An anode ray (also positive ray or canal ray) is a beam of positive ions that is created by certain types of gas-discharge tubes. They were first observed in Crookes tubes during experiments by the German scientist Eugen Goldstein, in 1886. Later work on anode rays by Wilhelm Wien and J. J. Thomson led to the development of mass spectrometry.
Goldstein used a gas-discharge tube which had a perforated cathode. When a high electrical potential of several thousand volts is applied between the cathode and anode, faint luminous "rays" are seen extending from the holes in the back of the cathode. These rays are beams of particles moving in a direction opposite to the "cathode rays," which are streams of electrons which move toward the anode. Goldstein called these positive rays Kanalstrahlen, "channel rays" or "canal rays", because they were produced by the holes or channels in the cathode. In 1907 a study of how this "ray" was deflected in a magnetic field, revealed that the particles making up the ray were not all the same mass. The lightest ones, formed when there was some hydrogen gas in the tube, were calculated to be about 1840 times as massive as an electron. They were protons.
The process by which anode rays are formed in a gas-discharge anode ray tube is as follows. When the high voltage is applied to the tube, its electric field accelerates the small number of ions (electrically charged atoms) always present in the gas, created by natural processes such as radioactivity. These collide with atoms of the gas, knocking electrons off of them and creating more positive ions. These ions and electrons in turn strike more atoms, creating more positive ions in a chain reaction. The positive ions are all attracted to the negative cathode, and some pass through the holes in the cathode. These are the anode rays.
By the time they reach the cathode, the ions have been accelerated to a sufficient speed such that when they collide with other atoms or molecules in the gas they excite the species to a higher energy level. In returning to their former energy levels these atoms or molecules release the energy that they had gained. That energy gets emitted as light. This light-producing process, called fluorescence, causes a glow in the region where the ions emerge from the cathode.
An anode ray ion source typically is an anode coated with the halide salt of an alkali or alkaline earth metal. Application of a sufficiently high electrical potential creates alkali or alkaline earth ions and their emission is most brightly visible at the anode.
Eugen Goldstein (5 September 1850 – 25 December 1930) was a German physicist. He was an early investigator of discharge tubes, the discoverer of anode rays, and is sometimes credited with the discovery of the proton. He was the great uncle of the violinists Mikhail Goldstein and Boris Goldstein.History of mass spectrometry
The history of mass spectrometry has its roots in physical and chemical studies regarding the nature of matter. The study of gas discharges in the mid 19th century led to the discovery of anode and cathode rays, which turned out to be positive ions and electrons. Improved capabilities in the separation of these positive ions enabled the discovery of stable isotopes of the elements. The first such discovery was with the element neon, which was shown by mass spectrometry to have at least two stable isotopes: 20Ne (neon with 10 protons and 10 neutrons) and 22Ne (neon with 10 protons and 12 neutrons). Mass spectrometers were used in the Manhattan Project for the separation of isotopes of uranium necessary to create the atomic bomb.Index of physics articles (A)
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
To navigate by individual letter use the table of contents below.List of German inventions and discoveries
The following (incomplete) list is composed of items, techniques and processes that were invented by or discovered by people from Germany or German-speaking Europe.