Anti-Comintern Pact

The Anti-Comintern Pact (German: Antikominternpact; Japanese: 防共協定 Bōkyō kyōtei) was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International (Comintern).

... recognizing that the aim of the Communist International, known as the Comintern, is to disintegrate and subdue existing States by all the means at its command; convinced that the toleration of interference by the Communist International in the internal affairs of the nations not only endangers their internal peace and social well‑being, but is also a menace to the peace of the world desirous of co‑operating in the defense against Communist subversive activities ...[1]

Anti-Comintern Pact
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Japanese ambassador to Germany Kintomo Mushakoji and Foreign Minister of Germany Joachim von Ribbentrop sign the Anti-Comintern Pact.
TypePact
DraftedOctober 23, 1936
SignedNovember 25, 1936
LocationBerlin, Germany
Signatories

Origins

The origins of the Anti-Comintern Pact go back to the autumn of 1935 shortly after Anglo-German Naval Agreement was signed and after the Seventh World Congress of the Comintern, when various German officials both within and outside the Foreign Ministry were attempting to achieve alignment between the Reich's foreign policy of traditional alliance with China and Hitler's desire for friendship with Japan.[2] In October 1935, this idea was raised that an anti-Communist alliance might be able to tie in the Kuomintang regime, Japan and also Germany.[2] In particular, this idea appealed to Joachim von Ribbentrop, the Special Ambassador at large and the head of the Dienststelle Ribbentrop and the Japanese Military Attaché in Berlin, General Hiroshi Ōshima, who hoped that such an alliance might lead to China's subordination to Japan.[2] Lack of Chinese interest doomed the project's original intention, but in October–November 1935, Ribbentrop and General Oshima worked out a treaty directed against the Comintern.[2] The pact was to be originally introduced in late November 1935 with invitations for China, Britain, Italy and Poland to join.[2] However, concerns by the German Foreign Minister Baron Konstantin von Neurath and War Minister Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg that the pact might damage Sino–German relations and cause political disarray in Tokyo, following the failed military coup of February 26, 1936, led to the pact being shelved for a year.[2] By the summer of 1936, the increased influence of the military in the Japanese government, concerns in Berlin and Tokyo about the Franco-Soviet alliance, and Hitler's desire for a dramatic anti-Communist foreign policy gesture that he believed might bring about an Anglo-German alliance led to the idea of the pact being revived.[2] The pact was initiated on October 23, 1936, and later signed on November 25, 1936.[2] In order to avoid damaging relations with the Soviet Union, the pact was supposedly directed only against the Comintern, but in fact contained a secret agreement that in the event of either signatory power becoming involved with a war with the Soviet Union, the other signatory power must maintain a benevolent neutrality.[2]

Agreement

Japan Germany Anti Commintern Pact 25 November 1936
Japan-Germany Anti-Comintern Pact, 25 November 1936
German-Turkish Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression
Turkey joined the pact as an observer, 18 June 1941

In case of an attack by the Soviet Union against Germany or Japan, the two countries agreed to consult on what measures to take "to safeguard their common interests". They also agreed that neither of them would make any political treaties with the Soviet Union, and Germany also agreed to recognize Manchukuo.

Formation of the "Axis Powers"

On November 6, 1937, Italy and Spain also joined the pact,[3] thereby forming the group that would later be known as the Axis Powers. Italy's decision was more or less a reaction against the failed Stresa Front, the Franco-British initiative of 1935 designed to keep Germany from extending beyond its present borders. In particular, both nations tried to block "German expansionism", especially the annexation of Austria, which was also in Italy's best interests to prevent. Distrustful relations and Benito Mussolini's own expansionism furthered the distance between Italy and the United Kingdom, as well as France. Italy invaded Ethiopia in October 1935, in an act of unprovoked aggression that was a breach of the League of Nations policy. Nevertheless, Britain and France joined in a secret agreement with Italy to give it two-thirds of Ethiopia, the Hoare–Laval Pact. When this information was leaked to the public in Britain and France, their governments were entangled in a subsequent scandal and the British Foreign Secretary, Samuel Hoare, was later forced to resign. Consequently, the Hoare-Laval Pact was aborted.

Anglo-German agreement

Earlier, in June 1935, the surprise Anglo-German Naval Agreement was signed between the United Kingdom and Germany. This marked the beginning of a series of attempts by Adolf Hitler to improve relations between the two countries, form a pact, and isolate the Soviet Union, which resulted in the Soviet Union and Britain attempting to do the same and isolate Germany. Hitler also made an effort to influence the Poles into joining the Anti-Comintern Pact and spoke of his intention to settle territorial disputes between Germany and Poland [4][5][6][7][8] (see also German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact). However, Poland refused Germany's terms, fearing that an alliance with Hitler would render Poland a German puppet state. At the time, many Japanese politicians, including Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, were shocked by the Anglo-German Naval Agreement, but the leaders of the military clique then in control in Tokyo concluded that it was a ruse designed to buy the Nazis time to build up their navy. They continued to plot war against either the Soviet Union or the Western democracies, assuming Germany would eventually act against either of them. Hitler's initial efforts to develop relations with Britain eventually failed.

Soviet-German agreement

At about a year after the Munich Agreement, in August 1939, Germany broke the terms of the Anti-Comintern Pact when the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was signed between the Soviet Union and Germany. However, by 1940, Hitler began to plan for a potential invasion (planned to start in 1941) of the Soviet Union. The German foreign minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, was sent to negotiate a new treaty with Japan. On September 25, 1940, Ribbentrop sent a telegram to Vyacheslav Molotov, the Soviet foreign minister, informing him that Germany, Italy, Spain and Japan were about to sign a military alliance. Ribbentrop tried to reassure Molotov by claiming that this alliance was to be directed towards the United States and not the Soviet Union. During June 1941, the Germans began bombing present-day Belarus and Ukraine, ending the treaty of the Soviet-German agreement and initiating Operation Barbarossa.

Revised pact of 1941

The Anti-Comintern Pact was revised in 1941, after Germany's assault on the Soviet Union that commenced with Operation Barbarossa and on November 25 its renewal for further five years was undertaken. This time the signatories were:

Denmark in the pact

The government of occupied Denmark demanded four exemptions to make it clear they took upon themselves no military or political obligations, that the only actions against communists would be police enforcements, that the actions would apply only to Denmark's own territory, and that Denmark remained a neutral country. The German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop was furious and in a fit threatened the Danish Foreign Minister Erik Scavenius with arrest. In the end Ribbentrop settled down and the Danish addendum was accepted as a secret one with only a few minor changes. The secrecy was the German demand, to avoid diluting the propaganda effect; this apparent full participation damaged Denmark's reputation as a "neutral" country. Several Danish diplomats stationed in Allied countries decided to distance themselves from their government after the signing.[13]

In reality, and some months prior to the signing, the Danish police had on their own initiative arrested and detained hundreds of Danish Communists without charge on 22 June 1941, including members of parliament, and later, on 20 August, they deported around one hundred of them to the Horserød camp. With the signature of the Anti-Comintern Pact, which was made retroactive, the Danish government officially justified these arrests, but the prisoners were never put before any court and 150 were later deported to the Stutthof concentration camp by the Gestapo in 1943.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ Presseisen, Ernst (2013). Germany and Japan: A Study in Totalitarian Diplomacy 1933–1941. Springer. p. 237.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Weinberg, Gerhard (1970). The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany Diplomatic Revolution in Europe 1933–36. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 342–346. ISBN 0226885097.
  3. ^ Spector, Robert Melvin (2005). World Without Civilization: Mass Murder and the Holocaust, History, and Analysis. Lanham: University Press of America. p. 257. ISBN 0761829636.
  4. ^ Greenwood, Sean. The Phantom Crisis: Danzig, 1939. pp. 225–246.
  5. ^ The Origins of the Second World War Reconsidered edited by Gordon Martel, Routledge: London, United Kingdom, 1999 page 232.
  6. ^ Anna Cienciala: Poland in British and French Policy in 1939: Determination To Fight-or Avoid War? pages 413–433
  7. ^ The Origins of The Second World War edited by Patrick Finney, Edward Arnold: London, United Kingdom, 1997 page 414.
  8. ^ Gerhard Weinberg: The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany Starting World War II 1937–1939, University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, 1980, p.p. 558-562
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Osmańczyk, Edmund (2002). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements. Taylor and Francis. p. 104. ISBN 0-415-93921-6.
  10. ^ Henning Poulsen, “Hvad mente Danskerne?” Historie 2 (2000) p. 320.
  11. ^ Lavery, Jason Edward. The history of Finland. Greenwood Press. p. 126.
  12. ^ "Türk-Alman Dostluk Paktı İmzalandı"
  13. ^ Kaarsted, Tage (1977). De Danske Ministerier 1929–1953. Copenhagen. pp. 173 ff. ISBN 8774928961.
  14. ^ "Kommunistlejren" [The Communist Camp]. Folkedrab.dk (in Danish). Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS). Retrieved 1 March 2016.

External links

Axis powers

The Axis powers (German: Achsenmächte; Italian: Potenze dell'Asse; Japanese: 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis" (also acronymized as "Roberto"), were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity.

The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany, Italy, and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936. Benito Mussolini declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from then on rotate on the Rome–Berlin axis, thus creating the term "Axis". The almost simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist treaty between Germany and Japan. Italy joined the Pact in 1937. The "Rome–Berlin Axis" became a military alliance in 1939 under the so-called "Pact of Steel", with the Tripartite Pact of 1940 leading to the integration of the military aims of Germany, Italy and Japan.

At its zenith during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied large parts of Europe, North Africa, and East Asia. There were no three-way summit meetings and cooperation and coordination was minimal, with slightly more between Germany and Italy. The war ended in 1945 with the defeat of the Axis powers and the dissolution of their alliance. As in the case of the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, with some nations switching sides or changing their degree of military involvement over the course of the war.

Communist Law

The Communist Law or The Law on Prohibition Against Communist Associations and Communist Activities was a piece of Danish legislation passed on August 22, 1941 which banned the Communist Party of Denmark and other communist parties and organisations in Denmark. The Communist Law was a Danish adoption of the international Anti-Comintern Pact.

Eidgenössische Sammlung

Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.

German–Soviet Credit Agreement (1939)

The German–Soviet Credit Agreement (also referred to as the German–Soviet Trade and Credit Agreement) was an economic arrangement between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union whereby the latter received an acceptance credit of 200 million Reichsmark over 7 years with an effective interest rate of 4.5 percent. The credit line was to be used during the next two years for purchase of capital goods (factory equipment, installations, machinery and machine tools, ships, vehicles, and other means of transport) in Germany and was to be paid off by means of Soviet material shipment from 1946 onwards. The economic agreement was the first step toward improvement in relations between the Soviet Union and Germany. The next day after the Credit Agreement, the Soviet Union went to war against Japan, in a successful four-week military campaign in the Far East. The Nazi-Soviet Pact was signed four days after the Credit Agreement. The 1939 German–Soviet Commercial Agreement renewed declined Nazi–Soviet economic relations and was adjusted and expanded with the larger German–Soviet Commercial Agreement in February 1940 and January 1941 German–Soviet Border and Commercial Agreement. German shipments to the Soviets became tardy and failed to provide all that was promised the closer the date of Barbarossa came. The Soviets fulfilled their obligations to the letter right up until the invasion, wanting to avoid provoking Germany. All these agreements were terminated when Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, in violation of the treaties between the two countries. Soviet trade with Germany in the pre-invasion period ended up providing the Germans with many of the resources they needed for their invasion of the Soviet Union.

History of Pomerania (1933–1945)

History of Pomerania between 1933 and 1945 covers the period of one decade of the long history of Pomerania, lasting from the Adolf Hitler's rise to power until the end of World War II in Europe. In 1933, the German Province of Pomerania like all of Germany came under control of the Nazi regime. During the following years, the Nazis led by Gauleiter Franz Schwede-Coburg manifested their power through the process known as Gleichschaltung and repressed their opponents. Meanwhile, the Pomeranian Voivodeship was part of the Second Polish Republic, led by Józef Piłsudski. With respect to Polish Pomerania, Nazi diplomacy – as part of their initial attempts to subordinate Poland into Anti-Comintern Pact – aimed at incorporation of the Free City of Danzig into the Third Reich and an extra-territorial transit route through Polish territory, which was rejected by the Polish government, that feared economic blackmail by Nazi Germany, and reduction to puppet status.

International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone

The International Committee was established in order to establish and manage the Nanking Safety Zone.

Many Westerners were living in the city at that time, conducting trade or on missionary trips. As the Japanese army began to approach Nanking, most of them fled the city. A small number of Western businessmen, journalists and missionaries, however, chose to remain behind. The missionaries were primarily Americans from the Episcopal, Disciples of Christ, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches. To coordinate their efforts, the Westerners formed a committee, called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone.

German businessman John Rabe was elected as its leader, partly because of his status as a member of the Nazi party and the existence of the German-Japanese bilateral Anti-Comintern Pact. Rabe and other refugees from foreign countries tried to protect the civilians from getting killed by the Japanese. The Japanese didn't recognize the Safety Zone, and hundreds of men and women were raped and killed. Due to Rabe's efforts some 250,000 people were protected during Nanking Massacre.

In February 1938 as violence by the Japanese Army abated, the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone was reorganized as the Nanking International Relief Committee, which did humanitarian work in Nanking until at least 1941. There are no records of any activity by the Committee after 1941 and it is believed likely that it was forced to discontinue its operations after the United States entered World War II.

Joachim von Ribbentrop

Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.

Ribbentrop first came to Adolf Hitler's notice as a well-travelled businessman with more knowledge of the outside world than most senior Nazis and as an authority on world affairs. He offered his house for the secret meetings in January 1933 that resulted in Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany. He became a close confidant of Hitler, to the disgust of some party members, who thought him superficial and lacking in talent. He was appointed Ambassador to the Court of St James's (for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) in 1936 and then Foreign Minister of Germany in February 1938.

Before World War II, he played a key role in brokering the Pact of Steel (an alliance with Fascist Italy) and the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact (the Nazi–Soviet non-aggression pact). He favoured retaining good relations with the Soviets, and opposed the invasion of the Soviet Union. In the autumn of 1941, due to American aid to Britain and the increasingly frequent "incidents" in the North Atlantic between U-boats and American warships guarding convoys to Britain, Ribbentrop worked for the failure of the Japanese-American talks in Washington and for Japan to attack the United States. He did his utmost to support a declaration of war on the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. From 1941 onwards, Ribbentrop's influence declined.

Arrested in June 1945, Ribbentrop was tried at the Nuremberg trials and convicted for his role in starting World War II in Europe and enabling the Holocaust. On 16 October 1946, he became the first of those sentenced to death by hanging to be executed.

Kintomo Mushanokōji

Viscount Kintomo Mushanokōji (武者小路 公共, Mushanokōji Kintomo, August 29, 1882 - April 21, 1962) was a Japanese diplomat before and during World War II.

List of fascist movements by country

This is a list of political parties, organizations, and movements that have been claimed to follow some form of fascist ideology. Since definitions of fascism vary, entries in this list may be controversial. For a discussion of the various debates surrounding the nature of fascism, see fascism and ideology and definitions of fascism.

This list has been divided into four sections for reasons of length:

List of fascist movements by country A–F

List of fascist movements by country G–M

List of fascist movements by country N–T

List of fascist movements by country U–Z

Lü Yiwen

Lü Yiwen (Chinese: 呂宜文; 1897–1950) was a Chinese diplomat who served as the ambassador of Manchukuo to Nazi Germany, since the German recognition of Manchukuo's independence in 1938. He subsequently took part in negotiating Manchukuo's entry into the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1940.

National Fascist Party (Argentina)

The National Fascist Party of Argentina (Partido Nacional Fascista) was a fascist political party formed in 1923. In 1932, a group broke away from the party to form the Argentine Fascist Party, which eventually became a mass movement in the Córdoba region of Argentina.

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.

The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.

NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.

National Socialist Flyers Corps

The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).

During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.

National Unity Party (Canada)

The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.

Pact

A pact, from Latin pactum ("something agreed upon"), is a formal agreement. In international relations, pacts are usually between two or more sovereign states. In domestic politics, pacts are usually between two or more political parties or other organizations.

Notable international pacts include:

Anti-Comintern Pact between Germany and Japan (1936)

Auto Pact between Canada and the United States (1965)

Kellogg–Briand Pact, a multilateral treaty against war (1928)

London Pact between Italy and the Triple Entente (Great Britain, France, and Russia) (1915)

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union (1939)

Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact (1941)

North Atlantic pact, organizing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

Pact of Steel between Italy and Germany (1939)

Stability and Growth Pact between European Union member states about fiscal policy (1997)

Tripartite Pact between Italy, Germany, and Japan (1940)

U.S.–North Korea Agreed Framework concerning the latter country's development of nuclear power (1994)

Warsaw Pact of Eastern European communist countries, led by the Soviet Union (1955-1991)

Red Scare in Japan

The Red Scare in Japan refers to the promotion of fear of the rise of communism or radical leftism in Japan.

Throughout the history of Imperial Japan, the government suppressed socialist and communist movements. In order to combat the Communist International, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany and Italy in Nov. 6, 1937.Near the end of World War II, Prince Konoe Fumimaro promoted the fear of a communist revolution as a result of Japan's defeat.In response to Cold War tensions in Asia, the CIA funded the Japanese Liberal Democratic Party in an effort to turn Japan into a bulwark against communism during the 1950s and 1960s.

The Immortals (neo-Nazis)

The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.

Tientsin incident

The Tientsin incident (天津事件) was an international incident created by a blockade by the Imperial Japanese Army's Japanese Northern China Area Army of the British settlements in the north China treaty port of Tientsin (modern day Tianjin) in June 1939. Originating as a minor administrative dispute, it escalated into a major diplomatic incident.

Tropical fascism

In African political science, tropical fascism is a type of post-colonial state which is either considered fascist or is seen to have strong fascist tendencies. Gnassingbé Eyadéma dictator of Togo and leader of the Rally of the Togolese People, Mobutu Sese Seko dictator of Zaire and leader of the Popular Movement of the Revolution and Idi Amin dictator of Uganda have all been considered an example of tropical fascism in Africa. The Coalition for the Defence of the Republic and larger Hutu Power movement, a Hutu ultranationalist and supremacist movement that organized and committed the Rwandan Genocide aimed at exterminating the Tutsi people of Rwanda, has been regarded as a prominent example of tropical fascism in Africa. Pol Pot and The Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia has been called a tropical fascist regime, as they officially renounced communism in 1981.

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