Anterior triangle of the neck

The anterior triangle is a region of the neck.

Anterior triangle of the neck
Copy of Musculi coli base, my edits for tringles, labeled trianglesanteriorT
Anterior triangle
Gray1210
Side of neck, showing chief surface markings. (Nerves are yellow, arteries are red.)
Details
Identifiers
LatinTrigonum cervicale anterius
Trigonum colli anterius
Regio cervicalis anterior
TAA01.2.02.002
FMA57777
Anatomical terminology

Structure

The triangle is inverted with its apex inferior to its base which is under the chin.[1]

Inferior boundary (apex) Jugular notch in the manubrium of the sternum
Anterior boundary Midline of the neck from chin to the jugular notch
Posterior boundary The anterior margin of Sternocleidomastoid
Superior boundary (base) The lower border of the body of the mandible, and a line extending from the angle of the mandible to the mastoid process

Investing fascia covers the roof of the triangle while visceral fascia covers the floor.

Anatomy

Muscles:

Nerve supply

2 Bellies of Digastric

Stylohyoid: by the facial nerve, by a branch from that to the posterior belly of digastric.

Mylohyoid: by its own nerve, a branch of the inferior alveolar ( from the mandibular division of trigemminal nerve), which arises just before the parent nerve enters the mandibular foramen, pierces the sphenomandibular ligament, and runs forward on the inferior surface of the mylohyoid, supplying it and the anterior belly of the digastric.

Geniohyoid: by a branch from the hypoglossal nerve consisting of fibres from the C1 nerve.

Sternohyoid, Omohyoid, Sternothyroid are supplied by Ansa cervicalis.

Thyrohyoid: by a branch of hypoglossal nerve but the fibres are all 'hitch-hiking' from C1.

Development

Divisions

This space is subdivided into four smaller triangles by the Digastricus above, and the superior belly of the Omohyoideus.

These smaller triangles are named:

Additional images

Gray386

Muscles of the neck. Anterior view.

Gray512

The triangles of the neck. (Anterior triangles to the left; posterior triangles to the right. Suprahyoid labeled at left.)

See also

References

  1. ^ Standring, Susan. Gray's anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice (41 ed.). Elsevier Limited. pp. 442–474. ISBN 978-0-7020-5230-9.

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 563 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

External links

  • lesson5 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (necktriangle)
  • lesson6 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University)
Brachiocephalic artery

The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck.

It is the first branch of the aortic arch, and soon after it emerges, the brachiocephalic artery divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery.

There is no brachiocephalic artery for the left side of the body. The left common carotid, and the left subclavian artery, come directly off the aortic arch. However, there are two brachiocephalic veins.

Carotid triangle

The carotid triangle (or superior carotid triangle) is a portion of the anterior triangle of the neck.

Digastric muscle

The digastric muscle (also digastricus) (named digastric as it has two 'bellies') is a small muscle located under the jaw. The term "digastric muscle" refers to this specific muscle. However, other muscles that have two separate muscle bellies include the ligament of Treitz, omohyoid, occipitofrontalis.

It lies below the body of the mandible, and extends, in a curved form, from the mastoid notch to the symphysis menti. It belongs to the suprahyoid muscles group.

A broad aponeurotic layer is given off from the tendon of the digastricus on either side, to be attached to the body and greater cornu of the hyoid bone; this is termed the suprahyoid aponeurosis.

Kouros

A kouros (Ancient Greek: κοῦρος, plural kouroi) is the modern term given to free-standing ancient Greek sculptures that first appear in the Archaic period in Greece and represent nude male youths. In Ancient Greek kouros means "youth, boy, especially of noble rank". Although Kouroi have been found in many ancient Greek territories, they were especially prominent in Attica and Boiotia. The term kouros was first proposed for what were previously thought to be depictions of Apollo by V. I. Leonardos in 1895 in relation to the youth from Keratea, and adopted by Henri Lechat as a generic term for the standing male figure in 1904. Such statues are found across the Greek-speaking world; the preponderance of these were found in sanctuaries of Apollo with more than one hundred from the sanctuary of Apollo Ptoion, Boeotia, alone. These free-standing sculptures were typically marble, but the form is also rendered in limestone, wood, bronze, ivory and terracotta. They are typically life-sized, though early colossal examples are up to 3 meters tall.

The female sculptural counterpart of the kouros is the kore.

Muscular triangle

The inferior carotid triangle (or muscular triangle), is bounded, in front, by the median line of the neck from the hyoid bone to the sternum; behind, by the anterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid; above, by the superior belly of the omohyoid.

It is covered by the integument, superficial fascia, platysma, and deep fascia, ramifying in which are some of the branches of the supraclavicular nerves.

Beneath these superficial structures are the sternohyoid and sternothyroid, which, together with the anterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid, conceal the lower part of the common carotid artery.

This vessel is enclosed within its sheath, together with the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve; the vein lies lateral to the artery on the right side of the neck, but overlaps it below on the left side; the nerve lies between the artery and vein, on a plane posterior to both.

In front of the sheath are a few descending filaments from the ansa cervicalis; behind the sheath are the inferior thyroid artery, the recurrent nerve, and the sympathetic trunk; and on its medial side, the esophagus, the trachea, the thyroid gland, and the lower part of the larynx.

By cutting into the upper part of this space, and slightly displacing the sternocleidomastoid, the common carotid artery may be tied below the omohyoid.

Mylohyoid line

The mylohyoid line is a line on the inside of the mandible. It extends superior and posterior (upward and backward) on either side from the lower part of the symphysis of the mandible. The mylohyoid line is at the body while the mylohyoid groove is at the ramus.

The mylohyoid muscle originates from the anterior (front) part of the mylohyoid line, while the posterior (back) part of this line, near the alveolar margin, gives attachment to a small part of the constrictor pharyngis superior, and to the pterygomandibular raphe.

Neck

The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso. It contains blood vessels and nerves that supply structures in the head to the body. These in humans include part of the esophagus, the larynx, trachea, and thyroid gland, major blood vessels including the carotid arteries and jugular veins, and the top part of the spinal cord.

In anatomy, the neck is also called by its Latin names, cervix or collum, although when used alone, in context, the word cervix more often refers to the uterine cervix, the neck of the uterus. Thus the adjective cervical may refer either to the neck (as in cervical vertebrae or cervical lymph nodes) or to the uterine cervix (as in cervical cap or cervical cancer).

Paraganglioma

A paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that may develop at various body sites (including the head, neck, thorax and abdomen). Unlike other types of cancer, there is no test that determines benign from malignant tumors; long-term followup is therefore recommended for all individuals with paraganglioma. Approximately 50% of patients with recurrent disease experience distant metastasis. The five-year survival in the setting of metastatic disease is 40% to 45%.

Posterior triangle of the neck

The posterior triangle (or lateral cervical region) is a region of the neck.

Submandibular gland

The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. They each weigh about 15 grams and contribute some 60–67% of unstimulated saliva secretion; on stimulation their contribution decreases in proportion as the parotid secretion rises to 50%.

Submandibular space

The submandibular space is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial spaces or tissue spaces). It is a potential space, and is paired on either side, located on the superficial surface of the mylohyoid muscle between the anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle. The space corresponds to the anatomic region termed the submandibular triangle, part of the anterior triangle of the neck.

Submandibular triangle

The submandibular triangle (or submaxillary or digastric triangle) corresponds to the region of the neck immediately beneath the body of the mandible.

Submental

Submental (below the chin) can refer to:

Submental artery, a branch of the facial artery

Submental triangle, a division of the anterior triangle of the neck

Submental lymph nodes

Submental space

The submental space is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial spaces or tissue spaces). It is a potential space located between the mylohyoid muscle superiorly, the platysma muscle inferiorly, under the chin in the midline. The space coincides with the anatomic region termed the submental triangle, part of the anterior triangle of the neck.

Submental triangle

The submental triangle (or suprahyoid triangle) is a division of the anterior triangle of the neck.

Triangles of the neck

Anatomists use the term triangles of the neck to describe the divisions created by the major muscles in the region.

The side of the neck presents a somewhat quadrilateral outline, limited, above, by the lower border of the body of the mandible, and an imaginary line extending from the angle of the mandible to the mastoid process; below, by the upper border of the clavicle; in front, by the middle line of the neck; behind, by the anterior margin of the trapezius.

This space is subdivided into two large triangles by sternocleidomastoid, which passes obliquely across the neck, from the sternum and clavicle below, to the mastoid process and occipital bone above.

The triangular space in front of this muscle is called the anterior triangle of the neck; and that behind it, the posterior triangle of the neck.

The anterior triangle is further divided into muscular, carotid, submandibular and submental and the posterior into occipital and subclavian triangles.

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