Annual publication

Annual publications, more often called simply annuals, are periodical publications appearing regularly once per year.[1] Although exact definitions may vary, types of annuals include: Calendars and almanacs, directories, yearbooks, annual reports, proceedings and transactions and literary annuals.[1] A weekly or monthly publication may produce an Annual featuring similar materials to the regular publication. Some encyclopedias have published annual supplements that essentially summarize the news of the past year, similar to some newspaper yearbooks.

To libraries and collectors, annuals present challenges of size (tens or hundreds of volumes) and completeness (acquiring a sequence with no missing volumes). They are handled similar to serial publications, which typically means a single library catalog record for the title, not for individual years. The single record must then indicate which volumes (years) are held.

The mid- and late 20th century saw a sharp increase in the publication of annuals, to report scientific results and provide overview, both in ever more specialized topics and in popular summary.[1]


Ada Lovelace 1838
A hand watercolored etching etched by William Henry Mote

A new form of literary work called the "Annual" was a fad from about 1823 through 1857 and became so popular that they were soon published up to 17 times a year. British royalty increased their popularity. They closely resemble many college literary "books" just produced for college campus today, except they contained lots of etchings of beautiful women from steel plates. They were the fashion magazines of the day. Later it became fashionable to watercolor the etchings and the "Annuals" became early coloring books. There was later a backlash against "beauty" and the fad ended, as did steel plate etchings for books.

"The Annual" was a long running fad from 1824 until 1857 which started in England, but spilled over into the U.S.. Steel plates of the 1820s allowed book publishers to mass-produce pictures. What started out as an "annual book" or a gift for the holidays turned into something that had up to 17 editions through the year (yet were still called Annuals). Countess Blessington and other royal women contributed to the works and altered fashion. This fad was sometimes referred to as "beauty", as books with plates of women defined the content.

Forget Me Not 1823 Boards
An early annual from 1822/3

In one book, the steel plate was damaged and another picture of a woman was simply used as a replacement. The illustrations often had nothing to do with the text content. The content of the text was often of poor quality and "The American Book of Beauty" contained a story of prison torture with an illustration of a pretty woman with a lapdog. "The American Book of Beauty" also has several copies of the books with portraits in different orders. One edition of the "Heath's Book of Beauty" was a college project and contained poems, short stories, etc. 1826 was not a good year for the annuals, because of the Panic of 1825. In the 1830s you see a sarcastic poem about the Annuals by Thomas Hood ("The Battle of the Annuals"). Watercolor became popular in the 1830s and the black and white etchings were the coloring books of the day. In 1842, Volume 1, page 521 of the Illustrated London News there are sarcastic pictures poking fun at the annuals. In 1844 there was an article referring to it as imbecilic mania and finally the Obituary for the Annual appeared in the Art Journal of 1857. The death of the annuals and new photo techniques replacing etching ended most engravers' careers.[2][3][4][5][6]


For high school and college yearbooks, see Yearbook.

A yearbook is a volume that summarizes events of the past year.[1] One of the earliest is The Annual Register, published in London since 1758. A forerunner is Abel Boyer's The Political State of Great Britain (38 volumes, 1711–29). Later examples include The Statesman's Yearbook (since 1864) and the Daily Mail Year Book (since 1901). Two early German titles are Europäischer Geschichtskalender, founded in 1861 by Heinrich Schulthess and Gottlob Egelhaaf’s Historisch-politische Jahresübersicht (28 volumes, 1908–1936).

Comic books

In the case of comic books, an annual is considered a separate series for purposes of numbering and collectibility; a particular periodical's Annual will thus have its own numbering series, or alternately be referred to by the year of its publication (such as The Amazing Spider-Man '99 Annual). A comic book annual customarily has a larger page count than its monthly counterpart, leaving room for longer single stories, multiple stories in a single annual and/or "extra" material that the monthly series lacks the space to publish. These "extras" may include biographical information on featured characters, full-page pin-ups of characters, reprints of previously published material, or all-new short stories (often called "back-up" stories). An annual as a whole was once considered an "extra" in itself, providing story material in addition to the customary 12 issues per year of a monthly series.

Comic book annuals originally were little more than reprint albums, representing stories that had first seen publication in their monthly counterparts, but eventually this changed to annuals featuring primarily all-new material. Later annuals often featured stories with greater import to the characters featured than in the monthly publication, reflecting the "special" status of their once-yearly publication. Annuals also, on occasion, featured the finale of a multi-issue storyline running in the monthly series; conversely, many annuals would showcase stand-alone stories that did not fit in with the then-current thrust of the monthly series' storyline.

In the late 1980s and much of the 1990s, annuals published by Marvel Comics and DC Comics were usually released in the summer of the year and often had a unifying theme, either a similar theme that individual stories were written around, or a crossover storyline bringing many of the characters in the individual publishers' continuities together for a single overall event. In the case of the "crossover" annuals, the number of characters and annuals involved in a crossover story varied. Some were company-wide, incorporating virtually every character in the publisher's shared universe whose series received an annual edition. Others used smaller groups of characters whose series had some sort of in-story connection, such as series featuring members of teams or "extended families" of characters.

Annuals published by DC and particularly Marvel became fewer and far between in the late 1990s, mainly due to the near-collapse of the comic book industry in the wake of the speculator boom; annuals were seen as an unnecessary risk in a climate where many monthly publications were in danger of cancellation for lack of sales (especially at Marvel, which filed for bankruptcy during this time). When the industry began to recover from the "bust", annuals began re-appearing on occasion, but by no means as regularly as before the "bust", when numbered series of annuals had reached the teens or 20s, indicating over a decade of regular publication.

Currently, the comic book annual is still something of a rarity, its purpose in presenting "extra" material often served by Special Editions that are released at random intervals (usually to fill a gap in a publisher's production schedule) rather than the set yearly schedule of an annual. In addition, Marvel Comics in particular has adopted a publishing schedule in which 13 or 14 issues of an ongoing series will be published within a year, rather than one issue for every month of the year; the material provided in the additional issues per year in effect replaces the material that would see print in an annual.

United Kingdom

In the U.K., a large number of annuals are published shortly before the end of each year by companies such as D.C. Thomson, Egmont (formerly IPC/Fleetway), and Rebellion Developments, aimed at the Christmas market. These annuals are generally large-sized hardcover books with over 100 pages and a high colour content. They are normally cover-dated with the following year's date to ensure that stockists do not remove them from their shelves immediately after the new year.

One of the earliest annuals was issued in 1822. Frederic Shoberl was the founding editor of Ackermann's The Forget-me-not which was an early Annual, a new type of publication in England.[7] Shoberl continued to edit the annual until 1834. A junior annual The Juvenile Forget-me-not was published from 1828.

For many years until the near-collapse of the British children's comics market, an annual would be published each year for each of the comic titles published by Thomson and IPC/Fleetway featuring extra adventures of the comic's current and former characters, plus additional material in the form of puzzles, text articles, etc. Annuals were often even published for comics which had themselves ceased publication or been absorbed into other titles, for example Scorcher annuals were still being published 10 years after the comic itself had been absorbed into Tiger. Today, this section of the market has been reduced to just a couple of surviving titles.

In addition, annuals are often published centred on sports, toys, currently-popular celebrities, recently released films and popular TV series. British annuals are also published featuring American characters such as Spider-Man, often with simplified content aimed at younger readers. As tastes in these areas change, so does the line-up of annuals released each year. The increasing emphasis in recent years on annuals of this type (as opposed to the "classic" line-up of annuals based on comics) means that sales remain strong, and, in fact, they doubled between 1998 and 2005.[8] Some annuals have become extremely collectible, especially The Beano, The Dandy, Rupert and Eagle.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d "Annuals", in Encyclopedia of library and information science (1968), vol. 1, pp. 434–447.
  2. ^ Engraved On Steel, Ashgate, Basil Hunnisett, ISBN 0-87923-322-2
  3. ^ Steel Engraved Book Illustration in England, Ashgate, Basil Hunnisett, ISBN 0-85967-971-3
  4. ^
  5. ^ World Noted Women by Mary Cowden Clarke, published 1858.
  6. ^ Gems of Beauty 1840, Publisher: Longman, Rees, Orme, Green, Brown, & Longman, Editor: Countess of Blessington
  7. ^ Contributions to annuals and gift-books, James Hogg, Janette Currie, Gillian Hughes, p.xiv, 2006, accessed June 2010
  8. ^ Daily Telegraph

An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication listing a set of events forthcoming in the next year.

It includes information like weather forecasts, farmers' planting dates, tide tables, and other tabular data often arranged according to the calendar. Celestial figures and various statistics are found in almanacs, such as the rising and setting times of the Sun and Moon, dates of eclipses, hours of high and low tides, and religious festivals.

A calendar, which is a system for time keeping, in written form is usually produced as a most simple almanac: it includes additional information about the day of the week on which a particular day falls, major holidays, the phases of the moon, earthquake hazard levels etc. The set of events noted in an almanac are selected in view of a more or less specific group of readers e.g. farmers, sailors, astronomers or others.

Alpine Journal

The Alpine Journal (or "AJ") is an annual publication by the Alpine Club of London. It is the oldest mountaineering journal in the world. Since 2004, the editor-in-chief is Stephen Goodwin.


The Bach-Jahrbuch (Bach yearbook) is an annual publication by the Neue Bachgesellschaft in Leipzig. Begun in 1904, it is the most respected publication for international Bach research.

The Bach-Jahrbuch contains contributions of notable Bach scholars related to recent research of Bach and his family. It also provides a Bach bibliography. It is the oldest periodical dedicated to one composer.

The first editor was the musicologist Arnold Schering from 1904. The present editor is Peter Wollny.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Children's Literature (journal)

Children’s Literature is an academic journal and annual publication of the Modern Language Association and the Children’s Literature Association Division on Children's Literature. The journal was founded in 1972 by Francelia Butler and promotes a scholarly approach to the study of children’s literature by printing theoretical articles and essays, as well as book reviews. The publication is currently edited by Amanda Cockrell, of Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia. The current editor in chief is R. H. W. Dillard.

Children's Literature is published annually in May by the Johns Hopkins University Press. Each issue has an average length of 300 pages.

Deutscher Sportclub für Fußballstatistiken

The Deutscher Sportclub für Fußballstatistiken e.V., (English: German sports club for football statistics) short DSFS is an association dedicated to collecting and publishing German football statistics, similar to the RSSSF, and is a member of the German Olympic Society.

The club used to be best known for its annual publication, the Deutscher Fussball-Almanach, a yearbook on German football. Unlike other yearbooks, it does not so much focus on professional football, but rather covers the higher amateur leagues.

Dracula Lives!

Dracula Lives! was an American black-and-white horror comics magazine published by Magazine Management, a corporate sibling of Marvel Comics. The series ran 13 issues and one annual publication from 1973 to 1975, and starred the Marvel version of the literary vampire Dracula.

A magazine rather than a comic book, it did not fall under the purview of the comics industry's self-censorship Comics Code Authority, allowing the title to feature stronger content — such as moderate profanity, partial nudity, and more graphic violence — than color comics of the time. featuring Dracula stories.

Running concurrently with the longer-running Marvel comic The Tomb of Dracula, the continuities of the two titles occasionally overlapped, with storylines weaving between the two. Most of the time, however, the stories in Dracula Lives! were standalone Dracula tales by various creative teams. Later issues of Dracula Lives! featured a serialized adaptation of the original Bram Stoker novel, written by Roy Thomas and drawn by Dick Giordano.

FIFA International Referees List

The FIFA International Referees List is an annual publication of the global list of FIFA international referees in the football-variants controlled by the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) – association football (outdoor football), futsal and beach soccer. Members of the list are qualified to officiate at international level and are entitled to wear a FIFA badge on their uniform for the year in which they listed.

Ice Hockey Annual Trophy

The Ice Hockey Annual Trophy is an ice hockey trophy in the United Kingdom which is awarded to the British player who has scored the most points during the season in league competition only.

The award is named after the Ice Hockey Annual, an annual publication which is edited by the current chairman of Ice Hockey Journalists UK, Stewart Robinson.

Journal Citation Reports

Journal Citation Reports (JCR) is an annual publication by Clarivate Analytics (previously the intellectual property of Thomson Reuters). It has been integrated with the Web of Science and is accessed from the Web of Science-Core Collections. It provides information about academic journals in the natural sciences and social sciences, including impact factors. The JCR was originally published as a part of Science Citation Index. Currently, the JCR, as a distinct service, is based on citations compiled from the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Science Citation Index.

Long Street (Cape Town)

Long Street is a major street located in the City Bowl section of Cape Town, South Africa. It is famous as a bohemian hang out and the street is lined with many book stores, various ethnic restaurants and bars. Restaurants include African restaurants such as Zula, and Indian restaurants such as Masala Dosa. Long Street exhibits a diversified culture and attracts tourists from all over the world. It also has a number of youth hostels which provide accommodation to an international roster of guests. Several theatres which showed anti-apartheid plays were located on the street during the 1970s and 1980s, although most have now closed and been replaced by restaurants or stores.

Architecturally it is noted for its Victorian buildings with wrought iron balconies. These were featured in an article in an edition of the annual publication The Saturday Book.Traffic on Long Street is one-way in the uphill (southwest) direction, while the parallel Loop Street carries downhill traffic. The number 101 MyCiTi bus runs the length of Long Street on its way from the Civic Centre to Gardens, with five stops along the street.

Martha Stewart Weddings

Martha Stewart Weddings is a quarterly weddings magazine published by Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia. Martha Stewart Weddings was launched as an annual publication in 1994, and was expanded to quarterly in 1999. It is the second magazine title published by Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, and is primarily distributed through newsstands.

In November 2014 the magazine was licensed to Meredith Corporation for ten-year period. In 2018, the magazine moved online-only.

Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

Martinus Nijhoff Publishers was an independent academic publishing company dating back to the nineteenth century, which is now an imprint of Brill Publishers. The name was changed to Brill–Nijhoff in 2013. Nijhoff's portfolio focuses on areas in public international law, human rights, on humanitarian law and increasingly on international relations. Its annual publication program consists of over 20 academic journals, 20 annuals, and some 120 new book titles. Its back-list comprises over 2,000 titles.

Muhammad Luthfi bin Yahya

Maulana Al-Habib Muhammad Luthfi bin Ali bin Yahya (born November 10, 1947), also colloquially known as Habib Luthfi, is an Arab Indonesian Islamic sheikh, kyai and preacher hailed from Pekalongan, Central Java. In addition to being a preacher, he also serves as the leader of Ba 'Alawiyya tariqa in Indonesia, and the chairman of Indonesian Ulema Council Central Java. He is regarded as one of the giants among Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), the largest Islamic organization in Indonesia, as he serves as the Ra'is Amm (national chairman) of Jam’iyyah Ahli Thariqah al-Mu’tabarah al-Nahdliyah (the Association of Recognized Sufi Orders), holding authority toward the direction of traditions within the Sufis in Indonesia and its institutions. He is also commonly held as the guardian of Islamic harmony within the framework of Indonesia as a nation-state, taking the leadership of thousands of santris in several madrasahs and pesantrens across the archipelago. In 2017, he is listed among the top 50 group in the annual publication of The 500 Most Influential Muslims.

Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society

The Oxfordshire Architectural and Historical Society (OAHS) has existed in one form or another since at least 1839, although with its current name only since 1972. Its annual publication Oxoniensia has been produced since 1936.


Patrician may refer to:

Patrician (ancient Rome), the original aristocratic families of Ancient Rome, and a synonym for "aristocratic" in modern English usage

Patrician (post-Roman Europe), the governing elites of cities in parts of medieval and Early Modern Europe

The adjective formed from Saint Patrick

Youngstown Patricians, a former semi-professional football team based in Youngstown, Ohio, USA

A student or former student of St Patrick's High School, Karachi, Pakistan

A member of the Argentine Regiment of Patricians

The Patrician, an annual publication of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry regiment

Packard Patrician, a large luxury car during the 1950s

Havelock Vetinari, the Patrician of Ankh-Morpork in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series

The Patrician (video game), a series of historical trading simulation computer games

Social Register

The Social Register is a semi-annual publication in the United States that indexes the members of American high society. First published in the 1880s by newspaper columnist Louis Keller, it was later acquired by Malcolm Forbes. Since 2014, it has been owned by Christopher Wolf.

Long a directory of well-connected, patrician families from the northeast United States, it has, in recent years, diversified both in the geography and ethnicity of those it lists. At the same time, however, its importance as an arbiter of class has waned.

The Black Flame (magazine)

The Black Flame is a magazine published by the Church of Satan. It was launched in 1989, when another of the Church's publications, The Cloven Hoof, went on hiatus. Originally, The Black Flame was a quarterly newsletter, but it then evolved into a bi-annual publication.

Vampire Tales

Vampire Tales was an American black-and-white horror comics magazine published by Magazine Management, a corporate sibling of Marvel Comics. The series ran 11 issues and one annual publication from 1973 to 1975, and featuring vampires as both protagonists and antagonists.

A magazine rather than a comic book, it did not fall under the purview of the comics industry's self-censorship Comics Code Authority, allowing the title to feature stronger content — such as moderate profanity, partial nudity, and more graphic violence — than color comics of the time, featuring Dracula stories.

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