Anthomyzidae

The Anthomyzidae are small, slender, yellow to black flies with narrow and elongated wings, which may have distinct markings. Some species have greatly reduced wings. Fewer than 100 species are known, mostly from Europe. Although they occur in all major regions, they seem to be most varied in the Holarctic region.

Around 20 diverse genera have been placed in the family. Two, Teratomyza and Teratoptera, are now in the Teratomyzidae, and Cyamops and Stenomicra are in the Stenomicridae. Melanthomyza Malloch from Chile should probably not be retained in the family. The remaining genera are very similar to one another.

Anthomyzidae wing veins-1
Anthomyzidae wing veins
Anthomyzidae
Stiphrosoma.sabulosum.short.winged
Short-winged form of Stiphrosoma sabulosum from Germany
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Superfamily:
Family:
Anthomyzidae
Genera
  • Amnonthomyza Roháček, 1993
  • Amygdalops Lamb, 1914
  • Anagnota Becker, 1902
  • Anthomyza Fallén, 1810
  • Apterosepsis Richards, 1962
  • Barbarista Roháček, 1993
  • Cercagnota Roháček & Freidberg, 1993
  • Epischnomyia Roháček, 2006
  • Fungomyza Roháček, 1999
  • Ischnomyia Loew, 1863
  • Margdalops Roháček & Barraclough, 2003
  • Mumetopia Melander, 1913
  • Paranthomyza Czerny, 1902
  • Receptrixa Roháček, 2006
  • Santhomyza Roháček, 1984
  • Stiphrosoma Czerny, 1928
  • Typhamyza Roháček, 1992
  • Zealantha Roháček, 2007

Description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera

These are sinute to small (1.3-4.5 mm), slender flies. They are yellow (sometimes with dark spots or stripes) to black in colour. The postverticals on the head are small, convergent or parallel, and rarely absent. Two or three pairs of frontal bristles, which curve backward, are present and usually preceded by one or more weaker bristles. Interfrontal bristles are absent or present. Peristomal bristles ("false vibrissae") are present. In the more common Anthomyza and Paranthomyza, the lower side of femur 1 has a well-developed spine in apical third. Wings are usually long and narrow and immaculate (sometimes marked). Some species are brachypterous. The costa has a subcostal break and the subcosta is incomplete.

Biology

Anthomyza sp. ovipositing on an old (empty) head of grass

Larvae have been reported from decaying dicotyledonous plants, from fungi, and in Europe from leaf sheaths of various grasses and of Typha, Scirpus, and Juncus, from Lipara galls on Phragmites. They may be either phytophagous or saprophagous, but damage to cereals or other plants has not been reported.

Adults are usually found in moist habitats such as damp meadows, marshes, bogs, and damp deciduous or mixed forests with rich undergrowth. Some species inhabit dry grasslands (some species of Anthomyza and the brachypterous Stiphrosoma sabulosum).

Phylogeny

  Opomyzoidea  
  Clusioinea  

 Clusiidae[1]

  Agromyzoinea  

 Odiniidae

 Fergusoninidae

 Agromyzidae

  Opomyzoinea  

 Opomyzidae+Anthomyzidae

 Asteioinea

References

  1. ^ Nello schema di McAlpine, i Clusiidae sono in relazione con il genere Acartophthalmus, che secondo l'analisi cladistica di Buck (2006) va collocato nel clade dei Carnoidea. Vedi Acartophthalmidae.

Further reading

  • Przemysław Trojan, 1962 Odiniidae, Clusiidae, Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae in (series) Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski, 28,54/58; Muchowki = Diptera, 54/58 Publisher Warszawa : Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (in Polish)
  • Jindřich Roháček, 1996. Revision of Palaearctic Stiphrosoma, including the Anthomyza-laeta group (Diptera, Anthomyzidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 93:89-120, ISSN 1210-5759 European Journal of Entomology
  • Jindřich Roháček, 1998. Taxonomic limits, phylogeny and higher classification of Anthomyzidae (Diptera), with special regard to fossil record. Eur. J. Entomol. 95:141-177, ISSN 1210-5759 European Journal of Entomology
  • Jindřich Roháček, 2006. A monograph of Palaearctic Anthomyzidae (Diptera), Part 1.published as supplement 1 of the Časopis Slezského zemského muzea, Vol. 55 (2006) 326 pages, 661 black-and-white illustrations. ISSN 1211-3026, ISBN 80-86224-57-0
  • Jindřich Roháček, 2007. Zealantha thorpei gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Anthomyzidae), first family representative from New Zealand. Zootaxa 1576: 1–13 Zootaxa

Species lists

External links

Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Anagnota

Anagnota is a genus of flies of the family Anthomyzidae. Currently there are four described species that occur in the Palaearctic region:

A. bicolor (Meigen, 1838) Western, North and Central Europe, Russia (Western Siberia)

A. coccinea Roháček & Freidberg, 1993 Cyprus, Israel, Turkey

A. major Roháček & Freidberg, 1993 Central Europe, Southeast Europe, North Africa

A. oriens Roháček, 2006 Russia (Siberia)

Anthomyza

Anthomyza is a genus of flies in the family Anthomyzidae. It is found in the Palearctic.

Anthomyza gracilis

Anthomyza gracilis is a species of fly in the family Anthomyzidae. It is found in the Palearctic.

Asteiidae

Asteiidae is a small but widespread family of acalyptrate flies or Diptera. About 130 species in 10 genera have been described worldwide. They are rarely collected.

Aulacigastridae

Aulacigastridae is a very small family of flies known as sap flies. The family Stenomicridae used to be included within this family, but was moved by Papp in 1984. They are found in all the Ecoregions.

Chironomoidea

The Chironomoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, infraorder Culicomorpha. This superfamily contains the families Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. One of the more important characteristics used to define them is the form of the larval mouthparts.

Ischnomyia

Ischnomyia is a genus of flies in the family Anthomyzidae. There are at least two described species in Ischnomyia.

Ischnomyia albicosta

Ischnomyia albicosta is a species of fly in the family Anthomyzidae.

Ischnomyia spinosa

Ischnomyia spinosa is a species of fly in the family Anthomyzidae.

Leander Czerny

Leander (Franz) Czerny (4 October 1859, in Modřice, Moravia – 22 November 1944, in Pettenbach (de), Upper Austria) was an Austrian entomologist mainly interested in Diptera.

Czerny, who wrote extensively on Diptera between 1900 and 1939, describing many genera and species, was a major contributor to Erwin Lindner's Die Fliegen der paläarktischen Region ("The Flies of the Palaearctic Region"), the most significant work on the group in the 20th century.

Czerny wrote the sections on the following families:-

Heleomyzidae, Trichoscelidae, Chyromyidae (1927)

Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae, Clusiidae (1928)

Micropezidae (Tylidae), Neridrinae, Platypezidae (as Clythiidae), Dryomyzidae, Neottiophilidae (1930)

Lauxaniidae (Sapromyzidae) (1932)

Musidoridae (Lonchopteridae), Lonchaeidae (1934)

Chamaemyiidae (Ochthiphilidae) (1936)He was also abbot of the Benedictine Kremsmünster Abbey from 1905 to 1929 and collected there as well as in Pettenbach on the Upper Danube. As well as Diptera he collected Lepidoptera. His collections of both are now in the Natural History Museum in Vienna.

Mumetopia

Mumetopia is a genus of flies in the family Anthomyzidae. There are at least three described species in Mumetopia.

Mumetopia occipitalis

Mumetopia occipitalis is a species of fly in the family Anthomyzidae.

Odiniidae

Odiniidae is a small family of flies. There are only 58 described species but there are representatives in all the major biogeographic realms.

Life histories are known for only few species of Odinia, and no biological information is available for the majority of species in the family. Known odiniid larvae live in the tunnels of wood-boring larvae of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and other Diptera and function as scavengers or predators of the host larvae. One species, Turanodinia coccidarum Stackelberg, has been reared from the egg masses of Pseudococcus comstocki Kuwana, a mealybug.

Opomyzidae

Opomyzidae is a family of acalyptrate Diptera. They are generally small, slender, yellow, brown or black coloured flies. The larval food plants are grasses, including cereal crops, the adults are mainly found in open habitats. Some species being agricultural pests.

Opomyzoidea

The Opomyzoidea are a superfamily of flies.

Periscelididae

Periscelididae is a family of flies.

Stiphrosoma sabulosum

Stiphrosoma sabulosum is a species of fly in the family Anthomyzidae. It is found in the Palearctic .

Tephritoidea

The Tephritoidea are a superfamily of flies. The following families are included:

Pallopteridae — flutter flies

Piophilidae — skippers

Platystomatidae — signal flies

Pyrgotidae

Richardiidae

Tephritidae — fruit flies

Ulidiidae (Otitidae) — picture-winged fliesThe Tachiniscinae, formerly ranked as the family Tachiniscidae, are now included in the Tephritidae.

Extant Diptera families

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