Anti-Australian sentiment (also known as Australophobia or Anti-Australianism) refers to hostile sentiment toward the nation of Australia or its people.
One of the earliest references to the specific phrase "Anti-Australian sentiment" occurred in 1983 in relation to anti-independence groups in New Caledonia. However the term "anti-Australian" predates this by decades and by 1949 people in parts of Asia were said to have "anti-Australian feeling" over how Australia applied its White Australia policy. In 2006 "anti-Australian sentiment" was reported in East Timor.
Indonesia has been alleged to have a rise in "anti-Australian sentiment" because of suggestions of Australia interfering with its internal affairs. A 2003 study on Indonesian aspirants for a diplomatic position reported that 95% of them had anti-Australian sentiment. The post-Suharto era period also saw anti-Australian sentiment in Indonesia over East Timor. In Indonesia, it is related to generalised anti-Western sentiment.
The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. The attack killed 202 people (including 88 Australians, 38 Indonesians, and people of more than 20 other nationalities). A further 209 people were injured.Various members of Jemaah Islamiyah, a violent Islamist group, were convicted in relation to the bombings, including three individuals who were sentenced to death. The attack involved the detonation of three bombs: a backpack-mounted device carried by a suicide bomber; a large car bomb, both of which were detonated in or near popular nightclubs in Kuta; and a third much smaller device detonated outside the United States consulate in Denpasar, causing only minor damage. An audio-cassette purportedly carrying a recorded voice message from Osama bin Laden stated that the Bali bombings were in direct retaliation for support of the United States' War on Terror and Australia's role in the liberation of East Timor.On 8 November 2008, Imam Samudra, Amrozi Nurhasyim and Huda bin Abdul Haq were executed by firing squad on the island prison of Nusakambangan at 00:15 local time (17:15 UTC).
On 9 March 2010, Dulmatin, nicknamed "the Genius" – believed to be responsible for setting off one of the Bali bombs with a mobile phone – was killed in a shoot-out with Indonesian police in Jakarta.2005 Cronulla riots
The 2005 Cronulla riots were a series of race riots and outbreaks of mob violence in Sydney, beginning on 11 December 2005 in the beachside suburb of Cronulla which spread, over the next few nights, to additional suburbs.
The riots began after a physical confrontation broke out between a group of Lebanese youths and lifeguards on the beach.
A crowd gathered at Cronulla on the morning of Sunday, 11 December, and, by midday, approximately 5,000 people had gathered near the beach. The police eventually intervened. Violence spread to other southern suburbs of Sydney, where assaults occurred, including two stabbings and attacks on ambulances and police officers.The riots were widely condemned by local, state and federal members of parliament, police, local community leaders, and residents of Cronulla and adjacent areas. A large number of arrests were made over the subsequent months, from both the initial riot on 11 December and the retaliations over the subsequent nights. Travel warnings for Australia were issued by some countries but were later removed.Australia–Indonesia relations
Australia–Indonesia relations refers to the foreign relations between Australia and one of its few neighboring countries, Indonesia. It began as early as 1640 with contact between Indigenous Australians and Makassan trepangers from southwest Sulawesi and formalised with Australia's full recognition of Indonesia in 1949. The relationship has been characterised by growing mutual trade of $14.9 billion in 2011–2012, an increase of 8.3% on the previous year, in addition to close links in government, education, and defence under the Lombok Treaty. Both nations are members of the G20, ASEAN Regional Forum, and the Australia-New Zealand-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement. Indonesia received $541.6 million in Australian development aid in 2012–2013.List of Australians imprisoned or executed abroad
This is a list of current and former Australian citizens whose detention in prisons outside of Australia or execution is noteworthy. The list includes those whose arrests or sentences are considered noteworthy for the following reasons:
the prisoner was arrested and charged with or convicted of notable crimes whilst abroad.
the prisoner is an otherwise notable person in Australia.List of anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms
The following is a list of anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms, where "anti-cultural" means sentiments of hostility towards a particular culture, "anti-national" refers to sentiments of hostility towards a particular state or other national administrative entity, and "anti-ethnic" refers to ethnic hatred or sentiments of hostility towards an ethnic group.
The use of all of these terms is controversial, as they tend to be used prominently in local rhetorical appeals to fallacy—namely the natural confusion between politically directed opposition and ethnically directed hostility, often deliberately disregarding this distinction for propaganda purposes.
These discriminatory attitudes are similar in nature to various religion-based hostile movements, such as Christianophobia and Anti-Catholicism, based on the mixture of xenophobia and ideological/political opposition.National Front Party (Indonesia)
The National Front Party (Indonesian: Partai Barisan Nasional, Barnas) is a political party in Indonesia. It was founded by Vence Rumangkang, former member of the Democratic Party advisory board.The party contested the 2009 elections, but won only 0.7 percent of the vote, less than the 2.5 percent electoral threshold, meaning it was awarded no seats in the People's Representative Council.Sydney Ducks
The Sydney Ducks was the name given to a gang of criminal immigrants from Australia in San Francisco, during the mid-19th century. Because many of these criminals came from the well-known British penal colonies in Australia, and were known to commit arson, they were blamed for an 1849 fire that devastated the heart of San Francisco, as well as the rampant crime in the city at the time.The Sydney Ducks were criminals who operated as a gang, in a community that also included sailors, longshoremen, teamsters, wheelwrights, shipwrights, bartenders, saloon keepers, washerwomen, domestic servants, and dressmakers. The largest proportion (44%) were born in Ireland and migrated during the Great Irish Famine, first to Australia as laborers and then to California as part of the Gold Rush.The criminality of the Sydney Ducks was the catalyst for the formation of the first Committee of Vigilance of 1851. The vigilantes usurped political power from the corrupt or incompetent officials in the city, conducted secret trials, lynchings, and deportations, which effectively decimated the Sydney Ducks. The area where the Sydney Ducks clustered at the base of Telegraph Hill was originally known as "Sydney-Town," but by the 1860s was called exclusively by its better-known name, the Barbary Coast.
On December 19, 1854 five members of the gang were involved in the Jonathan R. Davis fight.Violence against Indians in Australia controversy
In 2009, the media of Australia, mostly in Melbourne, Sydney, and India publicised reports of crimes and robberies against Indians in Australia that were described as racially motivated. There were accusations of intense Hinduphobia along with the racist hate crimes.
Rallies were organised in Melbourne and Sydney, and intense media coverage of the perceived hate crimes commenced in India, which were mostly critical of Australian and Victorian Police. The Australian government initially called for calm as it began an investigation into the crimes. In June 2009, the Victoria Police Chief Commissioner, Simon Overland, stated that some of the crimes were racist and hinduphobic in nature, and others were opportunistic. A subsequent Indian Government investigation concluded that, of 152 reported assaults against Indian students in Australia that year, 23 involved racial overtones.