Anthony Low

Donald Anthony Low AO (22 June 1927 – 12 February 2015), known as Anthony Low or D. A. Low, was a historian of modern South Asia, Africa, the British Commonwealth, and, especially, decolonization. He was the Emeritus Smuts Professor of History of the British Commonwealth at the University of Cambridge, former Vice-Chancellor of the Australian National University, Canberra, and President of Clare Hall, Cambridge.[1]

Anthony Low

Donald Anthony Low

22 June 1927
Died12 February 2015 (aged 87)
Alma materOxford University
Known forStudy of decolonization
Scientific career
FieldsHistorian (British Commonwealth)


Low was born in 1927[2] and gained his doctorate from Oxford University.[3]

Career highlights

The academic positions which Professor Low has held include the following:[4]

  • Founding Dean of the School of African and Asian Studies, University of Sussex, 1968–1971
  • Dean, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies (RSPAS), Australian National University, 1973–1974
  • Vice Chancellor, Australian National University, Canberra, 1975–1982
  • Smuts Professor of the History of the British Commonwealth, University of Cambridge, 1983–1994
  • President, Clare Hall, University of Cambridge, 1987–1994


Selected bibliography


  • Low, D.A. (1962). Political parties in Uganda 1949-62 (1st ed.). London: Institute of Commonwealth Studies, University of London, Athlone Press.
  • Low, D.A. (editor) (1968). Soundings in modern South Asian history. California: University of California Press.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Low, D.A. (1973). Lion rampant; essays in the study of British imperialism. London: Cass. ISBN 9780714629865.
  • Low, D.A. (editor) (1988). The Indian National Congress: Centenary Hindsights. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195621425.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Low, D.A. (1991). Eclipse of empire. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521457545.
  • Low, D.A. (1996). The egalitarian moment: Asia and Africa, 1950-1980. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521567657.
  • Low, D.A. (1997). Britain and Indian nationalism: the imprint of ambiguity, 1929-1942. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521892612.
  • Low, D.A. (2006). Congress and the Raj: facets of the Indian struggle, 1917-47 (2nd ed.). New Delhi Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195683677.
  • Low, D.A. (2009). Fabrication of empire : the British and the Uganda kingdoms, 1890-1902. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521843515.

Chapters in books

  • Low, D.A. (1988), "Congress and "mass contacts," 1936-1937: ideology, interests, and conflict over the basis of party representation", in Sisson, Richard; Wolpert, Stanley, Congress and Indian nationalism: the pre-independence phase, Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. 134–158, ISBN 9780520060418


  1. ^ "Emeritus Professor Anthony Low AO". Academy of the social sciences in Australia | Fellowships. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  2. ^ "Birthday's today". The Telegraph. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2014. Prof D.A. Low, President of Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1987–94, 84
  3. ^ "List of Honorary Fellows". Exeter College, Oxford. Retrieved 21 June 2014. Prof Anthony Low - DPhil Oxf, FAHA, FASSA
  4. ^ a b "Professor Donald Anthony Low Collection". National University of Singapore | NUS Libraries. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  5. ^ "The Academy Fellows 'L'". The Australian Academy of the Humanities. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  6. ^

External links

Academic offices
Preceded by
Robert Williams
Vice-Chancellor of the Australian National University
Succeeded by
Peter Karmel
Preceded by
Eric Thomas Stokes
Smuts Professor of Commonwealth History Cambridge University
Succeeded by
A.G. Hopkins
1999 South Gloucestershire Council election

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Alexander Murdoch Mackay

Alexander Murdoch Mackay (13 October 1849 – 4 February 1890) was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary to Uganda known as Mackay of Uganda.


Arain (also known as Rain) are a major tribe found mainly in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. They are chiefly associated with small-time farming or market gardening,

Bharatiya Jana Sangh

The Bharatiya Jana Sangh (abbrv. BJS, short name: Jan Sangh, full name: Akhil Bharatiya Jana Sangh) was an Indian right wing political party that existed from 1951 to 1977 and was the political arm of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation. In 1977, it merged with several other left, centre and right parties opposed to the Indian National Congress and formed the Janata Party. After the Janata Party split in 1980, the former Jan Sangh was recreated as the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which is currently India's largest political party by primary membership and representation in the Lok Sabha.


Buganda is a subnational kingdom within Uganda. The kingdom of the Ganda people, Buganda is the largest of the traditional kingdoms in present-day Uganda, comprising all of Uganda's Central Region, including the Ugandan capital Kampala. The 6 million Baganda (singular Muganda; often referred to simply by the root word and adjective, Ganda) make up the largest Ugandan ethnic group, representing approximately 16.9% of Uganda's population.Buganda has a long and extensive history. Unified in the 14th century under the first king Kato Kintu, the founder of Buganda's Kintu Dynasty, Buganda grew to become one of the largest and most powerful states in East Africa during the eighteenth and 19th centuries. During the Scramble for Africa, and following unsuccessful attempts to retain its independence against British imperialism, Buganda became the centre of the Uganda Protectorate in 1894; the name Uganda, the Swahili term for Buganda, was adopted by British officials. Under British rule, many Baganda acquired status as colonial administrators, and Buganda became a major producer of cotton and coffee.

Following Uganda's independence in 1962, the kingdom was abolished by Uganda's first Prime Minister Milton Obote in 1966. Following years of disturbance under Obote and dictator Idi Amin, as well as several years of internal divisions among Uganda's ruling National Resistance Movement under Yoweri Museveni, the President of Uganda since 1986, the kingdom was officially restored in 1993. Buganda is now a kingdom monarchy with a large degree of autonomy from the Ugandan state, although tensions between the kingdom and the Ugandan government continue to be a defining feature of Ugandan politics.

Since the restoration of the kingdom in 1993, the king of Buganda, known as the Kabaka, has been Muwenda Mutebi II. He is recognised as the 36th Kabaka of Buganda. The current queen, known as the Nnabagereka, is Queen Sylvia Nagginda.

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Clare Hall, Cambridge

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Clare Hall is one of the smallest colleges with 200 graduate students, but around 125 Fellows, making it the highest Fellow to Student ratio at Cambridge University. Clare Hall maintains many Cambridge traditions including formal hall and the tutorial system.

David Low (politician)

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Interwar period

In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.

Despite the relatively short period of time, this period represented an era of significant changes worldwide. Petroleum and associated mechanisation expanded dramatically leading to the Roaring Twenties (and the Golden Twenties), a period of economic prosperity and growth for the middle class in North America, Europe and many other parts of the world. Automobiles, electric lighting, radio broadcasts and more became commonplace among populations in the developed world. The indulgences of this era subsequently were followed by the Great Depression, an unprecedented worldwide economic downturn which severely damaged many of the world's largest economies.

Politically, this era coincided with the rise of communism, starting in Russia with the October Revolution, at the end of World War I, and ended with the rise of fascism, particularly in Germany and in Italy. China was in the midst of long period of instability and civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China. The Empires of Britain, France and others faced challenges as imperialism was increasingly viewed negatively in Europe, and independence movements in British India, French Indochina, Ireland and other regions gained momentum.

The Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian and German empires were dismantled. The Ottoman and German Empire's colonies were redistributed among the Allies. The far western part of the Russian Empire broke away: Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland became independent nations, while Bessarabia (the Republic of Moldova) chose to reunify with Romania.

The communists in the USSR managed to regain control in Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Ireland was split, with the larger part being independent of Britain. In the Middle East, Egypt and Iraq gained independence. During the Great Depression, Latin American countries nationalised many foreign companies (particularly American) in a bid to strengthen their local economies. Japanese, German, Italian and Soviet territorial ambitions led to expansions of these empires, which set the stage for the subsequent world war.

The German and Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939 is considered the start of World War II and the end of the interwar period.

Joachim Wendler

Joachim Wendler (born June 6, 1939, Erfurt, Germany – died September 25, 1975, Rockport, Massachusetts) was a West German aquanaut who died of an air embolism while returning to the surface of the Gulf of Maine from the Helgoland underwater habitat. He was participating in a checkout mission for the First International Saturation Study of Herring and Hydroacoustics (FISSHH) project.

Wendler, a 36-year-old experienced diver, and two other German aquanauts began the two-day/two-night checkout mission on September 21, 1975. All three divers were employees of the German firm Gesellschaft fur Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt mbH (GKSS), which operated the Helgoland habitat. On September 23 the three Germans were joined by two American divers: Lieutenant Commander Laurence Bussey of the United States Navy, the head of the project for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Roger Clifford, a fisheries scientist from NOAA's laboratory at Woods Hole. Wendler, Bussey, and another of the German aquanauts, Joachim Rediske, proceeded to undergo a 49-hour decompression inside Helgoland, which was completed at 6:30 p.m. on September 24. Their return to the surface was then delayed by 15 hours due to bad weather and in order to enable them to surface in daylight.At 11:30 a.m. on September 25 the three aquanauts surfaced; Wendler was hampered by gear he was carrying. It was later theorized by Captain George F. Bond, the "Father of Saturation Diving", who was participating in the project, that Wendler may have been lifted ten feet or more by a passing swell just after taking a deep breath. The change in pressure would have allowed bubbles from his lungs to enter his circulatory system. In the final 15 feet before reaching the surface, Wendler suffered a massive gas embolism.Having reached the surface, Wendler clung to a buoy and waved for help. He was brought by the diving tender boat to Rockport, Massachusetts, and received oxygen, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and external heart massage aboard the boat. Upon arrival in Rockport, Wendler was placed in a portable recompression chamber at the project's headquarters at the Ralph Waldo Emerson Inn, where he was recompressed to 165 feet. Wendler spent two hours in the chamber, attended by GKSS medical supervisor Anthony Low, M.D., before being pronounced dead.NOAA convened a board of investigation, headed by Dr. J. Morgan Wells of NOAA's Manned Undersea Science and Technology (MUST) office. The board concluded that Wendler's death "was in no way connected with the systems in the habitat or the decompression procedures". NOAA Associate Administrator David Wallace ordered that, in order for FISSHH to continue, a recompression chamber must be made available on the dive boat.On November 21, 1975, an American aquanaut experienced either central nervous system bends or an embolism on surfacing from Helgoland; he was successfully treated but experienced some residual disability. Captain Bond later said that the FISSHH project had as many serious safety incidents as he could remember in a project of similar length. Joachim Wendler was the world's second aquanaut to die as a result of participating in an underwater habitat project, the first having been SEALAB III aquanaut Berry L. Cannon.

June 22

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On this day the Summer solstice may occur in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Winter solstice may occur in the Southern Hemisphere.

Kalwar (caste)

The Kalwar, (or Kalal, Kalar) are an Indian caste historically found in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, and other parts of North and Central India. The caste is traditionally associated with the distillation of liquor, but around the start of the 20th century assorted Kalwar caste organisations sought to leave that trade and redefine their community.

List of Honorary Fellows of Exeter College, Oxford

This is a list of Honorary Fellows of Exeter College, Oxford. A list of current honorary fellows is published on the college's website at List of Honorary Fellows.

Martin Amis

Sir Ronald Arculus

Sir John Ashworth

Sir Roger Bannister

Alan Bennett

Alfred Blunt

Alfred Brendel

Sydney Brenner

Sir Richard Buxton

Dame Frances Cairncross

Dick Celeste

Geoffrey Cheshire

Sir Ronald Cohen

Sir Ivor Crewe

Thomas Cromwell

Salvador de Madariaga

John Drury

Sir John Eccles

Lewis Richard Farnell

Sir James Gowans

Stephen Green, Baron Green of Hurstpierpoint

Kenneth Hayne

Sir Cyril Hinshelwood

Sir Sydney Kentridge

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

John Kufuor

Sir John Laws

Anthony Low

Sir Colin Maiden

Stephen Merrett

Joseph Nye

Philip Pullman

John Quelch

H. J. Rose

J.K. Rowling

Morton O. Schapiro

Queen Sofía of Spain

Sir Richard Southern

Sir Kenneth Stowe

Stansfield Turner

Graham Ward

Sir David Warren

Sir Kenneth Wheare

David Williamson, Baron Williamson of Horton

Second Colonial Occupation

The second colonial occupation is a term coined by the historians Anthony Low and John Lonsdale to describe a period of European colonialism beginning at the end of World War II. The term was first coined to refer to the British Empire in an article in the edited volume History of East Africa (1976), but has subsequently been used by other historians.

According to their thesis, the "Second Colonial Occupation" was a distinct period between 1945 and 1960 characterised by the strengthening of colonial rule. According to Low and Lonsdale:

From the late 1940s there was a great intensification of government activity throughout British Africa; in contrast to earlier years, and to the recent war period when territories were drained of staff, this access of official energy amounted to a second colonial occupation. It had a variety of causes.

Previously, colonial administrators had tried to minimise the financial cost of empire by delegating authority to indigenous rulers through indirect rule. During World War II, Britain had accumulated a large debt to the United States through the lend-lease programme. In the postwar period, Britain needed goods for export and decided to use its colonies to produce tropical agricultural products for export. In order to achieve this, however, large numbers of experts (agronomists for example) were recruited to change indigenous agricultural processes. This led to unprecedented state interference in the day-to-day lives of the colonised population, driving the emergence of African anti-colonial nationalism. Often, the Colonial Development and Welfare Act 1940 is cited as a turning point in this process. It has been argued that there was a continuity between the ethos of the second colonial occupation and the post-colonial focus on development.

Smuts Professor of Commonwealth History

The Smuts Professorship of Commonwealth History was established on 25 October 1952 as the Smuts Professorship of the History of the British Commonwealth; it was retitled in 1994. The professorship is assigned to the Faculty of History at the University of Cambridge.

Sumner Sewall

Sumner Sewall (June 17, 1897 – January 25, 1965) was a U.S. Republican politician and airline executive who served as the 58th Governor of Maine from 1941 to 1945. He began his aviation career during World War I as a fighter ace.

Uganda Martyrs

The Uganda Martyrs are a group of 23 Anglican and 22 Catholic converts to Christianity in the historical kingdom of Buganda, now part of Uganda, who were executed between 31 January 1885 and 27 January 1887.They were killed on orders of Mwanga II, the Kabaka (King) of Buganda. The deaths took place at a time when there was a three-way religious struggle for political influence at the Buganda royal court. The episode also occurred against the backdrop of the "Scramble for Africa" – the invasion, occupation, division, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers. A few years after, the English Church Missionary Society used the deaths to enlist wider public support for the British acquisition of Uganda for the Empire. The Catholic Church beatified the 22 Catholic martyrs of its faith in 1920 and canonized them in 1964.

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