|Annihilation of Caste|
Cover of the first edition of Annihilation of Caste
|Author||B. R. Ambedkar|
In a letter dated 12 December 1935, the secretary of the Jat-Pat Todak Mandal (Society for the Abolition of Caste system), an anti-caste Hindu reformist group organisation based in Lahore, invited B. R. Ambedkar to deliver a speech on the caste system in India at their annual conference in 1936. Ambedkar wrote the speech as an essay under the title "Annihilation of Caste" and sent in advance to the organisers in Lahore for printing and distribution. The organisers found some of the content to be objectionable towards the orthodox Hindu religion, so intemperate in the idiom and vocabulary used, and so incendiary in promoting conversion away from Hinduism, that they sought the deletion of large sections of the more controversial content endangering Brahmanical interests. They wrote to Ambedkar seeking the removal of sections which they found, in their words, "unbearable.". Ambedker declared in response that he "would not change a comma" of his text. After much deliberation, the committee of organizers decided to cancel their annual conference in its entirety, because they feared violence by orthodox Hindus at the venue if they held the event after withdrawing the invitation to him. Ambedkar subsequently published 1500 copies of the speech as a book on 15 May 1936 at his own expense as Jat-Pat Todak Mandal failed to fulfill their word.
In the essay, Ambedkar criticised the Hindu religion, its caste system and its religious texts which are male dominant and spreading hatred and supression of female interests. He argued that inter-caste dining and inter-caste marriage is not sufficient to annihilate the caste system, but that "the real method of breaking up the Caste System was... to destroy the religious notions upon which caste is founded"
The readers will recall the fact that Dr. Ambedkar was to have presided last May at the annual conference of the Jat-Pat-Todak Mandal of Lahore. But the conference itself was cancelled because Dr. Ambedkar's address was found by the Reception Committee to be unacceptable. How far a Reception Committee is justified in rejecting a President of its choice because of his address that may be objectionable to it is open to question. The Committee knew Dr. Ambedkar's views on caste and the Hindu scriptures. They knew also that he had in unequivocal terms decided to give up Hinduism. Nothing less than the address that Dr. Ambedkar had prepared was to be expected from him. The committee appears to have deprived the public of an opportunity of listening to the original views of a man, who has carved out for himself a unique position in society. Whatever label he wears in future, Dr. Ambedkar is not the man to allow himself to be forgotten.
In the second edition of his book, Ambedkar replied to Gandhi's comments. This edition was published in 1937 as Annihilation of Caste: With a Reply to Mahatma Gandhi. He published a third edition in 1944; it included another essay, "Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development", which had been presented at a seminar in New York in 1916.
Alfred Ploetz (August 22, 1860 – March 20, 1940) was a German physician, biologist and eugenicist known for coining the term racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene) and promoting the concept in Germany. Rassenhygiene is a form of eugenics.Alpine race
The Alpine race is a historical race concept defined by some late 19th-century and early 20th-century anthropologists as one of the sub-races of the Caucasian race. The origin of the Alpine race was variously identified. Ripley argued that it migrated from Central Asia during the Neolithic revolution, splitting the Nordic and Mediterranean populations. It was also identified as descending from the Celts residing in Central Europe in Neolithic times. The Alpine race is mainly distinguished by its cranial measurements, such as high cephalic index.Arabid race
The Arabid race (also known as the Orientalid race) is a historical term for a morphological subtype of the Caucasoid race, as used in traditional physical anthropology.Armenoid race
In the racial anthropology of the early 20th century, the Armenoid type was a subtype of the Caucasian race. According to anthropologist Carleton Coon,questionable source the countries of the northern part of Western Asia, namely Armenia and the rest of the South Caucasus, Iran, Upper Mesopotamia, Southeastern Turkey, and the Levant, were considered the center of distribution of the Armenoid race.Atlantid race
The Atlantid race or North-Atlantid is a term historically used as one of the sub-races of the Caucasoid race. The term was popular in the early 20th century.B. R. Ambedkar
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination towards the untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour. He was independent India's first law and justice minister, the principal architect of the Constitution of India, and a founding father of the Republic of India. In India and elsewhere, he was often called Babasaheb, meaning "respected father" in Marathi and Hindi.
Ambedkar was a prolific student earning doctorates in economics from both Columbia University and the London School of Economics and gained a reputation as a scholar for his research in law, economics, and political science. In his early career, he was an economist, professor, and lawyer. His later life was marked by his political activities; he became involved in campaigning and negotiations for India's independence, publishing journals, advocating political rights and social freedom for Dalits, and contributing significantly to the establishment of the state of India. In 1956, he converted to Buddhism initiating mass conversions of Dalits. He died six months shortly after conversion.
In 1990, the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred upon Ambedkar. Ambedkar's legacy includes numerous memorials and depictions in popular culture.Bronze (racial classification)
Bronze race (Spanish: raza de bronce) is a term used since the early 20th century by Latin American writers of the indigenista and americanista schools to refer to the mestizo population that arose in the Americas with the arrival of Latin European (particularly Spanish) colonists and their intermingling with the New World's Amerindian peoples.
Mexican poet Amado Nervo wrote "La Raza de Bronce" ("The Bronze Race") as an elegiac poem in honor of former president Benito Juárez in 1902. Bolivian indigenista writer Alcides Arguedas used the term in his 1919 work, La Raza de Bronce, a study of the natives of the Andean altiplano. It was later used by Mexican luminary José Vasconcelos in La Raza Cósmica (1925).
The term was revived in the 1960s by Chicano ethnic group MEChA to refer to Latinos in the United States and the people in Mexico as a unified "race", similar to the black and white races. In this sense it is largely synonymous to the notion of the Chicano nation. The decision to call it a separate "race" may have been influenced by the contemporary negative views of "ethnic" or "nation" based nationalism and positive views of "race" based nationalism. The notion was first enunciated in the Plan Espiritual de Aztlan document. Tribal Culture/Ethnicity Latin America Mestizo Nations Bronze|Mestizos in the United States|Mestizo (racial classification)|Bronze(Mestizo;American Indian/Red & Caucasian/White).Caspian race
Caspian race is a term used in racial anthropology by some authors to describe a sub-race of the greater Caucasian race.
The term is used by M. G. Abdushelishvili (1979) as constituting a branch of the Mediterranean race or Irano-Afghan race.
In Soviet-era anthropology, the term was used to include Tats and Azerbaijanis.The phenotype has been said to be prevalent among the Azerbaijanis, Balochs, Kurds, Tats-Muslims. Kumyks and Tsakhurs.
Genrietta Leonidovna Khit states that as a form of racial admixture the Caspian subtype is represented among Turkmens and Talyshs.Dinaric race
The Dinaric race, also known as the Adriatic race, were terms used by certain physical anthropologists in the early to mid-20th century to describe the perceived predominant phenotype of the contemporary ethnic groups of southeast Europe (a sub-type of Caucasoid race).East Baltic race
The East Baltic race is one of the subcategories of the Europid (Caucasian) race, into which it was divided by biological anthropologists and scientific racists in the early 20th century. Such racial typologies have been rejected by modern anthropology for several reasons.The term East Baltic race was coined by the anthropologist Rolf Nordenstreng, but was popularised by the race theorist Hans F. K. Günther. This race were living in Finland, Estonia and north-western Russia. It was characterized as "short-headed, broad-faced, with heavy, massive under-jaw, chin not prominent, flat, rather broad, short nose with low bridge; stiff, light (ash-blond) hair; light (grey or whitish blue) eyes, standing out; light skin with a greyish undertone.The American Eugenics Society described East Baltic people as being Mongolized.The Nazi philologist Josef Nadler declared the East Baltic race to be the main source of German Romanticism. Also in the Third Reich the philologist Julius Petersen wrote that Ludwig Tieck's Romanticism might have been promoted by his possible Slavic heritage, referring to the American biographer Edwin H. Zeydel's theory, that Tieck's grandmother was Russian.Ethiopid race
Ethiopid (also spelled Aethiopid, Erythriote) is a historical racial classification of humans. It was equivalent with the Eastern Hamite division of the Caucasian race.Heredity in Relation to Eugenics
Heredity in Relation to Eugenics is a book by American eugenicist Charles Benedict Davenport, published in 1911. It argued that many human traits were genetically inherited, and that it would therefore be possible to selectively breed people for desirable traits to improve the human race. It was printed and published with money and support of the Carnegie Institution. The book was widely used as a text for medical schools in the United States and abroad.In its time, the book was a success and became one of the most influential books in the early-20th century eugenics movement in the United States. By the 1940's, however, the science in the book had become to generally be regarded as seriously flawed, and the book was blamed by some for contributing to widespread eugenic sterilization programs in the United States and to the racist policies of Nazi Germany.Historical definitions of races in India
Various attempts have been made, under the British Raj and since, to classify the population of India according to a racial typology. After independence, in pursuance of the government's policy to discourage distinctions between communities based on race, the 1951 Census of India did away with racial classifications. Today, the national Census of independent India does not recognize any racial groups in India.Some scholars of the colonial epoch attempted to find a method to classify the various groups of India according to the predominant racial theories popular at that time in Europe. This scheme of racial classification was used by the British census of India, which was often integrated with caste system considerations.Irano-Afghan race
The Irano-Afghan race (also known as the Iranid race) is an obsolete term for a physical type most common among populations native to the Iranian plateau. The Irano-Afghan type was classified as belonging to the greater Caucasian race. It was usually associated with the Mediterranean subtype, depending on the authority consulted.Northcaucasian race
Northcaucasian race (also Caucasionic race) is a term
for a proposed sub-race of the larger Caucasian race prosed by Carleton S. Coon (1930).
It comprises the native populations of the North Caucasus, the Balkars, Karachays and Vainakh (Chechens and Ingushs).Robert E. Kuttner
Robert E. Kuttner (March 10, 1927 - February 19, 1987) was an American biologist and white supremacist.S. Anand
S. Anand alias Stephen Anand is an author, publisher and journalist. He, along with D. Ravikumar, founded the publishing house Navayana in 2003, which is "India’s first and only publishing house to focus on the issue of caste from an anticaste perspective." Navayana won the British Council-London Book Fair International Young Publisher of the Year award in 2007.S. Anand co-authored, with Srividya Natarajan, and illustrators Durgabai Vyam and Suresh Vyam, the hugely popular graphic novel Bhimayana: Experiences of Untouchability on the life of B.R. Ambedkar. He has also annotated B.R. Ambedkar's classic Annihilation of Caste; the annotated edition has an introductory essay by Arundhati Roy titled "The Doctor and the Saint".Before starting Navayana, Anand was a journalist with Outlook and Tehelka. He is married to the well-known book editor R. Sivapriya who works with Penguin India.The Races of Europe (Coon)
The Races of Europe is a popular work of physical anthropology by Carleton S. Coon. It was first published in 1939 by Macmillan.The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color: The Threat Against White World-Supremacy (1920), later republished in other titles, like The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy, is a book about geopolitics and racialism by Lothrop Stoddard. The book describes the collapse of white supremacy and colonialism due to population growth among non-white people, rising nationalism in colonized nations, and industrialization in China and Japan. Stoddard advocated restricting non-white migration into white nations, restricting Asian migration to Africa and Latin America and slowly giving Middle Eastern and Asian colonies independence. A noted eugenicist, Stoddard supports a separation of the "primary races" of the world and warns against miscegenation.