Father António Vieyra SJ (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu viˈɐjɾɐ]; 6 February 1608, Lisbon, Portugal – 18 July 1697, Bahia, Portuguese Colony of Brazil) was a Jesuit priest, Portuguese diplomat, orator, preacher, philosopher, writer, and member of the Royal Council to the King of Portugal.
António Vieyra, by an unknown artist of the early 18th century.
|Born||6 February 1608|
|Died||18 July 1697 (aged 89)|
|Occupation||diplomat, philosopher, Jesuit priest, orator and writer|
|Known for||Diplomacy as member of the Royal Council to King John IV|
Vieyra was born in Lisbon to Cristóvão Vieira Ravasco, the son of a mulatto woman, and Maria de Azevedo. In 1614 he accompanied his parents to the colony of Brazil, where his father had been posted as a registrar. He received his education at the Jesuit college at Bahia. He entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1625, under Father Fernão Cardim, and two years later pronounced his first vows. At the age of eighteen he was teaching rhetoric, and a little later dogmatic theology, at the college of Olinda, besides writing the "annual letters" of the province.
In 1635 he entered the priesthood. He soon began to distinguish himself as an orator, and the three patriotic sermons he delivered at Bahia (1638–40) are remarkable for their imaginative power and dignity of language. The sermon for the success of the arms of Portugal against Holland was considered by the Abbé Raynal to be "perhaps the most extraordinary discourse ever heard from a Christian pulpit.
When the revolution of 1640 placed John IV on the throne of Portugal, Brazil gave him her allegiance, and Vieyra was chosen to accompany the viceroy's son to Lisbon to congratulate the new king. His talents and aptitude for affairs impressed John IV so favorably that he appointed him tutor to the Infante Dom Pedro, royal preacher, and a member of the Royal Council.
Vieyra did efficient work in the War and Navy Departments, revived commerce, urged the foundation of a national bank and the organization of the Brazilian Trade Company.
Vieyra used the pulpit to propound measures for improving the general and particularly the economic condition of Portugal. His pen was as busy as his voice, and in four notable pamphlets he advocated the creation of companies of commerce, denounced as unchristian a society which discriminated against New Christians (Muslim and Jewish converts), called for the reform of the procedure of the Inquisition and the admission of Jewish and foreign traders, with guarantees for their security from religious persecution. Moreover, he did not spare his own estate, for in his Sexagesima sermon he boldly attacked the current style of preaching, its subtleties, affectation, obscurity and abuse of metaphor, and declared the ideal of a sermon to be one which sent men away " not contented with the preacher, but discontented with themselves."
In 1647 Vieyra began his career as a diplomat, in the course of which he visited England, France, the Netherlands and Italy. In his Papel Forte he urged the cession of Pernambuco to the Dutch as the price of peace, while his mission to Rome in 1650 was undertaken in the hope of arranging a marriage between the heir to the throne of Portugal and the only daughter of King Philip IV of Spain. His success, freedom of speech and reforming zeal had made him enemies on all sides, and only the intervention of the king prevented his expulsion from the Society of Jesus, so that prudence counselled his return to Brazil.
In his youth he had vowed to consecrate his life to the conversion of the African slaves and native Indians of his adopted country, and arriving in Maranhão early in 1653 he recommenced his apostolic labors, which had been interrupted during his stay of fourteen years in the Old World. Starting from Pará, he penetrated to the banks of the Tocantins, making numerous converts to Christianity and European civilization among the most violent tribes; but after two years of unceasing labour, during which every difficulty was placed in his way by the colonial authorities, he saw that the Indians must be withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the governors, to prevent their exploitation, and placed under the control of the members of a single religious society.
Accordingly, in June 1654 he set sail for Lisbon to plead the cause of the Indians, and in April 1655 he obtained from the king a series of decrees which placed the missions under the Society of Jesus, with himself as their superior, and prohibited the enslavement of the natives, except in certain specified cases. Returning with this charter of freedom, he organized the missions over a territory having a coast-line of 400 leagues, and a population of 200,000 souls, and in the next six years (1655–61) the indefatigable missionary set the crown on his work. After a time, however, the colonists, attributing the shortage of slaves and the consequent diminution in their profits to the Jesuits, began actively to oppose Vieyra, and they were joined by members of the secular clergy and the other Orders who were jealous of the monopoly enjoyed by the Company in the government of the Indians.
Vieyra was accused of want of patriotism and usurpation of jurisdiction, and in 1661, after a popular revolt, the authorities sent him with thirty-one other Jesuit missionaries back to Portugal. He found his friend King John IV dead and the court a prey to faction, but, dauntless as ever in the pursuit of his ambition, he resorted to his favorite arm of preaching, and on Epiphany Day, 1662, in the royal chapel, he replied to his persecutors in a famous rhetorical effort, and called for the execution of the royal decrees in favor of the Indians.
Circumstances were against him, however, and the count of Castelmelhor, fearing his influence at court, had him exiled first to Porto and then to Coimbra; but in both these places he continued his work of preaching, and the reform of the Inquisition also occupied his attention. To silence him his enemies then denounced him to that tribunal, and he was cited to appear before the Holy Office at Coimbra to answer points smacking of heresy in his sermons, conversations and writings. He had believed in the prophecies of a 16th-century shoemaker poet, Bandarra, dealing with the coming of a ruler who would inaugurate an epoch of unparalleled prosperity for the church and for Portugal, these new prosperous times were to be called the Quinto Império or "Fifth Empire" (also called "Sebastianism"). In Vieyra's famous opus, Clavis Prophetarum, he had endeavoured to prove the truth of his dreams from passages of Scripture. As he refused to submit, the Inquisitors kept him in prison from October 1665 to December 1667, and finally imposed a sentence which prohibited him from teaching, writing or preaching.
It was a heavy blow for the Society, and though Vieyra recovered his freedom and much of his prestige shortly afterwards on the accession of King Pedro II, it was determined that he should go to Rome to procure the revision of the sentence, which still hung over him though the penalties had been removed. During a six years' residence in the Eternal City, Vieyra won his greatest triumphs. Pope Clement X invited him to preach before the College of Cardinals, and he became confessor to Queen Christina of Sweden and a member of her literary academy.
At the request of the pope he drew up a report of two hundred pages on the Inquisition in Portugal, with the result that after a judicial inquiry Pope Innocent XI suspended it in Portugal for seven years (1674–81). Ultimately, Vieyra returned to Portugal with a papal bull exempting him from the jurisdiction of the grand inquisitor, and in January 1681 he embarked for Brazil. He resided in Bahia and occupied himself in revising his sermons for publication, and in 1687 he became superior of the province. A false accusation of complicity in an assassination, and the intrigues of members of his own Company, clouded his last months, and on 18 July 1697 he died in Salvador, Bahia.
His works form perhaps the greatest monument of Portuguese prose. Two hundred discourses exist to prove his fecundity, while his versatility is shown by the fact that he could treat the same subject differently on half a dozen occasions. His letters, simple and conversational in style, have a deep historical and political interest, and form documents of the first value for the history of the period.
"We are what we do. What we don't do, doesn't exist. Therefore, we only exist on days when we do. On the days when we don't do, we simply endure".
"The purpose for men who have invented the books was to cherish the memory of past things, against the tyranny of time and against forgetting men."
"Holland, is the land of which flows with milk, and Brazil is the land which flows with honey; and when the one is joined to the other, they become wholly and properly the Land of Promise, a land flowing with milk and honey."
His principal works are:
A badly edited edition of the works of Vieyra in 27 volumes appeared in Lisbon, 1854–58. There are unpublished manuscripts of his in the British Museum in London, and in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. A bibliography of Vieyra will be found in Sommervogel, Bibliothèque de la compagnie de Jesus, viii. 653–85.
The Complete Works of Father António Vieyra, annotated and updated, began to be published in 2013, nearly four centuries after his birth. This 30 volumes publication includes his complete letters, sermons, prophetic works, political writings, writings on Jews and Indians, as well as his poetry and theatre; and it is the first complete and carefully edited publication of all of Vieyra's prolific written work. One of the largest editorial projects of its kind, it was the result of an international cooperation between various Luso-Brazilian research institutions and scientific, cultural and literary academies, under the aegis of the Rectory of the University of Lisbon. More than 20 thousand folios of manuscripts and printed pages attributed to Vieyra were analyzed and compared, in dozens of libraries and archives in Portugal, Brazil, Spain, France, Italy, England, Holland, Mexico and in the United States of America. About one quarter of The Complete Works are made of previously undiscovered and unreleased texts. The project, directed by José Eduardo Franco and Pedro Calafate, was developed by CLEPUL in partnership with Santa Casa da Misericórdia, and published by Círculo de Leitores, with the final volume to be released in 2014. Although this is a Portuguese edition, a selection of his works will be made available in 12 languages as part of the project.
António Vieyra was one of the literary greats of the Portuguese-speaking world. The Padre António Vieyra Chair in Portuguese Studies, at the Pontifícia Universidade Católica-Rio de Janeiro was created on 7 October 1994, to train teachers and researchers in the social sciences. Promoting academic exchanges between Brazil and Portugal, the Chair's main aim has been to deepen the cultural dialog that already exists between the two countries within the university context. The Chair is involved in the training of teachers in the areas of Portuguese Literature and Culture, Portuguese Language, and Lusophone Literatures.
In 1997 Portugal issued a commemorative coin to mark the 300th anniversary of the death of Father Vieyra.
Portugal issued a stamp in 2008, celebrating the 400th anniversary of Vieyra's birth (1608). Brasil has issued already two Vieyra stamps, in 1941 and 1997.
The statue of Father António Vieyra, unique in the country, by the sculptor Marco Fidalgo, was inaugurated on the Largo Trindade Coelho near the church of São Roque, on the initiative of the Holy House of Mercy of Lisbon, Portugal.
George Agostinho Baptista da Silva, GCSE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐɡuʃˈtiɲu dɐ ˈsiɫvɐ]; Porto, 13 February 1906 – Lisbon, 3 April 1994) was a Portuguese philosopher, essayist, and writer. His thought combines elements of pantheism and millenarism, an ethic of renunciation (like in Buddhism or Franciscanism), and a belief in freedom as the most important feature of man. Anti-dogmatic, he asserts that truth is only found in the sum of all conflicting hypothesis (in paradox). He may be considered a practical philosopher, living and working for a change in society, according to his beliefs. He is part of a tradition of visionary thought that includes Father António Vieira and the poets Luís de Camões and Fernando Pessoa. Like Joachim de Fiore, he speaks of the coming of one (last?) age in History, the Age of the Holy Spirit, in which mankind and society attain perfection. To Agostinho da Silva, this means the absence of economy, brought about by technological evolution, and the absence of government. It also means that the nature of mankind and the nature of God will become the same. In this sense his philosophy is both an eschatology and an utopy.Antonio Vieira (disambiguation)
António Vieira (1608–1697) was a Portuguese Jesuit philosopher and writer.
Antonio Vieira may also refer to:
Antonio de Vieira or Anton de Vieira (1682?–1745), Russian administrator of Portuguese origin
António Vieira (Portuguese footballer) (born 1912), Portuguese footballer
Antonio Carlos Vieira (born 1956), former Brazilian football player and manager
Antônio Vieira, Brazilian professional football coachAntónio Vieira (Portuguese footballer)
António Vieira (born 6 January 1912 in Moita – deceased) was a Portuguese footballer who played as a defender.Baroque in Brazil
The baroque in Brazil was introduced at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Catholic missionaries, especially Jesuits, who brought the new style as an instrument of Christian indoctrination. The epic poem Prosopopeia (1601), by Bento Teixeira, is one of its initial milestones. The baroque reached its apogee in literature with the poet Gregório de Matos and the holy orator Father António Vieira. The greatest artists of the era were Aleijadinho in sculpture and Master Ataíde in painting. Baroque architecture flourished remarkably in the Northeast; important examples also exist in the center of the country, in Minas Gerais, Goiás, and Rio de Janeiro. In music, unlike the other arts, few documents survive, and only from the late baroque. With the development of neoclassicism starting in the first decades of the eighteenth century, the Baroque tradition, which had a history of massive strength in Brazil and was considered the national style of excellence, gradually fell into disuse, but traces of it were found in various forms of art until the early years of the twentieth century.Elishah
Elishah, or Eliseus (Hebrew: אֱלִישָׁה Elishah) was the son of Javan according to the Book of Genesis (10:4) in the Masoretic Text. The Greek Septuagint of Genesis 10 lists Elisa not only as the son of Javan, but also a grandson of Japheth.
Scholars have often identified Elishah with Cypriots, as in ancient times the island of Cyprus or part of it was known as Alashiya.Judean historian Flavius Josephus related the descendants of Elishah with the Aeolians, one of the ancestral branches of the Greeks.Elishah is also mentioned in the mediaeval, rabbinic Book of Jasher (Hebrew transliteration: Sefer haYashar); he is said in Jasher to have been the ancestor of the "Almanim", possibly a reference to Germanic tribes (Alemanni). An older and more common tradition refers to him as a settler of Greece, particularly Elis in the Peloponnese.
Lusitanian mythology traditionally makes Elishah (under the name Lysias/Lísias) an ancestor and predecessor of Lusus (Elisha being older, having arrived accompanying his uncle Tubal founding Portalegre in 1900 BC under Iberian king Brigo). Lysias' own supposed tomb (in Portalegre) claims that he was the first "cultivator" of Lusitania. Lusus' reign is traditionally placed in the 16th - 15th centuries BC, e.g., in the Livro Primeiro da Monarchia Lusitana. All this is debated; Lusus has also been described as coming before Lysias, who would thus be too late to be Elishah or vaguely at the same time, or even the same individual under different names. Lusus is sometimes called a son of Baccus and of the lineage of Lysias, or the other way around, or even a mere companion.The Portuguese orator and mythographer Father António Vieira (1608-1697) refers to Elishah (under his actual biblical name) as founder and eponym of Lisbon and Lusitania (when he came to Iberia with his uncle Tubal), as well as the origin of the name of the mythological Elysium. Vieira also identified Elisha's biblical brother Tarshish as the founder of Tartesos in Andalucia, implying both would have come to Iberia with Tubal (though this isn't the only theory on the identity of Tarshish). Elishah in this Portuguese portrayal is identified with Bacchus' captain Lysias/Lísias, sometimes also with Lusus and Phoroneus, and is referred to as the founder of Portalegre and being buried at the Ermida de São Cristovão (Chapel of Saint Christopher) inside the town.Fifth Empire
The Fifth Empire (Portuguese: Quinto Império) is a concept of a global Portuguese empire with spiritual and temporal power, based on an interpretation of Daniel 2 and the Book of Revelation, whose origins lay with António Vieira. The concept was re-popularized in the twentieth century with the publication of Mensagem by Fernando Pessoa in 1934.Francisco de Paula Vieira da Silva de Tovar, 1st Viscount of Molelos
Francisco de Paula Vieira da Silva de Tovar e Nápoles, 11th Lord of the Honour of Molelos, 1st Baron and 1st Viscount of Molelos (1774–1852) was a Portuguese military officer and politician. He is best known for his role in the Portuguese invasion of the Banda Oriental, under the reign of king John VI, as well as for his active participation in Portugal's resistance against the invading troops of Napoleon (1807–1810) and, towards the end of his life, for his support for the Absolutist or Traditionalist faction during the Portuguese Civil War, whose ranks he led as a General.
In 1862, exiled king Miguel I honoured him posthumously by creating his only surviving grandson, António Vieira de Tovar de Magalhães e Albuquerque, 1st Count of Molelos. This title, however, was never legally validated, and his only daughter died an infant.
The vicomital title was given continuity by the descendents of António's great-aunt Josefa Vieira da Silva de Tovar.José António Vieira da Silva
José António da Fonseca Vieira da Silva (born 14 February 1953) is a Portuguese politician and a member of the Socialist Party. He is the current Minister of Solidarity, Employment and Social Security since 2015 under Prime Minister António Costa.José Eduardo Franco
José Eduardo Franco (born 1969 in Ribeira Grande, Machico) is a Portuguese historian, journalist, poet and essayist.Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz
Manuel Fernández de Santa Cruz y Sahagún (18 January 1637, Palencia – 1 February 1699, Puebla) was a notable religious writer and Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Tlaxcala (1676–1699) and Bishop of Guadalajara (1674–1676). As well as founding charitable institutions in his diocese, he published Sor Juana's Carta atenagórica (crititquing a sermon by António Vieira) - as well as publishing this without her permission (albeit under a pseudonym), he told her to focus on religious instead of secular studies.Manuel Heitor
Manuel Heitor (born 1958) is a Portuguese politician serving as Minister of Science, Technology and Higher Education since 26 November 2015. Heitor graduated with a PhD in mechanical engineering from Imperial College London, and did a post-doctoral at the University of California, San Diego. From March 2005 to June 2011, Heitor served as the Secretary of State for Science, Technology and Higher Education.Marta Temido
Marta Temido (born 1974) is a Portuguese politician serving as Minister of Health since 15 October 2018. She has a law degree and a Master's degree in health economics and management from the University of Coimbra, as well as a PhD in international health from the New University of Lisbon. From 2016 to 2017, Temido served as the president of the board of directors of the Central Administration of the Health System (ACSS).Ministry of Labour, Solidarity and Social Security
The Ministry of Labour, Solidarity and Social Security (Portuguese: Ministério do Trabalho, Solidariedade e Segurança Social or MTSS) is a Portuguese government ministry.Pedro Marques (politician)
Pedro Manuel Dias de Jesus Marques (born 1976) is a Portuguese politician of the Socialist Party (PS) who has been serving as Minister of Planning and Infrastructure in the government of Prime Minister António Costa since 26 November 2015.From March 2005 to June 2011, Marques served as the Secretary of State for Social Security. In his capacity as Minister of Planning and Infrastructure, he renegotiated Portugal's structural and cohesion funds as part of an multiannual program — called Portugal 2020 — and started discussions on the following period between 2021 and 2027.In 2019, the PS put Marques at the head of its list for the European elections.Pedro Siza Vieira
Pedro Siza Vieira (born 14 July 1964) is a Portuguese politician who has served as Deputy Minister since 21 October 2017 and Minister of Economy since 15 October 2018. Siza Vieira has a law degree from the University of Lisbon.Sebastianism
Sebastianism (Portuguese: Sebastianismo) is a Portuguese messianic myth, based on the belief that King Sebastian of Portugal, disappeared in the battle of Alcácer Quibir, will return to save Portugal. The belief gained momentum after an interpretation by priest António Vieira of Daniel 2 and the Book of Revelation that foreshowed a Portuguese Fifth Empire. In Brazil the most important manifestation of Sebastianism took place in the context of the Proclamation of the Republic, when movements emerged that defended a return to the monarchy. It is categorised as an example of the King in the mountain folk motif, typified by people waiting for a hero to return to save them. The Portuguese author Fernando Pessoa wrote about such a hero in his epic Mensagem (The Message).Tiago Brandão Rodrigues
Tiago Brandão Rodrigues (born 1977) is a Portuguese politician serving as Minister of Education since 26 November 2015. He has a PhD in biochemistry from the University of Coimbra. Rodrigues was elected by the Viana do Castelo constituency to the Assembly of the Republic in 2015.Vieira
Vieira is a Galician and Portuguese surname. It is the Galician and Portuguese word for "scallop".The surname may refer to:
Adelino André Vieira de Freitas (Vieirinha, born 1986), Portuguese footballer
Alessandro Rosa Vieira (Falcão, born 1977), Brazilian futsal player
Alice Vieira (born 1943), Portuguese writer
Álvaro Siza Vieira (born 1933), Portuguese architect
Anton de Vieira (1682?–1745), Russian administrator
António Vieira (1608–1697), Portuguese diplomat
Asia Vieira (born 1982), Canadian actress
Cláudia Vieira (born 1978), Portuguese actress
Carlos Adriano de Souza Vieira (Adriano Gabiru, born 1977), Brazilian footballer
Edward T. Vieira, Jr. (born 1956), American professor, author, and researcher
Francisco de Matos Vieira (Vieira Lusitano, 1699–1783), Portuguese royal painter, illustrator and engraver
Jelon Vieira, Brazilian choreographer
João Bernardo Vieira (1939–2009), Guinea-Bissau politician
Jorvan Vieira (born 1953), Brazilian-Portuguese football coach
José Luandino Vieira (born 1935), Angolan writer
Jussiê Ferreira Vieira (Jussiê, born 1983), Brazilian footballer
Leonel Vieira (born 1969), Portuguese film director
Leandro Ricardo Vieira (born 1979), Brazilian footballer
Luís Filipe Vieira (born 1949), president of S.L. Benfica
Marcelo Vieira da Silva Júnior (Marcelo, born 1988), Brazilian footballer
Meredith Vieira (born 1953), American journalist and TV host
Milton Vieira (born 1978), Brazilian martial artist
Patrick Vieira (born 1976), French footballer and coach
Paulo Afonso Evangelista Vieira (born 1958), Brazilian politician
Ronaldo Vieira (footballer, born 1998), Bissau-Guinean footballer
Ronaldo Vieira (footballer, born 1990), Brazilian footballer
Sérgio Vieira de Mello (1948–2003), Brazilian diplomat
Thyago Vieira (born 1993) Brazilian Major League Baseball pitcher for the Chicago White Sox
Vasco Joaquim Rocha Vieira (born 1939), last Portuguese Governor of MacauWord and Utopia
Word and Utopia (Palavra e Utopia) is a 2000 Portuguese film directed by Manoel de Oliveira. It was screened in competition at the 2000 Venice Film Festival.
|Early Middle Ages|
|High Middle Ages|
|Mysticism and reforms|