Ante Bakotić

Ante Bakotić (14 June 1921 – 22 April 1945) was a Croatian Partisan known for marking the beginning of the 1945 breakthrough from the Jasenovac concentration camp by shouting "Forward, comrades!'.

Ante Bakotić
Ante Bakotić
Born14 June 1921
Died22 April 1945 (aged 23)
NationalityYugoslav
OccupationMilitary technician

Early life and education

Ante Bakotić was born in Sinj on 14 June 1921 as the fourth child in the family of six. He attended primary school in his native Sinj, where he also enrolled in the high school that he for unknown reasons stopped and began to study the carpenter trade. Due to poor working conditions and mistreatment by his masters, Bakotić left the apprenticeship and enrolled in Military-technical school in Kruševac from which he eventually graduated. After graduation, he went to Sarajevo and started working in the defense industry. He joined the League of Communists of Yugoslavia in 1939.[1]

Participation in World War II

During 1941-45, World War II Bakotić fought as a member of the Yugoslav Partisans. In the spring of 1942 Bakotić and a group of partisans were caught by enemies in the Neretva valley, and were deported to Jasenovac concentration camp.

Until the end of September 1944, there was a secret Communist Party organization of the Jasenovac concentration Camp no. 3 Brickyard, led by the People's Hero of Yugoslavia Milo Bošković; this secret conclave had been working on preparations for the camp detainees breakthrough. The work of the organization was compromised on 21 September 1944, which led to the brutal murder of almost all of its members. Bakotić eventually restarted the plan, this time as Secretary. The organisation operated in secret on the plan for the breakthrough. Its work culminated in the spring of 1945.[2]

Breakthrough

The male camp detainees attempted their breakthrough and breakout on 22 April 1945, just before the end of the war. The building in the women's camp had housed 760 women until the evening before when the women were marched to their deaths. The number of male detainees, on the night of the 21-22 April, was 1,073. That night they decided to breakthrough on the morning on 22 April around 10 am. Bakotić played a prominent role in the breakthrough by shouting "Forward, comrades!", which marked the beginning of the breakthrough. Bakotić did not survive. He was killed near the eastern gate of the camp. He was 23 years old. Of the 1,073, only around 80 survived the escape, including Ilija Ivanović (later awarded the Order of Stjepan Radić, see below), wrote of his experiences in Witness to Jasenovacs Hell.[3]

Bakotić's death was described by two surviving detainees in their memoirs:

Čedomir Huber: "When we got out of the gate, Ante was fatally flattened. I stopped to help him but he told me to go ahead and that someone had to stay alive. With last bit of energy, I saw, he dragged himself to the shore of Sava and lost in its waves."

Mile Ristić: "I remember that I saw Ante Bakotić walking on the road with his lungs heaving like a blacksmith's bellows. I invited him to come down to me and to go through the dead angle. He just waved his hand and didn't go down. Then, he was hit by a bullet, and he crashed into the river."

Remembrance

  • On 31 October 2009, Croatian President Stjepan Mesić revealed a commemorative plaque on the facade of the Bakotić's birth house in Sinj, in the same place from whence the prior plaque was removed in the mid-1990s, and stored in the Museum of Cetina region. During the night of 23-24 February 2013, unknown vandals tried to remove the memorial plaque, eventually damaging it. The plaque was returned the next day, 25 February 2013.[4]
  • On the 68th anniversary of the breakthrough of the last group of prisoners of Jasenovac camp, on the proposal of the Public Institution of the Jasenovac Memorial, Croatian President Ivo Josipović awarded the Order of Stjepan Radić to three living participants of the breakthrough: Yeshua Abinun, Ilija Ivanoviċ, and Basil Zuko.[5]

References

  1. ^ "Danas se navršava 70. godišnjica proboja logoraša iz Jasenovca". Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  2. ^ "FERATA - Obljetnica proboja iz Jasenovca". Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  3. ^ Ivanović, Ilija, Witness to Jasenovacs Hell, Dallas Publishing (2002); ISBN 0912011602.
  4. ^ "Sinj: srušili spomen ploču vođi proboja iz logora Jasenovac". Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  5. ^ "JUSP Jasenovac - 12. SVIBNJA 2013". Retrieved 2 January 2016.

Bibliography

  • Đurđević-Đukić, Olga (1975). Narodni heroji Jugoslavije, A-M, N-Ž. Beograd: Mladost.
Jasenovac concentration camp

The Jasenovac concentration camp (Serbo-Croatian: Logor Jasenovac / Логор Јасеновац, pronounced [lôːgor jasěnoʋat͡s]; Yiddish: יאסענאוואץ‎) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II. The camp was established and operated solely by the governing Ustaše regime rather than by Nazi Germany as in the rest of occupied Europe. It was one of the largest concentration camps in Europe and it has been referred to as "the Auschwitz of the Balkans" and "the Yugoslav Auschwitz".It was established in August 1941 in marshland at the confluence of the Sava and Una rivers near the village of Jasenovac, and was dismantled in April 1945. It was "notorious for its barbaric practices and the large number of victims".In Jasenovac the majority of victims were ethnic Serbs; others were Jews, Roma, and some political dissidents. Jasenovac was a complex of five subcamps spread over 210 km2 (81 sq mi) on both banks of the Sava and Una rivers. The largest camp was the "Brickworks" camp at Jasenovac, about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of Zagreb. The overall complex included the Stara Gradiška sub-camp, the killing grounds across the Sava river at Donja Gradina, five work farms, and the Uštica Roma camp.During and since World War II, there has been much debate and controversy regarding the number of victims killed at the Jasenovac concentration camp complex during its more than three-and-a-half years of operation. After the war, a figure of 700,000 reflected the "conventional wisdom", although estimates have gone as high as 1.4 million. The authorities of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia conducted a population survey in 1964 that resulted in a list of 59,188 victims of Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška, the findings were not published until 1989. Croatian academic Vladimir Žerjavić published books in 1989 and 1992 in which he "meticulously analysed the available data" and concluded that some 83,000 people had been killed at Jasenovac. His findings were criticized by the director of the Museum of Victims of Genocide in Belgrade, Milan Bulajić, who defended his figure of 1.1 million, although his rebuttal was later dismissed as having "no scholarly value". Since Bulajić's retirement from his post in 2002, the Museum has no longer defended the figure of 700,000 to 1 million victims of the camp. In 2005, Dragan Cvetković, a researcher from the Museum, and a Croatian co-author published a book on wartime losses in the NDH which gave a figure of approximately 100,000 victims of Jasenovac.The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) in Washington, D.C. presently estimates that the Ustaša regime murdered between 77,000 and 99,000 people in Jasenovac between 1941 and 1945, comprising; "between 45,000 and 52,000 Serbs; between 12,000 and 20,000 Jews; between 15,000 and 20,000 Roma (Gypsies); and between 5,000 and 12,000 ethnic Croats and Muslims, political and religious opponents of the regime." The Jasenovac Memorial Site quotes a similar figure of between 80,000 and 100,000 victims.

List of HNK Hajduk Split players

HNK Hajduk Split, commonly referred to as Hajduk Split or simply Hajduk, is a Croatian football club founded in 1911, and based in the city of Split. Between the early 1920s and 1940, club regularly participated in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia national championship. Following World War II and the formation of the Yugoslav league system in 1946, Hajduk went on to spend the entire SFR Yugoslavia period in top level. Their run continued following the breakup of Yugoslavia, as the club joined the Croatian First League in its inaugural season in 1992, never having been relegated from its top tier. Since playing their first competitive match, more than 200 players made at least 100 appearances (including substitute appearances) or 100 goals for the first-team squad, all of whom are listed in a table below.

Frane Matošić holds the record for greatest number of appearances (both official and unofficial) for Hajduk, as well as greatest number of goals scored, with 729 goals in 739 matches. Vedran Rožić is official appearances record holder standing at 390, with Frane Matošić holding record for most official goals, at 309. Josip Skoko holds both records among Hajduk's foreign players with 287 appearances and 55 goals.

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