Antarctic Treaty System

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude. The treaty entered into force in 1961 and currently has 53 parties.[2] The treaty sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation, and bans military activity on the continent. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. Since September 2004, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters has been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.[3]

The main treaty was opened for signature on December 1, 1959, and officially entered into force on June 23, 1961.[4] The original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957–58. The twelve countries that had significant interests in Antarctica at the time were: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[1] These countries had established over 55 Antarctic stations for the IGY. The treaty was a diplomatic expression of the operational and scientific co-operation that had been achieved "on the ice".

The Antarctic Treaty
French: Traité sur l'Antarctique
Russian: Договор об Антарктике
Spanish: Tratado Antártico
Antarctic Treaty System
{{{image_alt}}}
TypeCondominium
SignedDecember 1, 1959[1]
LocationWashington, D.C., United States
EffectiveJune 23, 1961
ConditionRatification of all 12 signatories
Signatories12[2]
Parties53[2]
DepositaryFederal government of the United States[2]
LanguagesEnglish, French, Russian, and Spanish
Antarctic Treaty at Wikisource
Antarctica 6400px from Blue Marble
A satellite composite image of Antarctica.

Articles of the Antarctic Treaty

  • Article I

1. Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only. There shall be prohibited, inter alia, any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, as well as the testing of any type of weapons.

2. The present treaty shall not prevent the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes.

  • Article II

Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and cooperation toward that end, as applied during the International Geophysical Year, shall continue, subject to the provisions of the present treaty.

  • Article III

1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable:

(a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations;

(b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations;

(c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available.

2. In implementing this Article, every encouragement shall be given to the establishment of cooperative working relations with those Specialized Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations having a scientific or technical interest in Antarctica.

  • Article IV

1. Nothing contained in the present treaty shall be interpreted as:

(a) a renunciation by any Contracting Party of previously asserted rights of or claims to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica;

(b) a renunciation or diminution by any Contracting Party of any basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica which it may have whether as a result of its activities or those of its nationals in Antarctica, or otherwise;

(c) prejudicing the position of any Contracting Party as regards its recognition or non-recognition of any other States right of or claim or basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.

2. No acts or activities taking place while the present treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica shall be asserted while the present treaty is in force.

  • Article V

1. Any nuclear explosions in Antarctica and the disposal there of radioactive waste material shall be prohibited.

2. In the event of the conclusion of international agreements concerning the use of nuclear energy, including nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste material, to which all of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX are parties, the rules established under such agreements shall apply in Antarctica.

  • Article VI

The provisions of the present treaty shall apply to the area south of 60 degree South Latitude, including all ice shelves, but nothing in the present treaty shall prejudice or in any way affect the rights, or the exercise of the rights, of any State under international law with regard to the high seas within that area.

  • Article VII

1. In order to promote the objectives and ensure the observance of the provisions of the present treaty, each Contracting Party whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings referred to in Article IX of the treaty shall have the right to designate observers to carry out any inspection provided for by the present Article. Observers shall be nationals of the Contracting Parties which designate them. The names of observers shall be communicated to every other Contracting Party having the right to designate observers, and like notice shall be given of the termination of their appointment.

2. Each observer designated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall have complete freedom of access at any time to any or all areas of Antarctica.

3. All areas of Antarctica, including all stations, installations and equipment within those areas, and all ships and aircraft at points of discharging or embarking cargoes or personnel in Antarctica, shall be open at all times to inspection by any observers designated in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article.

4. Aerial observation may be carried out at any time over any or all areas of Antarctica by any of the Contracting Parties having the right to designate observers.

5. Each Contracting Party shall, at the time when the present treaty enters into force for it, inform the other Contracting Parties, and thereafter shall give them notice in advance, of

(a) all expeditions to and within Antarctica, on the part of its ships or nationals, and all expeditions to Antarctica organized in or proceeding from its territory;

(b) all stations in Antarctica occupied by its nationals; and

(c) any military personnel or equipment intended to be introduced by it into Antarctica subject to the conditions prescribed in paragraph 2 of Article I of the present treaty.

  • Article VIII

1. In order to facilitate the exercise of their functions under the present treaty, and without prejudice to the respective positions of the Contracting Parties relating to jurisdiction over all other persons in Antarctica, observers designated under paragraph 1 of Article VII and scientific personnel exchanged under subparagraph 1(b) of Article III of the treaty, and members of the staffs accompanying any such persons, shall be subject only to the jurisdiction of the Contracting Party of which they are nationals in respect of all acts or omissions occurring while they are in Antarctica for the purpose of exercising their functions.

2. Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, and pending the adoption of measures in pursuance of subparagraph 1(e) of Article IX, the Contracting Parties concerned in any case of dispute with regard to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica shall immediately consult together with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable solution.

  • Article IX

1. Representatives of the Contracting Parties named in the preamble to the present treaty shall meet at the City of Canberra within two months after the date of entry into force of the treaty, and thereafter at suitable intervals and places, for the purpose of exchanging information, consulting together on matters of common interest pertaining to Antarctica, and formulating and considering, and recommending to their Governments, measures in furtherance of the principles and objectives of the treaty, including measures regarding:

(a) use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only;

(b) facilitation of scientific research in Antarctica;

(c) facilitation of international scientific cooperation in Antarctica;

(d) facilitation of the exercise of the rights of inspection provided for in Article VII of the treaty;

(e) questions relating to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica;

(f) preservation and conservation of living resources in Antarctica.

2. Each Contracting Party which has become a party to the present treaty by accession under Article XIII shall be entitled to appoint representatives to participate in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article, during such time as that Contracting Party demonstrates its interest in Antarctica by conducting substantial scientific research activity there, such as the establishment of a scientific station or the despatch of a scientific expedition.

3. Reports from the observers referred to in Article VII of the present treaty shall be transmitted to the representatives of the Contracting Parties participating in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article.

4. The measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall become effective when approved by all the Contracting Parties whose representatives were entitled to participate in the meetings held to consider those measures.

5. Any or all of the rights established in the present treaty may be exercised from the date of entry into force of the treaty whether or not any measures facilitating the exercise of such rights have been proposed, considered or approved as provided in this Article.

  • Article X

Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes to exert appropriate efforts, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, to the end that no one engages in any activity in Antarctica contrary to the principles or purposes of the present treaty.

  • Article XI

1. If any dispute arises between two or more of the Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present treaty, those Contracting Parties shall consult among themselves with a view to having the dispute resolved by negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or other peaceful means of their own choice.

2. Any dispute of this character not so resolved shall, with the consent, in each case, of all parties to the dispute, be referred to the International Court of Justice for settlement; but failure to reach agreement on reference to the International Court shall not absolve parties to the dispute from the responsibility of continuing to seek to resolve it by any of the various peaceful means referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

  • Articles XII, XIII, XIV – Deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations.[5]

The main objective of the ATS is to ensure in the interests of all humankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord. Pursuant to Article 1, the treaty forbids any measures of a military nature, but not the presence of military personnel or equipment for the purposes of scientific research.

Other agreements

Antarctica, pollution, environment, Russia, Bellingshausen 1
Disposal of waste by simply dumping it at the shoreline such as here at the Russian Bellingshausen Station base on King George Island in 1992 is no longer permitted by the Protocol on Environmental Protection

Other agreements — some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments — include:

Bilateral treaties

  • Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the Governments of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Government of the French Republic, regarding Aerial Navigation in the Antarctic (Paris, 25 October 1938)[7]
  • Treaty Between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic on Cooperation in the Maritime Areas Adjacent to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories (TAAF), Heard Island and the McDonald Islands (Canberra, 24 November 2003)[8]
  • Agreement on Cooperative Enforcement of Fisheries Laws between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic in the Maritime Areas Adjacent to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories, Heard Island and the McDonald Islands (Paris, 8 January 2007)[9]

Meetings

The Antarctic Treaty System's yearly Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCM) are the international forum for the administration and management of the region. Only 29 of the 53 parties to the agreements have the right to participate in decision-making at these meetings, though the other 24 are still allowed to attend. The decision-making participants are the Consultative Parties and, in addition to the 12 original signatories, include 17 countries that have demonstrated their interest in Antarctica by carrying out substantial scientific activity there.[10]

Parties

Antarctica.CIA
Map of research stations and territorial claims in Antarctica (2002)

As of 2015, there are 53 states party to the treaty,[2] 29 of which, including all 12 original signatories to the treaty, have consultative (voting) status.[11] Consultative members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory. The 46 non-claimant nations either do not recognize the claims of others, or have not stated their positions.

Antarctic Treaty parties
  Parties with consulting status making a claim to Antarctic territory
  Parties with consulting status reserving the right to make a territorial claim
  Other parties with consulting status
  Parties without consulting status
  Non-party UN member states and observers

Note: The table can be sorted alphabetically or chronologically using the Sort both.gif icon.

Country[2][11][12][13] Signature Ratification/
Accession
Consultative
status[11][13]
Notes
 Argentina (claim)* Dec 1, 1959 Jun 23, 1961 Jun 23, 1961
 Australia (claim) Dec 1, 1959 Jun 23, 1961 Jun 23, 1961
 Austria No Aug 25, 1987
 Belarus No Dec 27, 2006
 Belgium Dec 1, 1959 Jul 26, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 Brazil No May 16, 1975 Sep 27, 1983
 Bulgaria No Sep 11, 1978 Jun 5, 1998
 Canada No May 4, 1988
 Chile (claim)* Dec 1, 1959 Jun 23, 1961 Jun 23, 1961
 China No Jun 8, 1983 Oct 7, 1985
 Colombia No Jan 31, 1989
 Cuba No Aug 16, 1984
 Czech Republic No Jan 1, 1993 Apr 1, 2014 Succession from  Czechoslovakia, which acceded on June 14, 1962.[14]
 Denmark No May 20, 1965
 Ecuador No Sep 15, 1987 Nov 19, 1990
 Estonia No May 17, 2001
 Finland No May 15, 1984 Oct 20, 1989
 France (claim) Dec 1, 1959 Sep 16, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 Germany (claim) (rests since 1945) No Feb 5, 1979 Mar 3, 1981 Ratified as  West Germany.

 East Germany also acceded on November 19, 1974, and received consultative status on October 5, 1987, prior to its reunification with West Germany.[13][15]

 Greece No Jan 8, 1987
 Guatemala No Jul 31, 1991
 Hungary No Jan 27, 1984
 Iceland No Oct 13, 2015[16]
 India No Aug 19, 1983 Sep 12, 1983
 Italy No Mar 18, 1981 Oct 5, 1987
 Japan Dec 1, 1959 Aug 4, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 Kazakhstan No Jan 27, 2015
 Malaysia No Oct 31, 2011
 Monaco No May 31, 2008
 Mongolia No Mar 23, 2015
 Netherlands No Mar 30, 1967 Nov 19, 1990
 New Zealand (claim) Dec 1, 1959 Nov 1, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 North Korea No Jan 21, 1987
 Norway (claim) Dec 1, 1959 Aug 24, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 Pakistan No Mar 1, 2012
 Papua New Guinea No Mar 16, 1981 Succession from  Australia. Effective from their independence on September 16, 1975.[17]
 Peru No Apr 10, 1981 Oct 9, 1989
 Poland No Jun 8, 1961 Jul 29, 1977
 Portugal No Jan 29, 2010
 Romania No Sep 15, 1971
 Russia** Dec 1, 1959 Nov 2, 1960 Jun 23, 1961 Ratified as the  Soviet Union.[18]
 Slovakia No January 1, 1993 Succession from  Czechoslovakia, which acceded on June 14, 1962.[19]
 South Africa[20] Dec 1, 1959 Jun 21, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 South Korea No Nov 28, 1986 Oct 9, 1989
 Spain No Mar 31, 1982 Sep 21, 1988
 Sweden No Apr 24, 1984 Sep 21, 1988
  Switzerland No Nov 15, 1990
 Turkey No Jan 24, 1996
 Ukraine No Oct 28, 1992 Jun 4, 2004
 United Kingdom (claim)* Dec 1, 1959 May 31, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 United States** Dec 1, 1959 Aug 18, 1960 Jun 23, 1961
 Uruguay No Jan 11, 1980 Oct 7, 1985
 Venezuela No May 24, 1999

* Claims overlap.
** Reserved the right to claim areas.

Antarctic Treaty Secretariat

The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in Buenos Aires, Argentina in September 2004 by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM). Jan Huber (Netherlands) served as the first Executive Secretary for five years until August 31, 2009. He was succeeded on September 1, 2009, by Manfred Reinke (Germany).

The tasks of the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat can be divided into the following areas:

  • Supporting the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) and the meeting of the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP).
  • Facilitating the exchange of information between the Parties required in the Treaty and the Environment Protocol.
  • Collecting, storing, arranging and publishing the documents of the ATCM.
  • Providing and disseminating public information about the Antarctic Treaty system and Antarctic activities.

Legal system

Antarctica currently has no permanent population and therefore it has no citizenship nor government. All personnel present on Antarctica at any time are citizens or nationals of some sovereignty outside Antarctica, as there is no Antarctic sovereignty. The majority of Antarctica is claimed by one or more countries, but most countries do not explicitly recognize those claims. The area on the mainland between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west is the only major land on Earth not claimed by any country.[21] Until 2015 the interior of the Norwegian Sector, the extent of which had never been officially defined,[22] was considered to be unclaimed. That year, Norway formally laid claim to the area between its Queen Maud Land and the South Pole.[23]

Governments that are party to the Antarctic Treaty and its Protocol on Environmental Protection implement the articles of these agreements, and decisions taken under them, through national laws. These laws generally apply only to their own citizens, wherever they are in Antarctica, and serve to enforce the consensus decisions of the consultative parties: about which activities are acceptable, which areas require permits to enter, what processes of environmental impact assessment must precede activities, and so on. The Antarctic Treaty is often considered to represent an example of the common heritage of mankind principle.[24]

Australia

Australian Antarctic Territory postal cover1959
This 1959 cover commemorated the opening of the Wilkes post office in the Australian Antarctic Territory.

Since the designation of the Australian Antarctic Territory pre-dated the signing of the Antarctic Treaty, Australian laws that relate to Antarctica date from more than two decades before the Antarctic Treaty era. In terms of criminal law, the laws that apply to the Jervis Bay Territory (which follows the laws of the Australian Capital Territory) apply to the Australian Antarctic Territory. Key Australian legislation applying Antarctic Treaty System decisions include the Antarctic Treaty Act 1960, the Antarctic Treaty (Environment Protection) Act 1980 and the Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation Act 1981.[25]

United States

The law of the United States, including certain criminal offences by or against U.S. nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction of other countries. To this end, the United States now stations special deputy U.S. Marshals in Antarctica to provide a law enforcement presence.[26]

Some U.S. laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, Public Law 95-541, 16 U.S.C. § 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation or statute:

  • the taking of native Antarctic mammals or birds
  • the introduction into Antarctica of non-indigenous plants and animals
  • entry into specially protected or scientific areas
  • the discharge or disposal of pollutants into Antarctica or Antarctic waters
  • the importation into the U.S. of certain items from Antarctica

Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to US$10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The Departments of the Treasury, Commerce, Transportation, and the Interior share enforcement responsibilities. The Act requires expeditions from the U.S. to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs of the State Department, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. Further information is provided by the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation.

New Zealand

In 2006, the New Zealand police reported that jurisdictional issues prevented them issuing warrants for potential American witnesses who were reluctant to testify during the Christchurch Coroner's investigation into the death by poisoning of Australian astrophysicist Rodney Marks at the South Pole base in May 2000.[27][28] Dr. Marks died while wintering over at the United States' Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station located at the geographic South Pole. Prior to autopsy, the death was attributed to natural causes by the National Science Foundation and the contractor administering the base. However, an autopsy in New Zealand revealed that Dr. Marks died from methanol poisoning. The New Zealand Police launched an investigation. In 2006, frustrated by lack of progress, the Christchurch Coroner said that it was unlikely that Dr. Marks ingested the methanol knowingly, although there is no certainty that he died as the direct result of the act of another person. During media interviews, the police detective in charge of the investigation criticized the National Science Foundation and contractor Raytheon for failing to co-operate with the investigation.[29][30][31]

South Africa

South African law applies to all South African citizens in Antarctica, and they are subject to the jurisdiction of the magistrate's court in Cape Town.[32] In regard to violations of the Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, South Africa also asserts jurisdiction over South African residents and members of expeditions organised in South Africa.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Antarctic Treaty" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 439.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "The Antarctic Treaty" (PDF). United States Department of State. 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  3. ^ "ATS - Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty". www.ats.aq.
  4. ^ "Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. United Nations. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  5. ^ "Antarctic Treaty". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2019-02-13.
  6. ^ "Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources - CCAMLR". www.ccamlr.org.
  7. ^ "Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the Governments of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom of the Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Government of the French Republic, regarding Aerial Navigation in the Antarctic (Paris, 25 October 1938). ATS 13 of 1938." Australasian Legal Information Institute, Australian Treaty Series. Retrieved on 15 April 2017
  8. ^ "Treaty between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic on cooperation in the maritime areas adjacent to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories (TAAF), Heard Island and the McDonald Islands (Canberra, 24 November 2003) – ATS 6 of 2005”. Australasian Legal Information Institute, Australian Treaties Library. Retrieved on 18 April 2017.
  9. ^ "Agreement on Cooperative Enforcement of Fisheries Laws between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic in the Maritime Areas Adjacent to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories, Heard Island and the McDonald Islands (Paris, 8 January 2007) – ATS 1 of 2011”. Australasian Legal Information Institute, Australian Treaties Library. Retrieved on 18 April 2017.
  10. ^ "Welcome to the Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty Website". www.ats.aq.
  11. ^ a b c "Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty: Parties". Retrieved May 23, 2009.
  12. ^ "Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  13. ^ a b c "The Antarctic Treaty System: Introduction" (PDF). United States Department of State. Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  14. ^ "Czech Republic: Succession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  15. ^ "Germany: Accession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
  16. ^ Johnstone, Rachael Lorna; Jabour, Julia; Tamm, Sune (2018-12-08). "Iceland's Accession to the Antarctic Treaty". The Yearbook of Polar Law Online. 9 (1): 262–281. doi:10.1163/22116427_009010012. ISSN 2211-6427.
  17. ^ "Papua New Guinea: Succession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
  18. ^ "Russia: Ratification to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
  19. ^ "Slovakia: Succession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
  20. ^ "Antarctic Treaty System (ATS)". Department of International Relations and Cooperation. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
  21. ^ Wright, Minturn, "The Ownership of Antarctica, Its Living and Mineral Resources", Journal of Law and the Environment 4 (1987).
  22. ^ "Dronning Maud Land". Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  23. ^ Rapp, Ole Magnus (21 September 2015). "Norge utvider Dronning Maud Land helt frem til Sydpolen". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Oslo, Norway: Aftenposten. Retrieved 22 September 2015. …formålet med anneksjonen var å legge under seg det landet som til nå ligger herreløst og som ingen andre enn nordmenn har kartlagt og gransket. Norske myndigheter har derfor ikke motsatt seg at noen tolker det norske kravet slik at det går helt opp til og inkluderer polpunktet.
  24. ^ Jennifer Frakes, The Common Heritage of Mankind Principle and the Deep Seabed, Outer Space, and Antarctica: Will Developed and Developing Nations Reach a Compromise? Wisconsin International Law Journal. 2003; 21:409
  25. ^ "Australian Antarctic Division – Australian environmental law and guidelines".
  26. ^ (USMS), U.S. Marshals Service. "U.S. Marshals Service". www.usmarshals.gov.
  27. ^ Hotere, Andrea. "South Pole death file still open". Sunday Star Times, December 17, 2006. Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
  28. ^ Deutsche Presse-Agentur. "Death of Australian astrophysicist an Antarctic whodunnit". Monstersandcritics.com, December 14, 2006. Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
  29. ^ Chapman, Paul. "New Zealand Probes What May Be First South Pole Murder". The Daily Telegraph, (December 14, 2006), reprinted in The New York Sun (December 19, 2006). Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
  30. ^ Booker, Jarrod. "South Pole scientist may have been poisoned". The New Zealand Herald, (December 14, 2006). Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
  31. ^ "South Pole Death Mystery – Who killed Rodney Marks?" Sunday Star Times (January 21, 2007)
  32. ^ Section 2 of the South African Citizens in Antarctica Act, No. 55 of 1962, as amended by the Environmental Laws Rationalisation Act, No. 51 of 1997.
  33. ^ Antarctic Treaties Act, No. 60 of 1996.

External links

.tf

.tf is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the French Southern and Antarctic Lands. Along with .fr, .nc, .pm, .re, .wf and .yt it is administered by AFNIC. Before October 23, 2004, Adamsnames, based in Cambridge, administered this TLD.

There is also an additional free service offering third-level .tf domains, under the name United Names Organisation. They occupy 14 second-level domains, including .eu.tf, .us.tf, .net.tf, and .edu.tf. They are run by the same company as smartdots.com, and are given away as URL redirections.

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands are territories either recognised as French or claimed but suspended under the Antarctic Treaty System France, and the domain name derives from the French, Terres australes et antarctiques françaises. Part of the French claim includes a section of the continent of Antarctica, creating an overlap between .tf and the general Antarctica domain .aq.

The .tf domain-name has popular usage for sites related to the game Team Fortress 2. Many of these sites are commonly used for marketing of virtual goods originating from Team Fortress 2 and, by extension, the Steam Community Market.

60th parallel south

The 60th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. No land lies on the parallel — it crosses nothing but ocean. The closest land is a group of rocks north of Coronation Island (Melson Rocks or Governor Islands) of the South Orkney Islands, which are about 54 km south of the parallel, and Thule Island and Cook Island of the South Sandwich Islands, which both are about 57 km north of the parallel (Thule island slightly closer).

The parallel marks the northern limit of the Southern Ocean (though some organisations and countries, notably Australia, have other definitions) and of the Antarctic Treaty System. It also marks the southern boundary of the South Pacific Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone and the Latin American Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 18 hours, 52 minutes during the summer solstice and 5 hours, 52 minutes during the winter solstice. On December 21, the sun is at 53.83 degrees up in the sky and 6.17 degrees on June 21.

The latitudes south of this parallel are often referred to as the Screaming 60s due to the prevailing high-speed, westerly winds which can generate large waves in excess of 15 m (50 ft) and peak wind speeds over 145 km/h (90 mph).

Adélie Land

Adélie Land (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica. It stretches from a coastline area along the Great Southern Ocean inland all the way to the South Pole. France administrates it as one of five districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands since 1955 and apply the Antarctic Treaty System rules since 1961. Article 4 deals with territorial claims, and although it does not renounce or diminish any preexisting claims to sovereignty, it also does not prejudice the position of Contracting Parties in their recognition or non-recognition of territorial sovereignty. France has had a permanent station in Adélie Land since April 9, 1950. The current Dumont d'Urville Station has a winter population around 33, but this goes up to about 78 during the Antarctic summer.

Antarctic

The Antarctic (US English , UK English or and or ) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica, the Kerguelen Plateau and other island territories located on the Antarctic Plate or south of the Antarctic Convergence. The Antarctic region includes the ice shelves, waters, and all the island territories in the Southern Ocean situated south of the Antarctic Convergence, a zone approximately 32 to 48 km (20 to 30 mi) wide varying in latitude seasonally. The region covers some 20 percent of the Southern Hemisphere, of which 5.5 percent (14 million km2) is the surface area of the Antarctic continent itself. All of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude are administered under the Antarctic Treaty System. Biogeographically, the Antarctic ecozone is one of eight ecozones of the Earth's land surface.

Antarctic Protected Area

An Antarctic Protected Area is an area protected under the Antarctic Treaty System. There are three types of Protected Areas under this system:

Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) under the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964 onwards) and Annex V to the Environment Protocol (2002)

Antarctic Specially Managed Area (ASMA) under Annex V of the Environment Protocol (2002)

Historic Site or Monument (HSM)Guidelines for scientists and other visitors have been developed to protect these areas.

Antarctic Treaty Secretariat

The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat (ATS) is an organization created in 2003 by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) for the management of several ATCM tasks such as the support of the annual meeting of signatory countries of the Antarctic Treaty, and the publication of the ATCM annual report.

The Secretariat was created through Measure 1 (2003), adopted by the XXVI Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting held in Madrid (Spain). Apart from establishing the Secretariat, Measure 1 (2003) also sets up the Secretariat's functions and budget.

Other activities carried out by the Secretariat include the support between sessions for the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP), improving the communication between signatories of the treaty, as well as recompilation, storage and distribution of information, such as the ATCM and CEP records.

The organization's first Executive Secretary was Mr. Jan Huber, from the Netherlands. Mr. Huber occupied this position for 5 years until 31 August 2009. He was succeeded on 1 September 2009 by Mr. Manfred Reinke (Germany) who was elected in April 2009 by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting in Baltimore (US).

The Secretariat Headquarters are established in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The Antarctic Treaty operated without any permanent institution until 1 September 2004, when the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat started operations in Buenos Aires. Under direction of the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, the Secretariat works to:

Prepare and support the ATCM and other meetings

Collect, maintain and publish the records of the ATCM

Facilitate the exchange of information between the Parties required under the Treaty and the Protocol

Provide information about the Antarctic Treaty system to the public

Byers Peninsula

Byers Peninsula is a mainly ice-free peninsula forming the west end of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica. It occupies 60 km2 (23 sq mi), borders Ivanov Beach to the northeast and is separated from Rotch Dome on the east by the ridge of Urvich Wall. The peninsula features more than 60 meltwater streams and as many lakes, notably Midge Lake, Limnopolar Lake and Basalt Lake. Byers Peninsula has a regime of special environmental protection under the Antarctic Treaty System and requires a permit to enter.

Charcot Island

Charcot Island or Charcot Land is an island administered under the Antarctic Treaty System, 56 kilometres (30 nmi) long and 46 kilometres (25 nmi) wide, which is ice covered except for prominent mountains overlooking the north coast. Charcot Island lies within the Bellingshausen Sea, 102 kilometres (55 nmi) west of Alexander Island, and about 57 kilometres (31 nmi) north of Latady Island. A notable landmark of the island is its northernmost point, Cape Byrd.

Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals

The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. It was signed at the conclusion of a multilateral conference in London on February 11, 1972. Abbreviated as the "Antarctic Seals" agreement, the convention had the objective to promote and achieve the protection, scientific study, and rational use of Antarctic seals, and to maintain a satisfactory balance within the ecological system of Antarctica. It was opened for ratification on June 1, 1972 and entered into force on March 11, 1978.

The 17 parties to the convention are Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States. New Zealand has signed, but not ratified the convention.

Dakshin Gangotri Glacier

The Dakshin Gangotri Glacier (70°45′S 11°35′E) is a small tongue of the polar continental ice sheet impinging on the Schirmacher Oasis of central Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. It was discovered by the Second Indian Expedition to Antarctica in 1983, and named for India’s first Antarctic research station. Since then its snout, and the area around it, has been regularly monitored and it has become a valuable site for tracking the impact of global warming through changes in the movement of the Antarctic ice sheet. The site is protected under the Antarctic Treaty System as Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) No.163.

Flags of Antarctica

Prior to 2002, Antarctica had no flag as the condominium that governs the continent had not yet formally selected one even though a particular design was in widespread use. The consultative members of the Antarctic Treaty System officially adopted a flag and emblem in 2002, which is now the official symbol of the continent. Several unofficial designs have also been proposed.

Instituto Antártico Argentino

The Instituto Antártico Argentino (IAA; English: Argentine Antarctic Institute) is the Argentine federal agency in charge of orientating, controlling, addressing and performing scientific and technical research and studies in the Antarctic.Known as Argentine Antarctica (Spanish: Antártida Argentina) the country claimed a sector as part of its national territory consisting of the Antarctic Peninsula and a triangular section extending to the South Pole, is delimited by the 25° West and 74° West meridians and the 60° South parallel. Administratively, Argentine Antarctica is a department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands.

This sector overlaps with Chilean and British claims but, under the Antarctic Treaty System, there are no attempts by Argentina or any other country to actually enforce territorial claims in Antarctica.

Linnaeus Terrace

Linnaeus Terrace is a rock terrace on the north side of Oliver Peak in the Asgard Range of Victoria Land, Antarctica. It is protected under the Antarctic Treaty System as Antarctic Specially Protected Area No.138 because it is one of the richest known sites for the cryptoendolithic communities that colonise the Beacon Sandstone.

New Swabia

New Swabia (Norwegian and German: Neuschwabenland) is a cartographic name sometimes given to an area of Antarctica between 20°E and 10°W in Queen Maud Land, which is claimed as a Norwegian dependent territory under the Antarctic Treaty System. New Swabia was explored by Germany in early 1939 and named after that expedition's ship, Schwabenland, itself named after the German region of Swabia.

New Zealand Subantarctic Islands

The New Zealand Subantarctic Islands comprise the five southernmost groups of the New Zealand outlying islands. They are collectively designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Most of the islands lie near the southeast edge of the largely submerged continent centred on New Zealand called Zealandia, which was riven from Australia 60–85 million years ago and from Antarctica between 130 and 85 million years ago.

Until 1995, scientific research staff were stationed permanently at a meteorological station on Campbell Island. Since then, the islands have been uninhabited, though they are periodically visited by researchers and tourists. The islands are:

The Snares: Northeast Island, High Island, Broughton Island, Alert Stack, Tahi, Rua, Toru, Wha, and Rima, plus minor rocks

Bounty Islands: two small groups of islets, the Western Group and the Eastern Group, plus minor rocks

Antipodes Islands: main island, plus Bollons Island, the Windward Islands, Orde Lees Island, Leeward Island, and South Islet, plus minor rocks

Auckland Islands: Auckland Island, Adams Island, Disappointment Island, Enderby Island, Ewing Island and Rose Island, plus minor rocks

Campbell Island group: Campbell Island, the main island, plus several minor rocks and small islets surrounding Campbell Island, including New Zealand's southernmost point, Jacquemart IslandThey share some features with Australia's Macquarie Island to the west.

New Zealand also has territorial claims, held in abeyance under the Antarctic Treaty System, over several islands close to the Antarctic mainland, including:

Ross Island and the rest of the Ross Archipelago

Balleny Islands: Young Island, Buckle Island, and Sturge Island, plus several smaller islets

Roosevelt Island

Scott Island and Haggits PillarOf these, Ross Island is inhabited by the scientific staff of several research stations, notably at McMurdo Sound and Scott Base.

Protection of reserves were strengthened in 2014, becoming the largest natural sanctuary in the nation.

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, or the Madrid Protocol, is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. It provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems.

It was concluded in Madrid and opened for signature on October 4, 1991 and entered into force on January 14, 1998. The treaty will be open for review in 2048.

Queen Maud Land

Queen Maud Land (Norwegian: Dronning Maud Land) is a c. 2.7 million square kilometre (1.04 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway. The territory lies between 20° west and 45° east, between the claimed British Antarctic Territory to the west and the similarly claimed Australian Antarctic Territory to the east. On most maps there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land's borders of 1939 and the South Pole until 12 June 2015 when Norway formally annexed that area. Positioned in East Antarctica, the territory comprises about one-fifth of the total area of Antarctica. The claim is named after the Norwegian queen Maud of Wales (1869–1938).

Norwegian Hjalmar Riiser-Larsen was the first person known to have set foot in the territory, in 1930. On 14 January 1939, the territory was claimed by Norway. From 1939 until 1945, Nazi Germany claimed New Swabia, which consisted of part of Queen Maud Land. On 23 June 1961, Queen Maud Land became part of the Antarctic Treaty System, making it a demilitarised zone. It is one of two Antarctic claims made by Norway, the other being Peter I Island. They are administrated by the Polar Affairs Department of the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and Public Security in Oslo.

Most of the territory is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, and a tall ice wall stretches throughout its coast. In some areas further within the ice sheet, mountain ranges breach through the ice, allowing for birds to breed and the growth of a limited flora. The region is divided into the Princess Martha Coast, Princess Astrid Coast, Princess Ragnhild Coast, Prince Harald Coast and Prince Olav Coast. The waters off the coast are called the King Haakon VII Sea.

There is no permanent population, although there are 12 active research stations housing a maximum average of 40 scientists, the numbers fluctuating depending on the season. Six are occupied year-round, while the remainder are seasonal summer stations. The main aerodromes for intercontinental flights, corresponding with Cape Town, South Africa, are Troll Airfield, near the Norwegian Troll research station, and a runway at the Russian Novolazarevskaya Station.

Rookery Islands

The Rookery Islands are a group of rocks and small islands in western Holme Bay, north of the David and Masson Ranges in Mac.Robertson Land in East Antarctica. The group contains breeding colonies of Adélie penguins, Cape petrels, snow petrels, southern giant petrels (which breed nowhere else in the region), Wilson's storm petrels and Antarctic skuas. The islands are protected under the Antarctic Treaty System as Antarctic Specially Protected Area (ASPA) No.102.

Uruguayan Antarctica

Uruguayan Antarctica (Spanish: Antártida Uruguaya) is the name given by Professor Julio César Musso to refer to the area of the Antarctica where it is believed that the Oriental Republic of Uruguay should exercise its sovereignty.

It was not assigned a specific definition nor meant a territorial claim, but regarded as an area of natural action of the southern maritime projection of Uruguay.

Uruguay is part of the Antarctic Treaty System as a consulting member.

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