Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest

Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest (March 6, 1784 – June 4, 1838) was a French zoologist and author. He was the son of Nicolas Desmarest and father of Eugène Anselme Sébastien Léon Desmarest.[1] Desmarest was a disciple of Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart, and in 1815, he succeeded Pierre André Latreille to the professorship of zoology at the École nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort. In 1820 he was elected to the Académie Nationale de Médecine.

Desmarest published Histoire Naturelle des Tangaras, des Manakins et des Todiers (1805), Considérations générales sur la classe des crustacés (1825), Mammalogie ou description des espèces des Mammifères (1820) and Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles (1816–30, with André Marie Constant Duméril).

The brown algae Desmarestia is named in honour of Desmarest,[2] as well as the family (Desmarestiaceae) — and in turn, the order (Desmarestiales) — of which the genus is the type species.

Anselme Gaetan Desmarest 1784-1838
Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest.

Note

Certain works by Desmarest are cited in 19th- and 20th-century references and attributed to A. G. Demarest which would apparently be a perpetuating error.[3]

References

  1. ^ Hans G. Hansson. "Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest". Biographical Etymology of Marine Organism Names. Göteborgs Universitet. Archived from the original on 27 October 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2010.
  2. ^ Lamouroux, Jean Vincent Félix (1813). "Essai sur les genres de la famille des thalassiophytes non articulées" (PDF). Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (in French). Paris: G. Dufour et cie. 20: 43–45. OCLC 2099267. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  3. ^ O'Connell, Marjorie (1916). "Bibliography" . The Habitat of the Eurypterida. p. 261.
1805 in birding and ornithology

The entomologist Gustaf von Paykull described the crab plover in Kongl. Vetenskaps Akademiens Handlingar Stockholm

Marie Jules César Savigny published an account of the sacred ibis titled Histoire naturelle et mythologique de l'ibis

King Island emu became extinct in the wild.

Eugenius Johann Christoph Esper became professor of zoology and director of the zoology museum at Erlangen university.

Johann Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim founded the Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou.

Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest published Histoire Naturelle des Tangaras, des Manakins et des Todiers

Brazilian brown bat

The Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis), is a bat species from South and Central America.

Brazilian tanager

The Brazilian tanager (Ramphocelus bresilius) is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae.

It is endemic to eastern Brazil and far northeastern Argentina, occurring in the coastal region from Paraíba and southwards to Santa Catarina and Misiones.

The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus described the Brazilian tanager in 1766 in the twelfth edition of his Systema Naturae. He coined the binomial name Tanagra bresilia. It is now placed in the genus Ramphocelus which was introduced by the French zoologist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest in 1805.The Brazilian tanager is a typical member of the family, with a heavy bill and sexually dimorphic plumage. It is 18 cm (7.1 in) long and weighs 28–35.5 g (0.99–1.25 oz). The plumage of the male is bright red with black wings and a black tail. The bill is black above and pale below. The female is mostly grey-brown with a brown-red belly and breast.A frugivorous bird, it is easily found in its natural biome wherever there is food enough available, tending to behave aggressively towards other species of birds when disputing for food. Its habitats include shrubby areas that are not forested, including coastal scrub, forest clearing and edge, swamps, gardens, and city parks. The species has declined in some areas due to trapping for the caged bird trade, but it is tolerant of disturbed habitats and is not considered to be threatened with extinction.The Brazilian tanager is omnivorous, taking pulpy fruits, seeds and insects. It nests by building a cup-shaped nest hidden amongst foliage, where it lays two to three greenish-blue, black-spotted eggs.

Daubenton's free-tailed bat

The Daubenton's free-tailed bat (Myopterus daubentonii) is a species of bat in the family Molossidae. It is found in Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, and Senegal. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and dry savanna. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Desmarest

Desmarest is the name of more than one French scientist:

Nicolas Desmarest (1725–1815), and

his son, Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest (1784–1838)

his son, Eugène Anselme Sébastien Léon Desmarest (1816–1889)Desmarest is also the name of:

Henri Desmarest (or Desmarets) (1661–1741), French Baroque composer

Thierry Desmarest (born 1940), French chairman of petroleum group Total S.A.

Desmarestia

Desmarestia is a genus of brown algae found worldwide. It is also called acid weed, acidweed, oseille de mer, sea sorrel, ウルシグサ (urushi-gusa), stacheltang, mermaid's hair, landlady's wig, or gruagach. However, 'sea sorrel' can also specifically refer to Desmarestia viridis. Members of this genus can be either annual or perennial. Annual members of this genus store sulfuric acid in intracellular vacuoles. When exposed to air they release the acid, thereby destroying themselves and nearby seaweeds in the process. They are found in shallow intertidal zones.Ingesting sulfuric acid can cause severe digestive problems. but since sulfuric acid tastes extremely sour, members of the genus are unlikely to be eaten in harmful quantities.The genus was named in honor of Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest.

Desmarestiaceae

Desmarestiaceae is a family of brown algae, one of two families in the order Desmarestiales. The family gets its name from the genus Desmarestia, which is named after the French zoologist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest (1784-1838).There are three genera in this family. Two are monotypic, Himantothallus (species name Himantothallus grandifolius) and Phaeurus (species name Phaeurus antarcticus). These are both endemic to Antarctica. The third genus, Desmarestia, has 30 to 40 species.Most species have narrow, localized ranges, but some Desmarestia, such as D. ligulata and D. viridis, have disjunct but global distributions. It is thought that the family began its evolution in the Southern Hemisphere and radiated north. It is now distributed across much of the world, but is largely absent from tropical regions. An exception being the possibly extinct D. tropica of the Galápagos Islands. These algae require colder water temperatures for the successful production of gametes.Species of the Desmarestiaceae can grow large, with the thallus, the plantlike main part of the alga, reaching maximum lengths around 10 meters. They can be flattened or cylindrical, and narrow or many-branched. They are oogamous, with microscopic gametophytes.The thalli of some Desmarestia contain vacuoles of sulfuric acid with a pH as low as 0.44. These likely evolved to deter predators. These algae have a very sour taste. They can also have a bad odor when they are removed from the water.

Desmarestiales

Desmarestiales is an order in the brown algae (Phaeophyceae). Members of this order have terete or ligulate (flat) pinnately branched thalli attached by discoid holdfasts. They have a sporphytic thallus usually aggregated to form a pseudo-parenchyma. The order gets its name from the genus Desmarestia, which is named after the French zoologist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest (1784–1838).As the general name of the class suggests, their pigmentation is brown.

Eugène Anselme Sébastien Léon Desmarest

Eugène Anselme Sébastien Léon Desmarest (1816–1889) was a French zoologist and entomologist son of Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest (1734–1838).

Euphonia

Euphonias are members of the genus Euphonia, a group of Neotropical birds in the finch family. They and the chlorophonias comprise the subfamily Euphoniinae.

Most male euphonias are dark metallic blue above and bright yellow below. Many have contrasting pale foreheads and white undertails. Some have light blue patches on the head and/or orangish underparts. Females much more plain, predominantly olive-green all over. They range in overall length from 9 to 11 cm (3.5 to 4.3 in). They eat small fruit and berries, particularly mistletoe (Loranthaceae). Some species may also eat some insects.Euphonias were once considered members of the tanager family, Thraupidae. A molecular phylogenetic study of the finch family Fringillidae published in 2012 included 9 species from the genus Euphonia and a single species from the genus Chlorophonia, the blue-naped chlorophonia. The resulting cladogram showed the blue-naped chlorophonia nested within the Euphonia clade implying that the genus Euphonia is paraphyletic.

The genus was introduced by the French zoologist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest in 1806 with the white-vented euphonia as the type species.

Ferreira's spiny tree-rat

Ferreira's spiny tree-rat, Mesomys hispidus, is a spiny rat species from South America. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela.

Gerbillus

Gerbillus is a genus that contains most common and the most diverse gerbils. In 2010, after morphological and molecular studies Dipodillus was ranged as a subgenus of Gerbillus, however some taxonomic authorities continue to separate them.

Heteromys

Heteromys is a genus of rodents in the family Heteromyidae, commonly known as spiny pocket mice. It is the only extant genus in the subfamily Heteromyinae which also includes the extinct genera Diprionomys and Metaliomys. Heteromys was recently enlarged by inclusion of the members of formerly recognized heteromyine genus Liomys, which was found to be paraphyletic.

Holochilus brasiliensis

Holochilus brasiliensis, also known as the Brazilian marsh rat or web-footed marsh rat, is a species of semiaquatic rodent from South America. It is found in northeastern Argentina, southern and eastern Brazil and in eastern Uruguay.

Mara (mammal)

The maras (Dolichotis) are a genus of the cavy family of rodents. They are the sole extant representatives of the subfamily Dolichotinae. These large relatives of guinea pigs are common in the Patagonian steppes of Argentina, but also live in Paraguay and elsewhere in South America. Maras are the fourth-largest rodent in the world, after capybaras, beavers, and porcupines, reaching about 45 cm (18 in) in height.

Purple-throated euphonia

The purple-throated euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica) is a songbird species in the family Fringillidae. It was formerly placed in the Thraupidae.

It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.

In 1760 the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson included a description of the purple-throated euphonia in his Ornithologie based on a specimen collected in Cayenne, French Guiana. He used the French name Le tangara noir et jaune de Cayenne and the Latin Tangara Cayanensis Nigrolutea. Although Brisson coined Latin names, these do not conform to the binomial system and are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. When in 1766 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus updated his Systema Naturae for the twelfth edition, he added 240 species that had been previously described by Brisson. One of these was the purple-throated euphonia. Linnaeus included a brief description, coined the binomial name Tanagra chlorotica and cited Brisson's work. The specific name chlorotica is from the Ancient Greek khlōrotēs "greenness". This species is now placed in the genus Euphonia that was introduced by the French zoologist Anselme Gaëtan Desmarest in 1806. There are five subspecies.

Saki monkey

Sakis, or saki monkeys, are any of several New World monkeys of the genus Pithecia. They are closely related to the bearded sakis of genus Chiropotes.

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