Anthracite

Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster. It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, and the highest energy density of all types of coal and is the highest ranking of coals.

Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal (but still represents low-grade metamorphism), in which the carbon content is between 92% and 98%.[1][2] The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition.[3] Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue, and smokeless flame.

Anthracite is categorized into standard grade, which is used mainly in power generation, and high grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG), the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. Anthracite accounts for about 1% of global coal reserves,[4] and is mined in only a few countries around the world. China accounts for the majority of global production; other producers are Russia, Ukraine, North Korea, South Africa, Vietnam, the UK, Australia, Canada and the US. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons.[5]

Anthracite coal
Black coal, hard coal, stone coal, blind coal, Kilkenny coal, crow coal, craw coal, black diamond
Metamorphic rock
Anthracite coal
Anthracite coal
Composition
Carbon, 92–98%

Names

Coal waste pile west of Trevorton, Pennsylvania far shot 2
An American culm pile.

Anthracite derives from the Greek anthrakítēs (ἀνθρακίτης), literally "coal-like".[6] Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal, hard coal, stone coal,[7][8] dark coal, coffee coal, blind coal (in Scotland),[3] Kilkenny coal (in Ireland),[7] crow coal or craw coal, and black diamond. "Blue Coal" is the term for a once-popular and trademarked brand of anthracite, mined by the Glen Alden Coal Company in Pennsylvania, and sprayed with a blue dye at the mine before shipping to its northeastern U.S. markets to distinguish it from its competitors.

Culm has different meanings in British and American English. In British English, "culm" is the imperfect anthracite of north Devon and Cornwall, which was used as a pigment. The term is also used to refer to some Carboniferous rock strata found in both Britain and in the Rhenish hill countries (the Culm Measures).[3] Lastly, it may refer to coal exported from Britain during the 19th century.[7] In American English, "culm" refers to the waste or slack from anthracite mining,[3] mostly dust and small pieces not suitable for use in home furnaces.

Properties

Ibbenbueren Anthracite
Anthracite (Ibbenbüren, Germany)
Anthracite coal (Photo by John Mortimore)
Anthracite (near Bay City, Michigan)

Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation.

Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness (2.75–3 on the Mohs scale[9]), its higher relative density of 1.3–1.4, and luster, which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed.[3] Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous coal into anthracite.

The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 MJ/kg), on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). Since the 1980s, anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for coal power generation in a form of recycling. The practice known as reclamation is being applied to culm piles antedating laws requiring mine owners to restore lands to their approximate original condition.

Chemically, anthracite may be considered as a transition stage between ordinary bituminous coal and graphite, produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former, and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable stresses and pressures, such as the flanks of great mountain ranges.[3] Anthracite is associated with strongly deformed sedimentary rocks that were subjected to higher pressures and temperatures (but short of metamorphic conditions) just as bituminous coal is generally associated with less deformed or flat-lying sedimentary rocks. For example, the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of East-central Pennsylvania are extensions of the same layers of bituminous coal that are mined on the generally flat lying and undeformed sedimentary rocks further west on the Allegheny Plateau of Kentucky and West Virginia, Eastern Ohio, and Western Pennsylvania. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli, the central and eastern portions producing steam coal, coking coal and domestic house coals.[10]

Structurally, anthracite shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. The thermal conductivity is also higher; a lump of anthracite feels perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous coal at the same temperature. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal.[3]

Anthracite has a history of use in blast furnaces for iron smelting; however, it lacked the pore space of metallurgical coke, which eventually replaced anthracite.[11]

History of mining and use

Coal plant, Madrid c. 1935
Anthracite coal breaker and power house buildings, New Mexico, circa 1935

In southwest Wales, anthracite has been burned as a domestic fuel since at least medieval times,[12] when it was mined near Saundersfoot. More recently, large-scale mining of anthracite took place right across the western part of the South Wales Coalfield until the late 20th century. Mining continues but now on a smaller scale.

In the United States, anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcrop of anthracite coal. By 1795, an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River.

Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel in the US on 11 February 1808, by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on an open grate in a fireplace. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom, and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a viable heating fuel.

In spring 1808, John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth, Pennsylvania, marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. From that first mine, production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in 1917.

Anthracite usage was inhibited by the difficulty of igniting it. This was a particular concern in smelting iron using a blast furnace. With the invention of hot blast in 1828, which used waste heat to preheat combustion air, anthracite became a preferred fuel, accounting for 45% of US pig iron production within 15 years.[13] Anthracite for iron smelting was later displaced by coke.

From the late 19th century until the 1950s, anthracite was the most popular fuel for heating homes and other buildings in the northern US, until it was supplanted by oil-burning systems and more recently natural gas systems. Many large public buildings, such as schools, were heated with anthracite-burning furnaces through the 1980s.

Working together for Victory. Anthracite is a "fighting fuel." America needs it now. - NARA - 534850
Anthracite is a "fighting fuel", World War II poster

During the American Civil War, Confederate blockade runners used anthracite as a smokeless fuel for their boilers to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders.[14]

The invention of the Wootten firebox enabled locomotives to directly burn anthracite efficiently, particularly waste culm. In the early 20th century US, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal in its passenger locomotives, dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite," and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of Anthracite". Similarly, the Great Western Railway in the UK was able to use its access to anthracite (it dominated the anthracite region) to earn a reputation for efficiency and cleanliness unmatched by other UK companies.

Internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed", "poor", "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air (and a small proportion of steam) were at one time the most economical method of obtaining power, consuming 1 pound of fuel per horsepower-hour, or less. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France, Switzerland and parts of Germany.[15] As of April 2013, widespread commercial anthracite mining in Wales has now ceased, although a few large open cast sites remain, along with some relatively small drift mining operations.

Anthracite today

Pottsville Maroons self-made trophy
American football trophy custom-made from anthracite

Anthracite generally costs two to three times as much as regular coal. In June 2008, the wholesale cost of anthracite was US$150/short ton.[16]

The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot, making it ideal for this purpose. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media, and as an ingredient in charcoal briquettes. Anthracite is an authorised fuel[17] in terms of the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act 1993, meaning that it can be used within a designated Smoke Control Area such as the central London boroughs.

Mining

China today mines by far the largest share of global anthracite production, accounting for more than three-quarters of global output.[5] Most Chinese production is of standard-grade anthracite, which is used in power generation. Increased demand in China has made that country into a net importer of the fuel, mostly from Vietnam, another major producer of anthracite for power generation, although increasing domestic consumption in Vietnam means that exports may be scaled back.[18]

Current U.S. anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. Of that, about 1.8 million tons were mined in the state of Pennsylvania.[19] Mining of anthracite coal continues to this day in eastern Pennsylvania, and contributes up to 1% to the gross state product. More than 2,000 people were employed in the mining of anthracite coal in 1995. Most of the mining as of that date involved reclaiming coal from slag heaps (waste piles from past coal mining) at nearby closed mines. Some underground anthracite coal is also being mined.

Countries producing HG and UHG anthracite include Russia and South Africa. HG and UHG anthracite are used as a coke or coal substitute in various metallurgical coal applications (sintering, PCI, direct BF charge, pelletizing). It plays an important role in cost reduction in the steel making process and is also used in production of ferroalloys, silicomanganese, calcium carbide and silicon carbide. South Africa exports lower-quality, higher-ash anthracite to Brazil to be used in steel-making.

Sizing and grading

Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker. The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves, placed in descending order.[15] Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces.

Anthracite is classified into three grades, depending on its carbon content. Standard grade is used as a domestic fuel and in industrial power-generation. The rarer higher grades of anthracite are purer – i.e., they have a higher carbon content – and are used in steel-making and other segments of the metallurgical industries. Technical characteristics of the various grades of anthracite are as follows:

Standard grade anthracite High grade anthracite Ultra High grade anthracite Coke
Moisture (maximum) 15% 15% 13% 5%
Ash (maximum) 20% 15% 12% 14%
Volatiles (maximum) 10% 10% 5% 2%
Fixed carbon (minimum) 73% 80% 85% 84%
Sulfur (maximum) 1% 1% 0.6% 0.8%
Breaker Boys 1
Group of breaker boys, from a 1910 photograph by Lewis Hine

Anthracite is divided by size mainly into applications that need lumps (typically larger than 10 mm) – various industrial processes where it replaces metallurgical coke, and domestic fuel – and those that need fines (less than 10 mm), such as sintering and pelletising.[18]

The common American classification by size is as follows:

Lump, steamboat, egg and stove coals, the latter in two or three sizes, all three being above ​1 12 in (38 mm) size on round-hole screens.

High grade

High grade (HG) and ultra high grade (UHG) anthracite are the highest grades of anthracite coal. They are the purest forms of coal, having the highest degree of coalification, the highest carbon count and energy content and the fewest impurities (moisture, ash and volatiles).

High grade and ultra high grade anthracite are harder than standard grade anthracite, and have a higher relative density. An example of a chemical formula for high-grade anthracite would be C240H90O4NS,[20] representing 94% carbon.[21] UHG anthracite typically has a minimum carbon content of 95%.

They also differ in usage from standard grade anthracite (used mainly for power generation), being employed mainly in metallurgy as a cost-efficient substitute for coke in processes such as sintering and pelletising, as well as pulverised coal injection (PCI) and direct injection into blast furnaces. They can also be used in water purification and domestically as a smokeless fuel.

HG and UHG anthracite account for a small percentage of the total anthracite market. The major producing countries are Russia, Ukraine, Vietnam, South Africa and the US.

Classification Minimum Size (inches) Maximum Size (inches)
Chestnut 7/8 1 12
Pea 9/16 7/8
Buckwheat 3/8 9/16
Rice 3/16 3/8
Barley 3/32 3/16

The primary sizes used in the United States for domestic heating are Chestnut, Pea, Buckwheat and Rice, with Chestnut and Rice being the most popular. Chestnut and Pea are used in hand fired furnaces while the smaller Rice and Buckwheat are used in automatic stoker furnaces. Rice is currently the most sought after size due to the ease of use and popularity of that type of furnace.

In South Wales a less elaborate classification is adopted, but great care is exercised in hand-picking and cleaning the coal from particles of pyrites in the higher qualities known as best malting coals, which are used for kiln-drying malt.[15]

Anthracite dust can be made into briquettes and is sold in the United Kingdom under trade names such as Phurnacite, Ancit and Taybrite.

Underground fires

Burning Culm Dump, Scranton, PA
Culm dump of anthracite tailings on fire near Scranton, Pennsylvania

Historically from time to time, underground seams of coal have caught fire, often from careless or unfortunate mining activities. The pocket of ignited coal is fed oxygen by vent paths that have not yet been discovered. These can smolder for years. Commonly, exhaust vents in populated areas are soon sensed and are sealed while vents in uninhabited areas remain undiscovered. Occasionally, vents are discovered via fumes sensed by passers-by, often in forested areas. Attempts to extinguish those remaining have at times been futile, and several such combustion areas exist today. The existence of an underground combustion site can sometimes be identified in the winter where fallen snow is seen to be melted by the warmth conducted from below. Proposals for harnessing this heat as geothermal energy have not been successful.

A vein of anthracite that caught fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania in 1962 has been burning ever since, turning the once-thriving borough into a ghost town.[22]

Major reserves

Among current producers, Russia, China and Ukraine have the largest estimated recoverable reserves of anthracite. Other countries with substantial reserves include Vietnam and North Korea.[23]

Geologically, the largest most concentrated anthracite deposit in the world is found in the Lackawanna Coal Mine in northeastern Pennsylvania, United States in and around Scranton, Pennsylvania. Locally called the Coal Region, the deposit contains 480 square miles of coal bearing rock which originally held 22.8 billion short tons (20.68 billion tonnes) of anthracite.[24] (The geographic region is roughly 100 miles (161 km) in length and 30 miles (48 km) in width.) Because of historical mining and development of the lands overlying the coal, it is estimated that 7 billion short tons (6.3 billion tonnes) of minable reserves remain. The United States also contains several smaller deposits of anthracite, such as those historically mined in Crested Butte, Colorado.

The Groundhog Anthracite Deposit, located in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest previously undeveloped anthracite deposit in the world. It is owned by Australian publicly listed company, Atrum Coal and has 1.57 billion tonnes of high grade anthracite.[25]

Anthracites of newer Tertiary or Cretaceous age are found in the Crowsnest Pass part of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and at various places in the Andes in Peru.[15]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "MIN 454: Underground Mining Methods handout; from course at the University of Alaska Fairbanks". Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  2. ^ R. Stefanenko (1983). Coal Mining Technology: Theory and Practice. Society for Mining Metallurgy. ISBN 0-89520-404-5.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Bauerman 1911, p. 105.
  4. ^ World Coal Association – The Coal Resource Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b "International Energy Statistics". www.eia.gov.
  6. ^ "anthracite", The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2010-06-26. [1]
  7. ^ a b c EB (1878).
  8. ^ Not to be confused with the German Steinkohle[3] or Dutch steenkool which are broader terms meaning all varieties of coal of a stonelike hardness and appearance, like bituminous coal and often anthracite as well, as opposed to lignite, which is softer.
  9. ^ US Geological Survey and US Department of Mines (1968). Mineral Resources of the Appalachian Region; USGS Professional Paper 580. USGS. p. 126.
  10. ^ Bauerman 1911, pp. 105-106.
  11. ^ Rosenberg 1982, pp. 89
  12. ^ Owen, George, The Description of Pembrokeshire, Dillwyn Miles (Ed), Gomer Press, Llandysul, 1994, ISBN 1-85902-120-4, pp. 60, 69–70, 90–95, 139, 255
  13. ^ Rosenberg, Nathan (1982). Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-521-27367-6.
  14. ^ Underwood, Rodman L. (2008). Waters of Discord: The Union Blockade of Texas During the Civil War. McFarland. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-7864-3776-4.
  15. ^ a b c d Bauerman 1911, p. 106.
  16. ^ Urbina, Ian (June 10, 2008). "King Coal Country Debates a Sacrilege, Gas Heat". The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 2008.
  17. ^ "uksmokecontrolareas.co.uk". Archived from the original on 2009-02-07.
  18. ^ a b Petmin Annual Report 2011 Archived May 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "retrieved January 3, 2011". Coaldiver.org. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
  20. ^ "Coal characteristics: Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research Basic Facts File #8" (PDF). Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  21. ^ "Molar mass of C240H90O4NS". www.webqc.org.
  22. ^ Bellows, Alan (2006) "The Smoldering Ruins of Centralia" DamnInteresting.com (accessed August 29, 2006)
  23. ^ "Marston – Anthracite production and exports: A world map" (PDF).
  24. ^ http://www.libraries.psu.edu/content/dam/psul/up/emsl/documents/pags_reports/PR%20no.130.pdf
  25. ^ "Atrum Coal Groundhog Project – Atrum Coal". atrumcoal.com.

References

Attribution:

Further reading

  • Chandler, Alfred D. (1972). "Anthracite coal and the beginnings of the industrial revolution in the United States". Business History Review. 46 (2): 141–181.
  • Hudson Coal Company (1932). The Story of Anthracite. New York. p. 425. — Useful overview of the industry in the 20th century; fair-minded with an operators perspective

Primary sources

  • Report of the United states coal commission.... (5 vol in 3; 1925) Official US government investigation. online vol 1-2
    • Tryon, Frederick Gale, and Joseph Henry Willits, eds. What the Coal Commission Found: An Authoritative Summary by the Staff (1925).
  • General policies committee of anthracite operators. The anthracite coal strike of 1922: A statement of its causes and underlying purposes (1923); Official statement by the operators. online

External links

Ammanford

Ammanford (Welsh: Rhydaman) is a town and community in Carmarthenshire, Wales, with a population of 5,411 at the 2011 census. It is a former coal mining town.

According to the 2001 census, 75.88% of the population are competent in the Welsh language, compared to roughly 61% in Carmarthenshire as a whole and 21.8% in Wales as a whole.

Ammanford is served by the A483 and A474 roads. Ammanford railway station is a stop on the Heart of Wales Line, with trains to Llanelli and Swansea to the south and Shrewsbury to the north.

Ammanford is twinned with Breuillet, Essonne.

Anthracite League

The Anthracite League, also referred to as the Anthracite Association, was a 1924 football league comprising teams based in eastern Pennsylvania. These teams were based in coal mining towns, hence the league name's reference to anthracite coal. The league lasted for just one season, before folding. The teams in the league were the Coaldale Big Green, Wilkes-Barre Barons, Shenandoah Yellow Jackets, the Gilberton Cadamounts, and the Pottsville Maroons.

Anthracite iron

Anthracite iron or Anthracite 'Pig Iron' is the substance created by the smelting together of anthracite coal and iron ore, that is using Anthracite coal instead of charcoal to smelt iron ores — and was an important historic advance in the late-1830s enabling great acceleration the industrial revolution in Europe and North America.

Ashland, Pennsylvania

Ashland is a borough in Schuylkill County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Pottsville. A small part of the borough also lies in Columbia County, although all of the population resided in the Schuylkill County portion as of the 2010 census. The borough lies in the anthracite coal region of eastern Pennsylvania. Settled in 1850, Ashland was incorporated in 1857, and was named for Henry Clay's estate near Lexington, Kentucky. The population in 1900 was 6,438, and in 1940, 7,045, but had dropped to 2,817 at the 2010 census.Ashland is part of the Pottsville Micropolitan Statistical Area.

It is the location of Pioneer Tunnel, a tourist attraction featuring a tour of a coal mine on mine cars and a separate 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) narrow gauge steam train ride.

Carbondale, Pennsylvania

Carbondale is a city in Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, United States. Carbondale is located approximately 15 miles due northeast of the city of Scranton in Northeastern Pennsylvania. The population was 8,891 at the 2010 census.

The land area that became Carbondale was developed by William and Maurice Wurts, the founders of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, during the rise of the anthracite coal mining industry in the early 19th century. Carbondale was the site of the first deep vein anthracite coal mine in the United States. It was also a major terminal of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad.

Like many other cities and towns in the region, Carbondale has struggled with the demise of the once-prominent coal mining industry that had once made the region a haven for immigrants seeking work so many decades ago. Immigrants from Wales, England, Scotland, Ireland, Italy and from throughout continental Europe came to Carbondale in the course of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries to work in the anthracite and railroading industries.

Coal Region

The Coal Region is a historically important coal-mining area in Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Ridge-and-valley Appalachian Mountains, comprising Lackawanna, Luzerne, Columbia, Carbon, Schuylkill, Northumberland, and the extreme northeast corner of Dauphin counties. Academics have made the distinction North Anthracite Coal Field and South Anthracite Coal Field (each of Pennsylvania), the lower region bearing the further classification Anthracite Uplands in physical geology. The Southern Coal Region can be further broken into the Southeastern and Southwestern Coal Regions, with the divide between the Little Schuylkill and easternmost tributary of the Schuylkill River with the additional divide line from the Lehigh watershed extended through Barnesville the determining basins.

The region's combined population was 898,834 people as of 2015. Many of the place names in the region are from the Delaware Indians (the self-named Lenape peoples) and the powerful Susquehannock nation, an Iroquoian people who dominated the Susquehanna valley in the 16th and 17th century when Dutch, Swedish and French migrants were exploring North America and founding settlements along the Atlantic Seaboard.

The Coal region or Pennsylvania Anthracite region or fields is home to the largest known deposits of anthracite coal found in the Americas, with an estimated reserve of seven billion short tons. It is these deposits that provide the region with its nickname. The discovery of anthracite coal was first made near the Schuylkill –Northampton line in the vicinity of Summit Hill by a hunter in 1791, 16 years after the North Field saw its first mine.

Coal strike of 1902

The Coal strike of 1902 (also known as the anthracite coal strike) was a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania. Miners struck for higher wages, shorter workdays and the recognition of their union. The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to major American cities. At that time, residences were typically heated with anthracite or "hard" coal, which produces higher heat value and less smoke than "soft" or bituminous coal.

President Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never resumed, as the miners received a 10% wage increase and reduced workdays from ten to nine hours; the owners got a higher price for coal and did not recognize the trade union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor dispute in which the U.S. federal government intervened as a neutral arbitrator.

Coaldale Big Green

The Coaldale Big Green was an early professional football team based in Coaldale, Pennsylvania. The club played as an independent until joining the Anthracite League in 1924. After leaving the league in 1924, the team spent its 1925 season as an independent, then joined the short-lived Eastern League of Professional Football in 1926. While the most well known Anthracite League team is the Pottsville Maroons, which jumped to the National Football League in 1925 and immediately established itself as a championship contender, the most consistently successful club in the coal region was the Big Green. Coaldale won the coal region's Curran Cup in 1921, 1922 and 1923.

Geology of Pennsylvania

The Geology of Pennsylvania consists of six distinct physiographic provinces, three of which are subdivided into different sections. Each province has its own economic advantages and geologic hazards and plays an important role in shaping everyday life in the state. They are: (listed from the southeast corner to the northwest corner) the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province, the Piedmont Province, the New England Province, the Ridge and Valley Province, the Appalachian Plateau Province, and the Central Lowlands Province.A majority of the rocks in Pennsylvania exposed at the surface are sedimentary and were deposited during the Paleozoic Era. Almost all of the metamorphic and igneous rocks are confined to the southeast portion of the state. A total of four orogenies have affected the rocks of the Commonwealth including the Grenville orogeny, the Taconic orogeny, the Acadian orogeny, and the Appalachian orogeny. The Appalachian event has left the most evidence and has continued to shape the landscape of the state. The Pennsylvania terrain has also been affected by continental rifting during the Mesozoic era.Pleistocene glaciers have also repeatedly visited the state over the last 100,000 years. These glaciers have left some evidence and carved out much of the landscape of the northern tier of the state.

A rock with high economic value from Pennsylvania is Anthracite coal. Before mining began, there was an estimated 22.8 billion tons of anthracite in Pennsylvania. In 2001, 12 billion tons still remained in the ground, most of which was not economically feasible to mine. American geologists recognized the importance of Pennsylvania's coal region and named the Upper Carboniferous Period the Pennsylvanian Period because of the abundance of coal in the state. Despite this, Celestine was proposed as the state mineral in 2002. The proposal however, was not approved by the state legislature.Pennsylvania is also home to the famous Drake Oil Well in Titusville which help gave rise to the modern oil industry and two brand name motor oils, Quaker State (now owned by Royal Dutch Shell) and Pennzoil. Pennsylvania also has reserves of natural gas from both deeply buried source rocks and coal-bed areas.

Gilberton, Pennsylvania

Gilberton is a borough in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, four miles (7 km) west by south of Mahanoy City. Its population was 769 at the 2010 census, a decline from 867 in 2000. Extensive deposits of anthracite coal are in the region, and coal-mining had been practiced by many of the 4,373 people who lived there in 1900. The coal-mining industry was thriving in 1910, and 5,401 people lived in Gilberton.

Gilberton Cadamounts

The Gilberton Catamounts, sometimes called the Gilberton Cadamounts and the Gilberton Duck Streeters, were a 1920s-era professional football team based in Gilberton, Pennsylvania. However, the team played many of its home games in nearby Mahanoy City because Gilberton's home field, Stoddard Field. was usually flooded. The borough got its "Ducktown" nickname mainly because of persistent flooding.

Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group

Shanxi Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group Co., Ltd. (JAMG) is a Chinese state-owned coal mining conglomerate based in Jincheng, Shanxi. It was owned by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) of Shanxi Provincial People's Government. JAMG was ranked 386th in 2016 Fortune Global 500. The company also known as Jin Coal Group (Chinese: 晋煤集团) in China, which "Jin" was the short name of both Jincheng and Shanxi Province, as both named after the ancient Jin. Jincheng was located in one of the 13 important coal mining sites of China, namely "Jin East", which fellow state-owned enterprise Yangquan Coal Industry Group and Lu'an Mining Industry Group were also located in "Jin East".According to a publication of the National Energy Administration, JAMG had a coal mining capability of 54.55 million tons in 2015, despite the list was incomplete. (The figure also included the mines from Taiyuan Coal Gasification Group) According to the company itself, the company produced 70.4 million tons of coal in 2015.According to the International Energy Agency, JAMG was ranked 11th in 2006 in China by sales mass. According to UNESCO, the group had one of the representative coal gasification plant in China in 2007, with an output of 100,000 tons. The group also had the world largest coal mine methane power plant of 120 MegaWatts, at the Sihe Mine (Chinese: 寺河矿). The engine of the power plant was constructed by Caterpillar and the project was partly financed by a loan from Asia Development Bank and the Prototype Carbon Fund that was managed by the World Bank.

Lansford, Pennsylvania

Lansford is a county-border borough (town) in Carbon County, Pennsylvania, United States, located 37 miles (60 km) northwest of Allentown and 19 miles south of Hazleton in the Panther Creek Valley about 72 miles (116 km) from Greater Philadelphia and abutting the cross-county sister-city of Coaldale in Schuylkill County. The whole valley was owned and subdivided into separate lots by the historically important Lehigh Coal & Navigation Company (locally called "the Old Company") which likely settled some structures on the lands by 1827.Lansford grew with the development of local anthracite coal mines, and was named after Asa Lansford Foster, who was an advocate for merging the small "patch towns" that developed in the area surrounding the anthracite coal mines. The population was 3,941 at the 2010 Census, a steep decline from a high of 9,632 at the 1930 census common to many mining towns in northeastern Pennsylvania.

Lattimer massacre

The Lattimer massacre was the violent deaths of at least 19 unarmed striking immigrant anthracite miners at the Lattimer mine near Hazleton, Pennsylvania, on September 10, 1897. The miners, mostly of Polish, Slovak, Lithuanian and German ethnicity, were shot and killed by a Luzerne County sheriff's posse. Scores more workers were wounded. The massacre was a turning point in the history of the United Mine Workers (UMW).

Pennsylvania Anthracite Heritage Museum

The Pennsylvania Anthracite Heritage Museum preserves the heritage of anthracite coal mining in the U.S. State of Pennsylvania and is located in McDade Park in Scranton. The museum is part of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. It features exhibits detailing the industrial history of northeastern Pennsylvania. The museum was featured on The Office episode "The Merger" in Michael and Dwight's parody of Lazy Sunday.

A few museum exhibits are also located at the companion Lackawana Coal Mine Tour.

Pottsville Maroons

The Pottsville Maroons were an American football team based in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, in the Northeastern part of the state. Founded in 1920, they played in the National Football League (NFL) from 1925 to 1928. In 1929 they relocated to Boston, where they played one season as the Boston Bulldogs.

The team was founded as the Pottsville Eleven, an independent team playing in the local eastern Pennsylvania circuit. Home games were played at Minersville Park, a high school stadium in nearby Minersville. They joined the local Anthracite League in 1924, the same year they adopted the "Maroons" nickname, and won the league title. The next season they joined the NFL under owner John G. Streigel. Though dominant on the field, a controversial suspension cost them the 1925 NFL Championship. They were reinstated the following year, but after two successive losing seasons in 1927 and 1928, Streigel sold the Maroons to a group in Boston, where they played one season before folding.1925 was their best season. The 1928 roster included three future Pro Football Hall of Fame members – Johnny "Blood" McNally, Walt Kiesling, and coach Wilbur "Pete" Henry – but posted the worst record in franchise history. Writer John O'Hara, who would go on to become a world-famous novelist with Appointment in Samarra, covered the team for the local newspaper.

Shenandoah Yellow Jackets

The Shenandoah Yellow Jackets were an Anthracite League football team that played during the league's two years of existence in the 1923 and 1924 football seasons.

They played twelve games in the 1923 football season finishing the season with five wins, six losses and a tie. Their actual league record was three wins, three losses and a tie as the other wins and losses were with teams outside the Anthracite Football League. Nevertheless they still finished third in the overall league standings with a tally of 24 points scored for to 26 points against.

The Yellow Jackets returned for the 1924 football season to complete eight games, going 4–4 for a .500 winning percentage, but two of those games were non league related, giving the Yellowjackets three wins, three losses and no ties, with a points tally of 27 points scored for and 30 points against. They finished second behind the leading Pottsville Maroons with six wins, no losses and a tie in the five-team league.

Wilkes-Barre Barons (football)

The Wilkes-Barre Barons were an Anthracite League American football team that, according to historical records, played in only one game in the league's only year of existence, 1924.

Their lone game was played on October 5 against the Pottsville Maroons. The Barons lost the match 34-0.

Wyoming Valley

The Wyoming Valley is a historic industrialized region of Northeastern Pennsylvania, once famous for fueling the industrial revolution in the United States with its many anthracite coal mines. As a metropolitan area, it is known as the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre metropolitan area, after its principal cities, Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, and is the 97th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and the 4th largest in Pennsylvania. It makes up its own unique physiographic province, the Anthracite Valley, in the geology of Pennsylvania. Greater Pittston makes up the center of the valley. Scranton is the most populated city in the metropolitan area with a population of 77,114. The city of Scranton has grown in population after the 2015 mid term census while Wilkes-Barre has declined in population. Wilkes-Barre is still the second most populated city in the metropolitan area and Hazleton is third. The airports for this area are Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International Airport (Avoca) and the Wilkes-Barre Wyoming Valley Airport (Forty Fort).

The valley is a crescent-shaped depression, a part of the ridge-and-valley or folded Appalachians. The Susquehanna River occupies the southern part of the valley, which is notable for its deposits of anthracite. These have been extensively mined. Deep mining of anthracite has declined throughout the greater Coal Region, however, due to the greater economics of strip mining. Parts of the local mines had already shut down because some coal beds were on fire and had to be sealed; but the exodus of mining companies came quickly following the legal and political repercussions of the 1959 Knox Mine Disaster—when the roof of the Knox Coal Company's mine under the river collapsed. The Pocono Mountains, a ridgeline away, are often visible from higher elevations to the east and to the southeast of the Wyoming Valley.

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