-relativistic "warp drives"

There are solutions of the field equations of general relativity which describe "warp drives" (such as the Alcubierre metric) and stable, traversable wormholes. This by itself is not significant, since any spacetime geometry is a solution of the field equations for some configuration of the stress–energy tensor field (see exact solutions in general relativity). General relativity does not constrain the geometry of spacetime unless outside constraints are placed on the stress–energy tensor. Warp-drive and traversable-wormhole geometries are well-behaved in most areas, but require regions of exotic matter; thus they are excluded as solutions if the stress–energy tensor is limited to known forms of matter. Dark matter and dark energy are not understood enough at this present time to make general statements regarding their applicability to a warp-drive.

Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program

During the close of the twentieth century NASA provided funding for the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program (BPP) from 1996 through 2002. This program studied a number of "far out" designs for space propulsion that were not receiving funding through normal university or commercial channels. Anti-gravity-like concepts were investigated under the name "diametric drive". The work of the BPP program continues in the independent, non-NASA affiliated Tau Zero Foundation.[15]

Empirical claims and commercial efforts

There have been a number of attempts to build anti-gravity devices, and a small number of reports of anti-gravity-like effects in the scientific literature. None of the examples that follow are accepted as reproducible examples of anti-gravity.

Gyroscopic devices

H W Wallace force field figure 4
A "kinemassic field" generator from U.S. Patent 3,626,605: Method and apparatus for generating a secondary gravitational force field

Gyroscopes produce a force when twisted that operates "out of plane" and can appear to lift themselves against gravity. Although this force is well understood to be illusory, even under Newtonian models, it has nevertheless generated numerous claims of anti-gravity devices and any number of patented devices. None of these devices have ever been demonstrated to work under controlled conditions, and have often become the subject of conspiracy theories as a result. A famous example is that of Professor Eric Laithwaite of Imperial College, London, in the 1974 address to the Royal Institution.[16]

Another "rotating device" example is shown in a series of patents granted to Henry Wallace between 1968 and 1974. His devices consist of rapidly spinning disks of brass, a material made up largely of elements with a total half-integer nuclear spin. He claimed that by rapidly rotating a disk of such material, the nuclear spin became aligned, and as a result created a "gravitomagnetic" field in a fashion similar to the magnetic field created by the Barnett effect.[17][18][19] No independent testing or public demonstration of these devices is known.

In 1989, it was reported that a weight decreases along the axis of a right spinning gyroscope.[20] A test of this claim a year later yielded null results.[21] A recommendation was made to conduct further tests at a 1999 AIP conference.[22]

Thomas Townsend Brown's gravitator

In 1921, while still in high school, Thomas Townsend Brown found that a high-voltage Coolidge tube seemed to change mass depending on its orientation on a balance scale. Through the 1920s Brown developed this into devices that combined high voltages with materials with high dielectric constants (essentially large capacitors); he called such a device a "gravitator". Brown made the claim to observers and in the media that his experiments were showing anti-gravity effects. Brown would continue his work and produced a series of high-voltage devices in the following years in attempts to sell his ideas to aircraft companies and the military. He coined the names Biefeld–Brown effect and electrogravitics in conjunction with his devices. Brown tested his asymmetrical capacitor devices in a vacuum, supposedly showing it was not a more down-to-earth electrohydrodynamic effect generated by high voltage ion flow in air.

Electrogravitics is a popular topic in ufology, anti-gravity, free energy, with government conspiracy theorists and related websites, in books and publications with claims that the technology became highly classified in the early 1960s and that it is used to power UFOs and the B-2 bomber.[23] There is also research and videos on the internet purported to show lifter-style capacitor devices working in a vacuum, therefore not receiving propulsion from ion drift or ion wind being generated in air.[23][24]

Follow-up studies on Brown's work and other claims have been conducted by R. L. Talley in a 1990 US Air Force study, NASA scientist Jonathan Campbell in a 2003 experiment,[25] and Martin Tajmar in a 2004 paper.[26] They have found that no thrust could be observed in a vacuum and that Brown's and other ion lifter devices produce thrust along their axis regardless of the direction of gravity consistent with electrohydrodynamic effects.

Gravitoelectric coupling

In 1992, the Russian researcher Eugene Podkletnov claimed to have discovered, whilst experimenting with superconductors, that a fast rotating superconductor reduces the gravitational effect.[27] Many studies have attempted to reproduce Podkletnov's experiment, always to negative results.[28][29][30][31]

Ning Li and Douglas Torr, of the University of Alabama in Huntsville proposed how a time dependent magnetic field could cause the spins of the lattice ions in a superconductor to generate detectable gravitomagnetic and gravitoelectric fields in a series of papers published between 1991 and 1993.[32][33][34] In 1999, Li and her team appeared in Popular Mechanics, claiming to have constructed a working prototype to generate what she described as "AC Gravity." No further evidence of this prototype has been offered.[35][36]

Douglas Torr and Timir Datta were involved in the development of a "gravity generator" at the University of South Carolina.[37] According to a leaked document from the Office of Technology Transfer at the University of South Carolina and confirmed to Wired reporter Charles Platt in 1998, the device would create a "force beam" in any desired direction and that the university planned to patent and license this device. No further information about this university research project or the "Gravity Generator" device was ever made public.[38]

Göde Award

The Institute for Gravity Research of the Göde Scientific Foundation has tried to reproduce many of the different experiments which claim any "anti-gravity" effects. All attempts by this group to observe an anti-gravity effect by reproducing past experiments have been unsuccessful thus far. The foundation has offered a reward of one million euros for a reproducible anti-gravity experiment.[39]

See also


  1. ^ Peskin, M and Schroeder, D.; An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory (Westview Press, 1995) ISBN 0-201-50397-2
  2. ^ Wald, Robert M. (1984). General Relativity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-87033-5.
  3. ^ Polchinski, Joseph (1998). String Theory, Cambridge University Press. A modern textbook
  4. ^ Thompson, Clive (August 2003). "The Antigravity Underground". Wired. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  5. ^ "On the Verge of Antigravity". Retrieved 23 July 2010.
  6. ^ Mooallem, J. (October 2007). "A curious attraction". Harper's Magazine. 315 (1889): 84–91.
  7. ^ List of winners Archived 28 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Goldberg, J. M. (1992). US air force support of general relativity: 1956–1972. In, J. Eisenstaedt & A. J. Kox (Ed.), Studies in the History of General Relativity, Volume 3 Boston, Massachusetts: Center for Einstein Studies. ISBN 0-8176-3479-7
  9. ^ Mallan, L. (1958). Space satellites (How to book 364). Greenwich, CT: Fawcett Publications, pp. 9–10, 137, 139. LCCN 58-001060
  10. ^ Clarke, A. C. (1957). "The conquest of gravity". Holiday. 22 (6): 62.
  11. ^ a b Bondi, H. (1957). "Negative mass in general relativity". Reviews of Modern Physics. 29 (3): 423–428. Bibcode:1957RvMP...29..423B. doi:10.1103/revmodphys.29.423.
  12. ^ a b Forward, R. L. (1990). "Negative matter propulsion". Journal of Propulsion and Power. 6 (1): 28–37. doi:10.2514/3.23219.; see also commentary Landis, G.A. (1991). "Comments on Negative Mass Propulsion". Journal of Propulsion and Power. 7 (2): 304. doi:10.2514/3.23327.
  13. ^ Supergravity and the Unification of the Laws of Physics, by Daniel Z. Freedman and Peter van Nieuwenhuizen, Scientific American, February 1978
  14. ^ Jason Palmer, Antigravity gets first test at Cern's Alpha experiment,, 30 April 2013
  15. ^ Tau Zero Foundation
  16. ^ "Eric LAITHWAITE Gyroscope Levitation". Rex research. Retrieved 23 October 2010.
  17. ^ U.S. Patent 3,626,606
  18. ^ U.S. Patent 3,626,605
  19. ^ U.S. Patent 3,823,570
  20. ^ Hayasaka, H. & Takeuchi, S. (1989). "Anomalous weight reduction on a gyroscope's right rotations around the vertical axis on the Earth". Physical Review Letters. 63 (25): 2701–2704. Bibcode:1989PhRvL..63.2701H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.2701. PMID 10040968.
  21. ^ Nitschke, J. M. & Wilmath, P. A. (1990). "Null result for the weight change of a spinning gyroscope". Physical Review Letters. 64 (18): 2115–2116. Bibcode:1989PhRvL..63.2701H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.64.2115. PMID 10041587.
  22. ^ Iwanaga, N. (1999). "Reviews of some field propulsion methods from the general relativistic standpoint". AIP Conference Proceedings. 458. pp. 1015–1059. doi:10.1063/1.57497.
  23. ^ a b Thompson, Clive (August 2003). "The Antigravity Underground". Wired Magazine.
  24. ^ Thomas Valone, Electrogravitics II: Validating Reports on a New Propulsion Methodology, Integrity Research Institute, page 52-58
  25. ^ Thompson, Clive (August 2003). "The Antigravity Underground". Wired Magazine.
  26. ^ Tajmar, M. (2004). "Biefeld-Brown Effect: Misinterpretation of Corona Wind Phenomena". AIAA Journal. 42 (2): 315–318. Bibcode:2004AIAAJ..42..315T. doi:10.2514/1.9095.
  27. ^ Podkletnov, E; Nieminen, R (10 December 1992). "A possibility of gravitational force shielding by bulk YBa2Cu3O7−x superconductor". Physica C. 203 (3–4): 441–444. Bibcode:1992PhyC..203..441P. doi:10.1016/0921-4534(92)90055-H. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  28. ^ N. Li; D. Noever; T. Robertson; R. Koczor; et al. (August 1997). "Static Test for a Gravitational Force Coupled to Type II YBCO Superconductors". Physica C. 281 (2–3): 260–267. Bibcode:1997PhyC..281..260L. doi:10.1016/S0921-4534(97)01462-7.
  29. ^ Woods, C., Cooke, S., Helme, J., and Caldwell, C., "Gravity Modification by High Temperature Superconductors," Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA 2001–3363, (2001).
  30. ^ Hathaway, G., Cleveland, B., and Bao, Y., "Gravity Modification Experiment using a Rotating Superconducting Disc and Radio Frequency Fields," Physica C, 385, 488–500, (2003).
  31. ^ Tajmar, M., and de Matos, C.J., "Gravitomagnetic Field of a Rotating Superconductor and of a Rotating Superfluid," Physica C, 385(4), 551–554, (2003).
  32. ^ Li, Ning; Torr, DG (1 September 1992). "Gravitational effects on the magnetic attenuation of superconductors". Physical Review. B46 (9): 5489–5495. Bibcode:1992PhRvB..46.5489L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.46.5489.
  33. ^ Li, Ning; Torr, DG (15 January 1991). "Effects of a gravitomagnetic field on pure superconductors". Physical Review. D43 (2): 457–459. Bibcode:1991PhRvD..43..457L. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.43.457.
  34. ^ Li, Ning; Torr, DG (August 1993). "Gravitoelectric-electric coupling via superconductivity". Foundations of Physics Letters. 6 (4): 371–383. Bibcode:1993FoPhL...6..371T. doi:10.1007/BF00665654.
  35. ^ Wilson, Jim (1 October 2000). "Taming Gravity". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  36. ^ Cain, Jeanette. "Gravity Conquered?". Archived from the original on 6 July 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  37. ^ "Patent and Copyright Committee List of Disclosures Reviewed Between July 1996 and June 1997 - USC ID". Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  38. ^ Platt, Charles (3 June 1998). "Breaking the Law of Gravity". Wired. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  39. ^ "The Göde award - One Million Euro to overcome gravity". Institute of Gravity Research. Retrieved 2 January 2014.

Further reading

  • Cady, W. M. (15 September 1952). "Thomas Townsend Brown: Electro-Gravity Device" (File 24-185). Pasadena, CA: Office of Naval Research. Public access to the report was authorized on 1 October 1952.

External links

Aerial yoga

Aerial yoga is a type of yoga combining traditional yoga poses, pilates, and dance with the use of a hammock.


Bespin is a fictional planet, a gas giant in Star Wars films and books (in the Bespin System of the Ison Corridor of the Ivax Nebula of the Anoat Sector of Greater Javin of the Outer Rim). The planet was first seen in the 1980 feature film The Empire Strikes Back. Since its introduction, Bespin has gained more specific characteristics in the Star Wars expanded universe.

In The Empire Strikes Back, Bespin's floating city Cloud City hovers suspended by an anti-gravity pod.

Biefeld–Brown effect

The Biefeld–Brown effect is an electrical phenomenon that produces an ionic wind that transfers its momentum to surrounding neutral particles. It describes a force observed on an asymmetric capacitor when high voltage is applied to the capacitor's electrodes. Once suitably charged up to high DC potentials, a thrust from the negative terminal to the positive terminal is generated. The effect was named by inventor Thomas Townsend Brown who claimed that he did a series of experiments with professor of astronomy Paul Alfred Biefeld, a former teacher of Brown whom Brown claimed was his mentor and co-experimenter at Denison University in Ohio.The use of an asymmetric capacitor, with the negative electrode being larger than the positive electrode, allowed for more thrust to be produced in the direction from the low-flux to the high-flux region compared to a conventional capacitor. These asymmetric capacitors became known as Asymmetrical Capacitor Thrusters (ACT). The Biefeld–Brown effect can be observed in ionocrafts and lifters, which utilize the effect to produce thrust in the air without requiring any combustion or moving parts.In his 1960 patent titled "Electrokinetic Apparatus," Brown refers to electrokinesis to describe the Biefeld–Brown effect, linking the phenomenon to the field of electrohydrodynamics (EHD). Brown also believed the Biefeld–Brown effect could produce an anti-gravity force, referred to as "electrogravitics" based on it being an electricity/gravity phenomenon. However, there is little evidence that supports Brown's claim on the effect's anti-gravity properties.

Buttered cat paradox

The buttered cat paradox is a common joke based on the tongue-in-cheek combination of two adages:

Cats always land on their feet.

Buttered toast always lands buttered side down.The paradox arises when one considers what would happen if one attached a piece of buttered toast (butter side up) to the back of a cat, then dropped the cat from a large height. The buttered cat paradox, submitted by artist John Frazee of Kingston, New York, won a 1993 OMNI magazine competition about paradoxes. The basic premise, stating the conditions of the cat and bread and posed as a question, was presented in a routine by comic and juggler Michael Davis, appearing on The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson, July 22, 1988.

Danny Dunn and the Anti-Gravity Paint

Danny Dunn and the Anti-Gravity Paint is the first novel in the Danny Dunn series of juvenile science fiction/adventure books written by Raymond Abrashkin and Jay Williams. The book was first published in 1956 and originally illustrated by Ezra Jack Keats.

Die Glocke

Die Glocke (German: [diː ˈɡlɔkə], "The Bell") was a purported top secret Nazi scientific technological device, secret weapon, or Wunderwaffe. Described by Polish journalist and author Igor Witkowski in Prawda o Wunderwaffe (2000), it was later popularized by military journalist and author Nick Cook as well as by writers such as Joseph P. Farrell and others who associate it with Nazi occultism and antigravity or free energy research.

Die Glocke has become a popular subject of speculation and a following similar to science fiction fandom exists around it and other alleged Nazi "miracle weapons" or Wunderwaffen. Mainstream reviewers such as former aerospace scientist David Myhra express skepticism that such a device existed.


Electrogravitics is claimed to be an unconventional type of effect or anti-gravity force created by an electric field's effect on a mass. The name was coined in the 1920s by the discoverer of the effect, Thomas Townsend Brown, who spent most of his life trying to develop it and sell it as a propulsion system. Through Brown's promotion of the idea it was researched for a short while by aerospace companies in the 1950s. Electrogravitics is popular with conspiracy theorists with claims that it is powering flying saucers and the B-2 Stealth Bomber.

Since apparatus based on Browns' ideas have often yielded varying and highly controversial results when tested within controlled vacuum conditions, the effect observed has often been attributed to the ion drift or ion wind effect instead of anti-gravity.


The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. The term forearm is used in anatomy to distinguish it from the arm, a word which is most often used to describe the entire appendage of the upper limb, but which in anatomy, technically, means only the region of the upper arm, whereas the lower "arm" is called the forearm. It is homologous to the region of the leg that lies between the knee and the ankle joints, the crus.

The forearm contains two long bones, the radius and the ulna, forming the radioulnar joint. The interosseous membrane connects these bones. Ultimately, the forearm is covered by skin, the anterior surface usually being less hairy than the posterior surface.

The forearm contains many muscles, including the flexors and extensors of the digits, a flexor of the elbow (brachioradialis), and pronators and supinators that turn the hand to face down or upwards, respectively. In cross-section the forearm can be divided into two fascial compartments. The posterior compartment contains the extensors of the hands, which are supplied by the radial nerve. The anterior compartment contains the flexors, and is mainly supplied by the median nerve. The flexor muscles are more massive than the extensors, because they work against gravity and act as anti-gravity muscles. The ulnar nerve also runs the length of the forearm.

The radial and ulnar arteries and their branches supply the blood to the forearm. These usually run on the anterior face of the radius and ulna down the whole forearm. The main superficial veins of the forearm are the cephalic, median antebrachial and the basilic vein. These veins can be used for cannularisation or venipuncture, although the cubital fossa is a preferred site for getting blood.

Gravity Research Foundation

The Gravity Research Foundation is an organization established in 1948 by businessman Roger Babson (founder of Babson College) to find ways to implement gravitational shielding. Over time, the foundation shed its crankish air, turning its attention from trying to block gravity to trying to understand it. It holds an annual contest rewarding essays by scientific researchers on gravity-related topics. The contest, which awards prizes of up to $4,000, has been won by at least five people who later won the Nobel Prize in physics.

The foundation held conferences and conducted operations in New Boston, New Hampshire through the late 1960s, but that aspect of its operation ended following Babson's death in 1967.

It is mentioned on stone monuments, donated by Babson, at more than a dozen American universities.

Gravity hill

A gravity hill, also known as a magnetic hill, mystery hill, mystery spot, gravity road, or anti-gravity hill, is a place where the layout of the surrounding land produces an optical illusion, making a slight downhill slope appear to be an uphill slope. Thus, a car left out of gear will appear to be rolling uphill against gravity. There are hundreds of recognised gravity hills around the world.

The slope of gravity hills is an optical illusion, although sites are often accompanied by claims that magnetic or supernatural forces are at work. The most important factor contributing to the illusion is a completely or mostly obstructed horizon. Without a horizon, it becomes difficult to judge the slope of a surface, as a reliable reference is missing. Objects one would normally assume to be more or less perpendicular to the ground (such as trees) may actually be leaning, offsetting the visual reference.The illusion is similar to the Ames room, in which objects can also appear to roll against gravity.

A similar phenomenon—an uphill road that appears flat—is known in bicycle racing as a "false flat".

List of fictional vehicles

The following is a list of fictional vehicles.

Ning Li (physicist)

Ning Li is an American scientist known for her controversial claims about anti-gravity devices. She worked as a physicist at the Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, in the 1990s. In 1999, she left the university to form a company, AC Gravity, LLC, to continue anti-gravity research.


S.C.I.E.N.C.E. is the second album by the American rock band Incubus, released on September 9, 1997 by Epic Records. The album has been certified Gold by the RIAA. It has been mentioned by various band members that the acronym S.C.I.E.N.C.E. stands for Sailing Catamarans Is Every Nautical Captain's Ecstasy. "Sometimes we just sit around and come up with these for laughs. In other words, there's not just one meaning, it's just food for thought," says singer Brandon Boyd.

This is the first and only studio album to feature DJ Lyfe.

Smooth Criminal

"Smooth Criminal" is a song by American recording artist Michael Jackson, released on his seventh studio album Bad (1987). It was written and composed by Jackson and produced by Jackson and Quincy Jones. Its music video was first broadcast in early October 1988, followed by a single release on October 21, the seventh from the album.

"Smooth Criminal" is one of Jackson's signature songs, and has appeared on numerous greatest hits albums. It was performed on all his solo tours. It features a fast beat with lyrics about a woman who has been attacked in her apartment by a "smooth criminal".

"Smooth Criminal" peaked at number seven on the US Billboard Hot 100. The song reached number one in Belgium, Iceland, the Netherlands and Spain. It was rereleased in 2006 as a single as a part of Jackson's Visionary: The Video Singles boxset. In 2001, the American rock band Alien Ant Farm released a cover of "Smooth Criminal", topping the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart.

The Anti-Gravity Room

The Anti-Gravity Room was a weekly Canadian television program of the early- to mid-1990s, spotlighting comic books and video games, and hosted by Nick Scoullar and Phil Guerrero. It was produced by YTV in Canada, and was carried in the United States on the Sci-Fi Channel. It featured interviews with international comic creators, coverage of comic events, reviews of video games, and guest hosts such as Ben Stiller and Kevin Smith.

The Blue Aeroplanes

The Blue Aeroplanes are an English rock band from Bristol, the mainstays of which have been Gerard Langley, brother John Langley, and dancer Wojtek Dmochowski. All three had previously been members of the new wave "art band" Art Objects from 1978 to 1981.

Thomas Townsend Brown

Thomas Townsend Brown (March 18, 1905 – October 27, 1985) was an American inventor whose research into odd electrical effects led him to believe he had discovered a connection between strong electric fields and gravity, a type of antigravity effect. Instead of being an antigravity force, what Brown observed has generally been attributed to electrohydrodynamics, the movement of charged particles that transfers their momentum to surrounding neutral particles in air, also called "ionic drift" or "ionic wind". For most of Brown's life he attempted to develop devices based on his ideas, trying to promote them for use by industry and the military. The phenomena came to be called the "Biefeld–Brown effect" and "electrogravitics".

In recent years Brown's research has had an influence in the community of amateur experimenters who build "ionic propulsion lifters" powered by high voltage. There are still claims that Brown discovered antigravity, an idea popular with the unidentified flying object (UFO) community and spawning many conspiracy theories.

United States gravity control propulsion research

American interest in "gravity control propulsion research" intensified during the early 1950s. Literature from that period used the terms anti-gravity, anti-gravitation, baricentric, counterbary, electrogravitics (eGrav), G-projects, gravitics, gravity control, and gravity propulsion. Their publicized goals were to develop and discover technologies and theories for the manipulation of gravity or gravity-like fields for propulsion. Although general relativity theory appeared to prohibit anti-gravity propulsion, several programs were funded to develop it through gravitation research from 1955 to 1974. The names of many contributors to general relativity and those of the golden age of general relativity have appeared among documents about the institutions that had served as the theoretical research components of those programs. The existence and 1950s emergence of the gravity control propulsion research have not been a subject of controversy for aerospace writers, critics, and conspiracy theory advocates, but their rationale, effectiveness, and longevity have been the objects of contested views.

Wipeout (series)

Wipeout (commonly stylised as wipEout or WipEout) is a series of futuristic anti-gravity racing video games developed by Sony Studio Liverpool (formerly known as Psygnosis).

The series is known for its fast-paced gameplay, 3D visual design running on the full resolution of the game's console, and its association with electronic dance music (mainly techno and trance) as well as its continuous collaboration with electronic artists (The Chemical Brothers, Leftfield, CoLD SToRAGE, Kraftwerk, Orbital, DJ Fresh, Noisia and others). The series is notable for its distinctive graphic design identity, provided by The Designers Republic for the first three games.

The concept of Wipeout was first discussed during a pub conversation, when a Psygnosis staff member, Jim Bowers, envisioned an idea of creating a futuristic racing game which featured anti-gravity ships. Some elements of the game were inspired by Matrix Marauders, an Amiga game released by the Liverpudlian studio in 1990. A beta version of Wipeout appeared in the cult film Hackers, in which the game was being played by the protagonists in a nightclub. The game's appearance in the film led to Sony purchasing the studio in the following months after its release.

The Wipeout franchise has been well received by critics, with Wipeout 2097 in particular being listed as among the PlayStation's best games. Wipeout 2048 was the last game to be developed by Studio Liverpool prior to their closure in August 2012. The series was later revived, with Wipeout Omega Collection released in 2017.

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