Antandrus or Antandros (Ancient Greek: Ἄντανδρος) was an ancient Greek city on the north side of the Gulf of Adramyttium in the Troad region of Anatolia. Its surrounding territory was known in Greek as Ἀντανδρία (Antandria), and included the towns of Aspaneus on the coast and Astyra to the east. It has been located on Devren hill between the modern village of Avcılar and the town of Altınoluk in the Edremit district of Balıkesir Province, Turkey.
Shown within Turkey
|Location||Altınoluk, Balıkesir Province, Turkey|
The geographer Strabo located Antandrus in the Troad on the southern flank of Mount Ida, east of Assos and Gargara, but west of Aspaneus, Astyra, and Adramyttium. The first clue which led to its rediscovery in modern times was found by the German geographer and Classical scholar Heinrich Kiepert in 1842. He found an inscription relating to Antandrus in the wall of a mosque at Avcılar. Returning in 1888, he found a further inscription at Avcılar and, due to the discovery by locals of many Greek, Roman, and Byzantine era coins in the vicinity of a nearby hill called Devren, he was also able to locate the acropolis of Antandrus on this spot. The British archaeologist John Cook surveyed the site in 1959 and 1968, discovering further evidence of a Greek settlement.
Conflicting traditions regarding the foundation of Antandrus circulated in Antiquity. According to the Lesbian poet Alcaeus at the turn of the 7th century BC, Antandrus was founded by the Leleges, a people whom the Greeks believed to be aboriginal to Anatolia. The 5th century BC historian Herodotus likewise posited non-Greek origins for Antandrus, stating that it was a Pelasgian foundation. Thucydides, writing a few decades after Herodotus in the late 5th century BC, is our first source to give Greek origins to Antandrus by saying it was an Aeolian foundation, a claim we also find in the Byzantine lexicographer Stephanus of Byzantium, who posited a leader of the Aeolians called Antandrus as the city's founder. However, a tradition of non-Greek origins persisted, a century later Aristotle explained its epithets Ἠδωνίς (Edonis) and Κιμμερίς (Kimmeris) as referring, respectively, to the city's foundation by a Thracian tribe, the Edonians, and to a period of a century when the nomadic Cimmerians from southern Russia had controlled the city. Demetrius of Scepsis (c. 205 - c. 130 BC) gives a different version again in which Antandrus was originally inhabited by Cilicians from the plain of Thebe facing the Gulf of Adramyttium (not to be confused with Cilicia in south-east Turkey).
Finally, in the reign of Augustus the Greek mythographer Conon provided two alternative explanations for the origins of Antandrus. Both etymologize Ἄντανδρος (Antandros) as ἀντ’ Ἄνδρου (ant' Androu), exploiting the meaning 'in the stead of' of the Greek preposition ἀντί (anti). In the first, Ascanius the son of Aeneas used to rule the city of Antandrus until he was captured by the Pelasgians; the ransom for his release was to give over the city, thus ἀντ’ ἄνδρου meaning '(a city) in the stead of/in exchange for a man (so ἄνδρου from ἄνδρος, the Greek genitive singular of ἀνήρ, 'man', i.e. Ascanius)'. This interpretation combines the reference to the city's Pelasgian origins in Herodotus and its brief role in Virgil's Aeneid as the place from which Aeneas and the Trojans flee to the west. In the second explanation, the founders of Antandrus were exiles from the Cycladic island of Andros, who on being expelled set up a new home called Antandrus, hence ἀντ’ Ἄνδρου meaning 'in place of Andros'.
Until recently, the site of Antandrus had only been subjected to a basic surface survey, and so there was no archaeological evidence available to determine whether early Greek traditions about a pre-Greek settlement at this site had any historical validity. Recent Turkish excavations at the site may change this picture: finds of Greek pottery from the necropolis have been announced on the excavation's website which date to the late 8th and early 7th century BC, pre-dating previous surface finds by almost two centuries. Early indications suggest that the material culture of Antandrus in this period was overwhelmingly Greek, suggesting that it was already a Greek settlement at this period, rather than an Anatolian community which traded extensively with neighbouring Greek communities. However, firm conclusions regarding this and many other aspects of the site's archaeology must await the final publication of the site report.
The Lesbian city of Mytilene controlled extensive parts of the Troad in the Archaic period, and so Alcaeus' reference to Antandrus may suggest interest in or control over the city by Mytilene at the turn of the 7th century. Alternatively, the persistent early tradition of the city's Anatolian origins (e.g. in Alcaeus, Herodotus, Demetrius of Scepsis) may indicate that its Anatolian population remained independent of Mytilene until later in the 6th century BC; the little archaeology which has been done on the site suggests Greek occupation at no earlier a date than this.
The first event of which we hear in Antandrus' history is when in 512 BC Otanes, the Persian satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, captured the city while subduing north-west Asia Minor. Antandrus had access to large amounts of timber from Mount Ida as well as pitch, making it an ideal location for the construction of large fleets, giving the city strategic importance. In 424 BC during the Peloponnesian War when the city had been captured by exiles from Mytilene, the historian Thucydides explains that:
This importance is likewise attested by Xenophon later in the Peloponnesian War in 409 and 205 BC, and is perhaps reflected in Virgil's choice of the city as the place where Aeneas builds his fleet before setting off to Italy. As late as the 14th century we hear of Antandrus being used by an Ottoman admiral to construct a large fleet of several hundred ships. Having joined the Delian League in 427 BC, when Antandrus first appears in the Athenian tribute lists in 425/42BC, it has an assessment of 8 talents, again indicating the city's relative prosperity.
In 411/10 BC Antandrus expelled its Persian garrison with the help of Peloponnesian troops who were stationed at Abydos on the Hellespont. Having briefly won its freedom, it quickly returned to Persian control, and in 409 BC the Pharnabazus constructed a fleet for the Peloponnesians here using the abundant timber of Mount Ida. We do not know how the Persians regained Antandrus, but in 409 BC the Syracusans gained the Antandrians' friendship by helping to rebuild their fortifications, suggesting that a siege had taken place in the previous year. In the summer of 399 BC Xenophon's Ten Thousand passed through on their way home from Persia, and he later wrote in his Hellenica of the city's continuing strategic importance during the Corinthian War (395-387 BC).
After the Classical period, references to Antandrus become scarce in surviving sources. The next reference to events at Antandrus comes several centuries later c. 200 BC, when Antandrus was on the route of Delphic thearodokoi, and in the 2nd century BC an inscription from Antandrus tells us that the city sent judges to Peltai in Phrygia to arbitrate a dispute. From c. 440 - c. 284 BC, Antandrus had minted its own coinage; this began again in the reign of the Emperor Titus (AD 79-81) and continued until the reign of Elagabalus (AD 218-222). In the Byzantine period Antandrus was an episcopal see in the metropolis of Ephesus.
In 2018, archaeologists unearthed Pithos burials. The Antandrus necropolis served from the eighth century B.C. to the first century A.D. Same year a stele was discovered, dating back to the 2nd century BC. It includes a statement related to the commendation of a commander, who was sent to Antandrus by the Kind of Pergamon Eumenes and his brother Attalus.
Altınoluk, formerly Papazlık, is a town and summer resort in the Edremit district of Balıkesir Province in western Turkey. It is located 25 km (16 mi) west of Edremit, at the northern coast of Edremit Bay and on Mount Kazdağı hills.
The ancient city Antandrus, Kazdağı National Park and Şahindere Canyon are visitor attractions around Altınoluk.Anaxibius
Anaxibius (Ancient Greek: Ἀναξίβιος), was the Spartan admiral stationed at Byzantium in 400 BC, to whom the Greek troops of Cyrus the Younger, on their arrival at Trapezus on the Euxine, sent their general, Cheirisophus, to obtain a sufficient number of ships to transport them to Europe.However, when Cheirisophus met them again at Sinope, he brought back nothing from Anaxibius but civil words and a promise of employment and pay as soon as they came out of the Euxine. On their arrival at Chrysopolis, on the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus, Anaxibius, being bribed by Pharnabazus with great promises to withdraw them from his satrapy, again engaged to furnish them with pay, and brought them over to Byzantium. Here he attempted to get rid of them, and to send them forward on their march without fulfilling his agreement. A fight ensued, in which Anaxibius was compelled to flee for refuge to the Acropolis, and which was quelled only by the remonstrances of Xenophon.Soon after this the Greeks left the town under the command of the adventurer Coeratades, and Anaxibius issued a proclamation, subsequently acted on by the harmost Aristarchus, that all of Cyrus's soldiers found in Byzantium should be sold as slaves.However, soon after Anaxibius was superseded in command. So finding himself neglected by Pharnabazus, he attempted to revenge himself by persuading Xenophon to lead the Greek army to invade Pharnabazus's satrapy. But the enterprise was stopped by the threats by Aristarchus.In 389 Anaxibius was sent out from Sparta to supersede Dercyllidas in the command at Abydus, and to check the rising fortunes of Athens in the Hellespont. Here he met at first with some success, until 388 when Iphicrates, who had been sent against him by the Athenians, contrived to intercept him on his return from seeking to take possession of the city of Antandrus, which had promised to revolt and join Anaxibius. Anaxibius, coming suddenly on the Athenian ambush, and foreseeing the certainty of his own defeat, told his men to save themselves and flee. His own duty, he said, required him to die there; and, with a small body of comrades, he remained on the spot, fighting till he fell.Ariassus
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Aspaneus
Aspaneus (Ancient Greek: Ἀσπανεύς) was a town of the ancient Troad, within the territory of Antandrus.Its site is located near Avcılar, Asiatic Turkey.Astyra (Aeolis)
Astyra (Ancient Greek: Ἀστυρα), also known as Astyrum or Astyron (Ἄστυρον), and perhaps also Andeira (Ἀνδειρα), was a small town of ancient Aeolis and of Mysia, in the Plain of Thebe, between Antandrus and Adramyttium. It had a temple of Artemis, of which the Antandrii had the superintendence. Artemis had hence the name of Astyrene or Astirene. There was a lake Sapra near Astyra, which communicated with the sea. Pausanias, from his own observations, describes a spring of black water at Astyra; the water was hot. But he places Astyra in the territory of Atarneus. There was, then, either a place in Atarneus called Astyra, with warm springs, or Pausanias has made some mistake; for there is no doubt about the position of the Astyra of Strabo and Pomponius Mela. Astyra was a deserted place, according to Pliny's authorities; he calls it Astyre. There are said to be coins of Astyra.
Its site is tentatively located near Büyük Çal Tepe, Asiatic Turkey.Caloe
Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.Carene (Mysia)
Carene or Karene (Ancient Greek: Καρήνη), also known as Carine or Karine (Καρίνη), was a town of ancient Mysia. The army of Xerxes I, on the route from Sardis to the Hellespont, marched from the Caicus through the Atarneus to Carene; and from Carene through the plain of Thebe, passing by Adramyttium and Antandrus. Carene is mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium, and also mentioned in a fragment of Ephorus as having sent some settlers to Ephesus, after the Ephesians had sustained a defeat from the people of Priene.Its site is tentatively located near Assar Kaya/Tasağıl, Asiatic Turkey.Cestrus
Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.Cilla (city)
Cilla or Killa (Ancient Greek: Κίλλα) was a town of ancient Aeolis and later of ancient Mysia, mentioned by Homer in the Iliad, with Chryse and Tenedus. Herodotus enumerates Cilia among the eleven old Aeolian cities of Asia. Strabo places Cilia in the Adramyttene: he says, "near to Thebe is now a place named Cilia, where the temple of Apollo Cillaeus is; there flows by it the river Cillos which comes from Ida; both Chrysa and Cilia are near Antandrus; also the hill Cillaeum in Lesbos derived its name from this Cilla; and there is a mountain Cillaeum between Gargara and Antandrus; Daes of Colonae says that the temple of Apollo Cillaeus was first built at Colonae by the Aeolians, who came from Hellas; and they say that a temple of Apollo Cillaeus was also built at Chrysa, but it is uncertain whether this Apollo was the same as Smintheus, or another."The river Cillos (or Killaios) is identified with the modern Zeytinli Dere, but the site of the town itself is unlocated.Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Docimium
Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.Drizipara
Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.Edremit Gulf
The Edremit gulf is an Aegean gulf in Turkey's Balıkesir Province. It is named after Edremit, an ilçe (district) of Balıkesir Province which is situated close to the tip of the gulf at 39°34′N 26°56′E. Biga Peninsula is to the north. The southern coast belongs to the ilçe of Ayvalık, while the western entrance is enclosed with the northern part of the Greek island of Lesbos.
In ancient history there were many settlements lying close to the north coast of the gulf; Hamaxitus, Polymedium, Assos, Lamponeia, Antandrus and Adramyttion, were some of these.Currently there are a number of ilçe centers or bigger towns around the gulf such as Behramkale, Küçükkuyu, Altınoluk, Akçay, Havran, Havran, Burhaniye , Armutova, Ayvalık and Cunda Island (from the north west). There are summer houses and holiday camps along the 70 kilometres (43 mi) long northern coast and the 40 kilometres (25 mi) long southern coast of the gulf.
The gulf is famous for European sprat production.Lyrbe
Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.Otanes (son of Sisamnes)
Otanes (Greek: Ὀτάνης), son of Sisamnes, was an Achaemenid judge and later Satrap of Ionia during the reign of Darius the Great, circa 500 BC.Pionia (Mysia)
Pionia (Ancient Greek: Πιονία) or Pioniai (Πιονίαι) was a town in the interior of ancient Mysia, on the river Satnioeis, to the northwest of Antandrus, and to the northeast of Gargara. Under the Roman dominion it belonged to the jurisdiction of Adramyttium, and in the ecclesiastical notices it appears as a bishopric of the Hellespontine province. No longer the seat of a residential bishop, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.Its site is located near Gömeniç in Asiatic Turkey.Roman Catholic Diocese of Qingdao
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Qingdao/Tsingtao (Latin: Zimtaoven(sis), Chinese: 青島) is a Latin suffragan diocese in the Ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan of Jinan in PR China.
Its cathedral episcopal see is the Cathedral of St. Michael in the city of Qingdao, in Shandong.Stratonicea (Lydia)
Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.Timeline of ancient Greece
This is a timeline of Ancient Greece from its emergence around 800 BC to its subjection to the Roman Empire in 146 BC.
For earlier times, see Greek Dark Ages, Aegean civilizations and Mycenaean Greece. For later times see Roman Greece, Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Greece.
For modern Greece after 1820, see Timeline of modern Greek history.