Anthony Henday

Anthony Henday (fl. 1750–1762) was one of the first Europeans to explore the interior of the Canadian northwest.

Anthony Henday
Born
Isle of Wight, England
OccupationExplorer
Years active1750–62

Early life

Henday was from the Isle of Wight, England. He may have been baptised in Shorwell on 24 December 1725.[1]

Hudson's Bay Company

A convicted smuggler,[2] Henday joined the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) in 1750 as a net-maker and labourer.

From the 1600s to the late 1800s the HBC had the exclusive fur trade for the land within what was considered Hudson Bay's watershed. This region was known as Rupert's Land. For the furs that HBC was after they wanted to trade commodities such as tobacco, kettles, axes, mirrors, beads, and alcohol.

Because of the HBC's concern with La Vérendrye and the other western commanders who were funnelling fur trade from the northwest to their forts, Eventually, James Isham, chief at York Fort, suggested someone go to western Rupert's Land to encourage trade with the region's First Nations tribes.[3] The HBC authorized and funded Henday to lead explorations into the interior of Rupert's Land, using York Factory as his base. On June 26, 1754, he set out with a group of Cree Indians on foot to travel from York Factory to present-day Red Deer, Alberta. It is documented they passed the French Fort Paskoya where he may have met La Corne, the western commander.

Hudson Bay Exploration Western Interior map de
Anthony Henday's route in green.

On September 10, 1754 Henday and his party camped approximately eighteen miles north-east of where Chauvin is located today, quite possibly at Sherlock Lake. The following day, Wednesday, September 11, 1754 he crossed over from Saskatchewan into present-day Alberta. However, he did not arrive at Waskesew River until Friday, October 11, 1754. Waskesew is a miss-translation of the Cree word for elk. The Cree in the Red Deer area call the central Alberta city Waskesew Ceepee. Instead of Red Deer the city might well be called Elk River.[4] In October 1754 he and his group came to what is now Alberta with a mission to meet the Blackfoot and perhaps trade with them.

Henday may not have been aware that the Blackfoot and the Cree were arch enemies. There is some indication in Henday's journal entries that the Cree were becoming wary of the other tribes Henday and his Cree companions were encountering. While the group was travelling in what Henday refers to the "Muscuty plains" they come across a man named "Attickasish with 2 Archithinue Natives (Blackfeet)". He says these Indians had never been in contact with any Europeans and his Cree travelling companions were afraid of them. Then on Monday, October 14, 1754 Archithinue Natives on horse back approached them and ask them if they were friend or foe. That evening Henday and his guide met and smoked with the Leader of the Archithinue Natives. Henday offered to have some of the Archithinues go back with them back to York Factory. The Archithinue Leader did not readily answer Henday and the Leader went on to say that they (Archithinue) could not paddle and the it (York Factory) was too far. The Leader of the Archithinue, probably, knew that his men would be travelling uninvited in Cree territory and would risk being killed off by the Cree and other enemy tribes.[5] After receiving an indefinite answer from the Blackfoot (which Henday took as a "no"), Henday returned to York Factory with news he had explored the area and met with the Blackfoot. Since the answer had been unsure, there were no more expeditions to what would eventually be Alberta.

As Henday travelled inland to the Blackfoot country and back to York Factory, he talked about the Indians having some problems with alcohol. He mentions on one day that his whole company was unable to travel because everyone was drinking. On Friday, 30 May 1755 Henday remarks in his journal that he is unable to continue their travels back to York Factory because "the Indians drank too much" but they were using their best furs to trade with the French for the alcohol.[6][7]

This trip, and later ones, took Henday across much of the prairies of what are now Saskatchewan and Alberta. Although his journal cannot always be put in a modern context, it is evident he brought much trade to York Factory. Records show some of the trade also went to the French at Fort Saint-Louis (Fort de la Corne) and Fort Paskoya which were on the route to Hudson Bay. He left the service of the HBC in 1762 largely because his efforts for the company, at least in his estimation, had not been properly recognized.

Legacy

Anthony Henday Drive, a large ring road in Edmonton, is named in his honour, as is Henday Hall, one of the residence towers in the main student residence complex at the University of Alberta in that city.

References

  1. ^ Stephen, Scott P. (July 1997). A Puzzle Revisited: Historiography and Documentary Problems in the Journals of Anthony Henday (MA). University of Winnipeg/University of Manitoba.
  2. ^ "Calgary & Southern Alberta". Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  3. ^ Wilson, Clifford (1974). "Henday, Anthony". In Halpenny, Francess G (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. III (1741–1770) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  4. ^ Burpee, Lawrence, ed. (1908). York Factory to the Blackfoot Country. The Journal of Anthony Henday 1754-55. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. pp. 332, 336., Claude Saddleback is a fluent Cree -speaking First Nations member.
  5. ^ Burpee (1908), pp. 331, 337 & 338
  6. ^ Davis, Richard C., ed. (1988). Rupert's Land: A Cultural Tapestry. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. Introduction, 60. ISBN 978-0-88920-839-1.
  7. ^ Henday, Anthony; Burpee, Lawrence J. (1973). A Fur Trader's Journey 1754-55: York Factory to the Blackfoot Country. Toronto: Canadiana House. p. 46.
50 Street, Edmonton

50 Street is the designated name of two major arterial roads in east Edmonton, Alberta. Separated by the North Saskatchewan River, it is mostly straight, and runs the entire south-north length of Edmonton as well as the suburb of Beaumont. The Yellowhead Trail and 50 Street junction is the start of Highway 15, it then goes north to Manning Drive, which it follows from there. Highway 814 used follow 50 Street between Edmonton and Beaumont, until the Beaumont government took control of the road. The northside section of 50 Street is presently segmented by the developing community of Cy Becker with grading in place for a future interchange at Anthony Henday Drive; however, there is no timeline for construction.Prior to Whitemud Drive being extended to Anthony Henday Drive (Highway 216), 50 Street between Whitemud Drive and Sherwood Park Freeway was designated as part of Highway 14.

Alberta Highway 627

Alberta Provincial Highway No. 627, commonly referred to as Highway 627, is a highway in the province of Alberta, Canada. It runs west to east through rural parts of Parkland County, beginning at Highway 759 about 12 km (7.5 mi) south of Seba Beach and heads due east until terminating at Winterburn Road west of Edmonton. The road continues a short way into Edmonton city limits as Maskêkosihk Trail () to Anthony Henday Drive at a folded diamond interchange. Portions of 23 Avenue NW and 184 Street NW between Winterburn Road and Anthony Henday Drive were renamed Maskêkosihk Trail in February 2016 to honour Cree heritage.

Anthony Henday Drive

Anthony Henday Drive (Highway 216) is a 77-kilometre (48 mi) freeway that encircles Edmonton, Alberta. It is a heavily travelled commuter and truck bypass route with the southwest quadrant serving as a portion of the CANAMEX Corridor that links Canada to the United States and Mexico. Henday is one of the busiest highways in Western Canada, carrying over 106,000 vehicles per day near West Edmonton Mall in 2018. Rush hour congestion is common on the four-lane section in southwest Edmonton where traffic levels have doubled Alberta Transportation estimates due to rapid suburban development; in June 2018 Alberta committed to widening this section to six lanes by 2022.

Calgary Trail in south Edmonton is designated as the starting point of the ring, with exit numbers increasing clockwise as the freeway proceeds across the North Saskatchewan River to the Cameron Heights neighbourhood, then north past Whitemud Drive, Stony Plain Road and Yellowhead Trail to St. Albert. It continues east past 97 Street to Manning Drive, then south across the North Saskatchewan River a second time. Entering Strathcona County, it again crosses Yellowhead Trail and Whitemud Drive, passing the community of Sherwood Park. Continuing south to Highway 14, the road re-enters southeast Edmonton and turns west to complete the ring.

The freeway was named after 18th century explorer Anthony Henday, one of the first European men to explore central Alberta. Its designation of 216 is derived from its bypass linkages to Edmonton's two major crossroads, Highways 2 and 16. Constructed over 26 years at a cost of $4.3 billion, Henday became the first freeway to surround a major Canadian city when the final segment opened on October 1, 2016. Planning of the ring began in the 1950s, followed by design work and initial land acquisition in the 1970s, and construction of the first expressway segment beginning in 1990. Plans for Henday were developed in tandem with Stoney Trail, a similar ring road freeway around Calgary.

Cameron Heights, Edmonton

Cameron Heights is a new neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada overlooking the North Saskatchewan River valley.

It is bounded on the south by Anthony Henday Drive, on the north and west by a ravine, and on the east by the North Saskatchewan River valley. It is named for former school board member and Edmonton Town Council alderman John Cameron. The neighbourhood of Wedgewood Heights is located on the north side of the ravine.

The only roadway into the neighbourhood is Cameron Heights Drive from the south. The Anthony Henday provides access to destinations to the south of the city including the Edmonton International Airport.

Fort Road, Edmonton

Fort Road was a major route in connecting Edmonton and Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada. It was formed on the west side of the CN Rail tracks that formerly connected the two cities, and crossed the North Saskatchewan River just south of the current Highway 15 bridge. As the city of Edmonton expanded its grid street system, and realigned the highway to Manning Drive, portions of Fort Road ceased to exist. At the intersection of Fort Road and 66th street stands the Transit Hotel, which opened in 1908.Fort Road is divided into three major sections: the southern section between 112 Avenue and Wayne Gretzky Drive is a collector road through established residential neighbourhoods; the central section between Yellowhead Trail and 137 Avenue is a 4-6 lane arterial road, where it is the northern continuation of Wayne Gretzky Drive and the southern continuation of Manning Drive; and the northern section north of 153 Avenue is a rural road segmented by Anthony Henday Drive. A former alignment of Fort Road exists in Sturgeon County known as Old Fort Trail and aligns to the former crossing of the North Saskatchewan River into Fort Saskatchewan.

Glastonbury, Edmonton

Glastonbury is a newer residential neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

According to the 2001 federal census, all residences in Glastonbury were constructed after 1995.The most common type of residence, according to the 2005 municipal census, is the single-family dwelling. These account for approximately seven out of every ten (72%) of all residences. Another two in ten (18%) are duplexes. The remaining 9% of residences are split almost equally between row houses and apartment style condominiums in high-rise buildings with more than five stories. Almost all (98%) of residences are owner-occupied, with only two percent being rented.The neighbourhood is bounded on the north by Whitemud Drive, on the east by Anthony Henday Drive, and on the south by 62 Avenue. Whitemud Drive provides access to destinations on the south side, including: Whyte Avenue, the University of Alberta. and Southgate Centre. The Anthony Henday provides access to destinations to the south of the city including the Edmonton International Airport.

The community is represented by the Glastonbury Community League, which runs a community hall located at 199 Street and 62 Avenue.

Jamieson Place, Edmonton

Jamieson Place is a residential neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The neighbourhood is named for Colonel F.C. Jamieson (1875-1966), Edmonton lawyer, colonel in the Canadian Expeditionary Force during WWI and Alberta Conservative MLA 1931-1935.

The neighbourhood is bounded on the west by Anthony Henday Drive, on the north by Callingwood Road, on the east by 184 Street, and on the south be Lessard Road. The Anthony Henday provides access to destinations to the south of the city including the Edmonton International Airport.

La Perle, Edmonton

La Perle is a residential neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The neighbourhood is named for a resident (EJ LaPerle) who operated a general store in the area in the early. 20th century.According to 2001 federal census, most residential development in the neighbourhood occurred during the 1970s and 1980s. One in four residences (26.0%) were built between 1971 and 1980. Another six in ten (62.9%) residences were built between 1981 and 1990. Residential development of the neighbourhood was substantially complete by 1995.

The most common type of residence in the neighbourhood, according to the 2005 municipal census, is the single-family dwelling. These account for approximately half (49%) of all the residences in the neighbourhood. Another one in five (22%) are rented apartments and apartment style condominiums in low-rise buildings with fewer than five stories. One in six (16%) of all residences are row houses, while one in eight (13%) are duplexes. Approximately seven out of ten (69.9%) of residences are owner-occupied while three in ten (30.1%) are rented.There is one school in the neighbourhood, La Perle Elementary School, operated by the Edmonton Public School System.

West Edmonton Mall is located to the south east of La Perle in the neighbourhood of Summerlea.

The neighbourhood is bounded on the west by Anthony Henday Drive, on the north by 100 Avenue, on the east by 178 Street, and on the south by 95 Avenue. The Anthony Henday provides access to destinations to the south of the city including the Edmonton International Airport. Access to the downtown core and MacEwan University is provided by 100 Avenue which passes through the neighbourhood.

The community is represented by the La Perle Community League, established in 1983, which maintains a community hall and outdoor rink located at 186 Street and 97A Avenue.

List of neighbourhoods in Edmonton

The City of Edmonton, the provincial capital of Alberta, Canada, is divided into 7 geographic sectors and 375 neighbourhoods, not including those proposed and planned neighbourhoods that have yet to be developed. This article generally describes each sector, their neighbourhoods, and the applicable intermediary areas between the sector and neighbourhood geographic levels.

List of streets in Edmonton

The following is a list of the north–south arterial thoroughfares in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Numbered streets run north-south with street numbers increasing to the west. In 1982 a quadrant system was adopted. Meridian Street (1 Street), portions which run adjacent to the east leg of Anthony Henday Drive, divide the east and west quadrants. Edmonton currently has three quadrants: northwest (NW), southwest (SW), and northeast (NE); the vast majority of the city falls within the northwest quadrant. Addresses on 33 Street and east have been encouraged to include NW to avoid confusion with addresses in the NE quadrant. The majority of major north-south streets are aligned with road allowances.

Ray Gibbon Drive

Ray Gibbon Drive, referred to as the West Regional Road during proposal and planning stages, is a major arterial road in St. Albert, Alberta. Except for the Edmonton portion, it is only partially constructed as a two-lane road. Currently it is 8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi) long and runs between Anthony Henday Drive and Villeneuve Road. It is named after former mayor Ray Gibbon, who served from 1968 to 1974 and again in 1989.

Ray Gibbon Drive preceded in Edmonton as 184 Street, an arterial road which begins at 100 Avenue and travels north to Anthony Henday Drive.

Plans to upgrade Ray Gibbon Drive have been approved by St. Albert City Council and the Province of Alberta to widen the road to a 4-lane expressway standard. Original plans for a freeway conversion were scrapped as it would cost too much.

Sherwood Park Freeway

Sherwood Park Freeway is a 7.1-kilometre (4.4 mi) freeway that connects east Edmonton to Sherwood Park in Alberta, Canada. It begins in the Gainer Industrial area where Argyll Road and 82 (Whyte) Avenue merge before intersecting 50 Street. It then curves slightly northeast through industrial areas in southeast Edmonton across 34 Street into Strathcona County, then across 17 Street after which the freeway ends at Anthony Henday Drive. It then continues into Sherwood Park as Wye Road (Highway 630). It is primarily a commuter route, with heavier weekday volume westbound in the morning and eastbound in the afternoon as residents of Sherwood Park commute to Edmonton.

Officially designated by Alberta Transportation as Highway 100, construction of Sherwood Park Freeway was completed in 1968 as a free-flowing alignment of Highway 14 several hundred metres north of the former two-lane road which was then re-signed as Highway 14A, and is now known as 76 Avenue. Whitemud Drive took over the designation of Highway 14 upon its completion in the late 1990s.

Stewart Greens, Edmonton

Stewart Greens is a new neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

It is bounded on the east by Anthony Henday Drive and on the north by Stony Plain Road.Stony Plain Road provides access to locations west of the city. The Anthony Henday provides access to destinations to the south of the city including the Edmonton International Airport. Access to the downtown core and MacEwan University is provided by 100 Avenue which passes through the neighbourhood.

Suder Greens, Edmonton

Suder Greens is a newer residential neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Development of the neighbourhood is comparatively recent. According to the 2005 municipal census, there were 269 occupied residences in the neighbourhood. Three out of four (75%) of these were single-family dwellings. The remaining one in four (25%) residences were apartment style condominiums in low-rise buildings with fewer than five stories. Substantially all (97%) were owner occupied, with only 3% being rented.The neighbourhood is bounded on the west by Winterburn Road and on the east by Anthony Henday Drive. It shares an irregular southern boundary with the neighbourhoods of Breckenridge Greens and Potter Greens. The Anthony Henday provides access to destinations to the south of the city including the Edmonton International Airport.

West Edmonton Mall is located a short distance to the east of the neighbourhood along 87 Avenue.

The Hamptons, Edmonton

The Hamptons is a residential neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

It is bounded on the west by Winterburn Road, on the east by the Anthony Henday Drive and on the south by 45 Avenue. The north boundary is 62 Avenue. The Anthony Henday provides access to destinations to the south of the city including the Edmonton International Airport.

The Hamptons is a fairly new neighbourhood. According to the 2005 municipal census, there were 206 residences in the neighbourhood, of which 73% were single-family dwellings and 27% were duplexes. Nearly all the residences were owner occupied.The community is represented by The Hamptons Community League.

Webber Greens, Edmonton

Webber Greens is a new neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

It is bounded on the east by Anthony Henday Drive and on the west by Winterburn Road.The Anthony Henday provides access to destinations to the south of the city including the Edmonton International Airport.

As of January 20, 2008, the City of Edmonton map utility contained virtually no data on this area. As this area develops, more data should become available.

Wedgewood Heights, Edmonton

Wedgewood Heights is an irregularly shaped neighbourhood in west Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. According to the City of Edmonton map utility, "most of the roads in Wedgewood Heights are named in honour of well-known Edmontonians."

While there was a limited amount of residential development during the 1960s and 1970s according to the 2001 federal census, most of the residential development in Wedgewood Heights occurred after 1985. One in five (18.5%) of the residences were built between 1986 and 1990. Almost three out of four (72.8%) of the residences were built during the 1990s.According to the 2005 municipal census, all of the residences in the neighbourhood were single family residences. Substantially all of them were owner occupied with less than 0.5% being rented.The neighbourhood is bounded to the west and south west by Anthony Henday Drive, to the south east by Wedgewood Ravine and the North Saskatchewan River valley, to the north west by Lessard Road, and to the north east by 184 Street and another ravine. The Anthony Henday provides access to destinations to the south of the city including the Edmonton International Airport.

Whitemud Drive

Whitemud Drive is a major east–west freeway in southern Edmonton, Alberta, that stretches from 231 Street at the western city limit to Anthony Henday Drive just east of Edmonton in Strathcona County. The portion in southeast Edmonton from Anthony Henday Drive to Calgary Trail / Gateway Boulevard is designated as Highway 14, and from there until Anthony Henday Drive in west Edmonton is designated as Highway 2. The portion of Whitemud Drive from 170 Street and 75 Street forms part of the Edmonton inner ring road.

Yellowhead Trail

Yellowhead Trail is a 24.6-kilometre (15.3 mi) expressway segment of the Yellowhead Highway (Highway 16) in northern Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It carries a significant amount of truck traffic to and from the industrial areas of north Edmonton and serves as a key commuter route for the bedroom communities of Stony Plain, Spruce Grove, and Sherwood Park, carrying nearly 80,000 vehicles per weekday in 2015. A suburban bypass of the route was completed when the northeast leg of Anthony Henday Drive (Highway 216) opened in late 2016, providing an alternate route through north Edmonton.

The Yellowhead Trail designation begins at 231 Street, marking the western Edmonton city limit. The rural divided highway meets Anthony Henday Drive at a large interchange, crossing over the Canadian National Railway and veering slightly northeast through industrial areas of northwest Edmonton as the route becomes suburban and traffic levels increase. The expressway passes underneath St. Albert Trail and past Canadian National's Walker Yard to 97 Street. Bending south near the neighbourhood of Eastwood and back to the east, it intersects Wayne Gretzky Drive and Victoria Trail before descending across the North Saskatchewan River near Beverly to a second large interchange with Anthony Henday Drive, at which the Yellowhead Trail designation ends and Highway 16 enters Strathcona County.

As a portion of the Yellowhead Highway, the expressway takes its name from the Yellowhead Pass, through which Highway 16 passes from Alberta into British Columbia. Construction was planned in the 1970s and was fully completed by 1984, receiving incremental improvements in subsequent decades; the route now includes a mix of signalized at-grade intersections and interchanges. Due to heavy congestion, Edmonton outlined a $1 billion plan in late 2016 to upgrade Yellowhead Trail to a freeway, eliminating at-grade intersections and constructing new interchanges. Work will tentatively begin in 2019 and be completed 2026.

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