Annemarie Schimmel

Annemarie Schimmel (7 April 1922 – 26 January 2003) was an influential German Orientalist and scholar who wrote extensively on Islam and Sufism. Internationally renowned, she was a professor at Harvard University from 1967 to 1992.

Annemarie Schimmel
Annemarie Schimmel
Born7 April 1922
Died26 January 2003 (aged 80)
EducationDoctorate in Islamic civilization and languages, doctorate in history of religions.
OccupationIranologist, Sindhologist, Orientalist, Islamic studies, Sufism studies, Iqbal studies

Early life and education

Schimmel bonngasse
Glass plate in the Bonngasse; Bonn, Germany

Schimmel was born to Protestant and highly cultured middle-class parents in Erfurt, Germany.[1] Her father Paul was a postal worker and her mother Anna belonged to a family with connections to seafaring and international trade.[2] Schimmel remembered her father as "a wonderful playmate, full of fun," and she recalled that her mother made her feel that she was the child of her dreams. She also remembered her childhood home as being full of poetry and literature, though her family was not an academic one.[3]

Having finished high school at age 15, she worked voluntarily for half a year in the Reichsarbeitsdienst (Reich Labor Service). She then began studying at the University of Berlin in 1939, at the age of 17, during the Third Reich (1933-1945), the period of Nazi domination in Europe. At the university, she was deeply influenced by her teacher Hans Heinrich Schaeder, who suggested that she study the Divan of Shams Tabrisi, one of the major works of Jalaluddin Rumi.[1] In November 1941 she received a doctorate with the thesis Die Stellung des Kalifen und der Qadis im spätmittelalterlichen Ägypten (The Position of the Caliph and the Qadi in Late Medieval Egypt). She was then only 19 years old. Not long after, she was drafted by the Auswärtiges Amt (German Foreign Office), where she worked for the next few years while continuing her scholarly studies in her free time.[1] After the end of World War II in Europe, in May 1945, she was detained for several months by U.S. authorities for investigation of her activities as a German foreign service worker, but she was cleared of any suspicion of collaboration with the Nazis. In 1946, at the age of 23, she became a professor of Arabic and Islamic studies at the University of Marburg, Germany. She was married briefly in the 1950s, but domestic life did not suit her, and she soon returned to her scholarly studies. She earned a second doctorate at Marburg in the history of religions (Religionswissenschaft) in 1954.

Later life and scholarly career

Annemarie Schimmel 001
Annemarie Schimmel tomb with a quotation from Ali ibn Abitaleb: "People are asleep. When they die, they wake up."

A turning point in Schimmel's life came in 1954 when she was appointed Professor of the History of Religion at Ankara University. She spent five years in the capital city of Turkey teaching in Turkish and immersing herself in the culture and mystical tradition of the country. She was the first woman and the first non-Muslim to teach theology at the university. In 1967 she inaugurated the Indo-Muslim studies program at Harvard University and remained on the faculty there for the next twenty-five years. While living in quarters on the Harvard campus, Schimmel often visited New York City, where, as a consultant at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, she was famed for her ability to date manuscripts and objects from the style of calligraphy in or on them. Her memory of calligraphic styles was almost photographic. During the 1980s, she served on the editorial board of the Encyclopedia of Religion, published in 16 volumes (Macmillan, 1988) under the aegis of Mircea Eliade. In 1992, upon her retirement from Harvard, she was named Professor Emerita of Indo-Muslim Culture. During this period, she was also an honorary professor at the University of Bonn. After leaving Harvard, she returned to Germany, where she lived in Bonn until her death in 2003. Despite her love for Islamic cultures, she remained a devout Lutheran all her life [4]

Schimmel taught generations of students in a unique style that included lecturing with her eyes closed and reciting long passages of mystical poetry from memory. She was multilingual—besides German, English, and Turkish, she spoke Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and Punjabi—and her interests ranged across the Muslim landscape. She published more than fifty books and hundreds of articles on Islamic literature, mysticism, and culture, and she translated Persian, Urdu, Arabic, Sindhi, and Turkish poetry and literature into English and German.[5] Her particular fondness for cats led her to write a book about their role in Islamic literature, and her interest in mysticism resulted in a book about numerical symbolism in various cultures. Her consuming passion, however, was Sufism, the mystical branch of Islam. Even prominent Sufis acknowledged her as one of the foremost experts on their history and tradition.

Awards and honors

For her works on Islam, Sufism, and Muhammad Iqbal, a prominent philosopher and national poet of Pakistan, the government of Pakistan honored Schimmel with its highest civil awards,

She was given other awards from many countries of the world, including the 1995 prestigious Peace Prize of the German Book Trade. This award caused a controversy in Germany, as she had defended the outrage of the Islamic world against Salman Rushdie, author of The Satanic Verses (1988), a novel, in a television interview.[7] Schimmel's award speech is available online in translation, entitled "A Good Word Is Like a Good Tree."[8]

Among other awards and honors are the following.

  • 1965 Friedrich Rückert Prize of the City of Schweinfurt, Germany
  • 1978 Foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences[9]
  • 1980 Johann Heinrich Voss Prize for Translation from the German Academy for Language and Literature
  • 1989 Grand Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
  • 1990 Golden Owl award of the German Socratic Society, for outstanding scholarship
  • 1992 Dr. Leopold Lucas Prize of the University of Tübingen
  • 25 October 1996, Order of Merit of the Republic of Turkey
  • 1996 Egyptian Order of Merit for Art and Science, First Class
  • 1997 Honorary membership in the Central Council of Muslims in Germany
  • 2001 Reuchlin Prize of the City of Pforzheim, Germany, for outstanding contributions in the humanities
  • 2002 Do'stlik Order of the Republic of Uzbekistan, for the promotion of friendship and mutual understanding between nations
  • 2002 Muhammad Nafi Tschelebi Peace Prize of the Central Islamic Archive Institute of Germany, Soen, a prestigious award for Jewish-Christian-Muslim dialogue
  • 2005 Name engraved in the "Walk of Fame" street in the City of Bonn

Schimmel also received honorary degrees from three Pakistani universities (Sind, Quaid-i-Azam, and Peshawar), from the Faculty of Theology at Uppsala University, Sweden (1986)[10] , and from Selçuk University in Turkey.

Selected works

  • As Through a Veil : Mystical Poetry in Islam (376 pages). New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. ISBN 9781851682744.
  • And Muhammad Is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety (367 pages). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985. ISBN 0807841285.
  • Nightingales under the Snow: Poems. London and New York : Khaniqahi Nimatullahi Publications, 1994. ISBN 0933546548.
  • Anvari's Divan: A Pocket Book for Akbar. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994.
  • A Dance of Sparks: Imagery of Fire in Ghalib's Poetry. New Delhi: Ghalib Academy, 1979.
  • A Two-Colored Brocade: The Imagery of Persian Poetry. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. ISBN 0807820504.
  • Deciphering the Signs of God: A Phenomenological Approach to Islam (314 pages). The 1991-1992 Gifford Lectures. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994. ISBN 0791419827.
  • Gabriel's Wing: Study into the Religious Ideas of Sir Muhammad Iqbal. Karachi: Iqbal Academy, 1989. ISBN 969416012X.
  • Mystical Dimensions of Islam (512 pages). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975. ISBN 0807812714. Spanish translation: Las dimensiones místicas del Islam, translated by A. López Tobajas and M. Tabuyo Ortega. Madrid: Trotta, 2002. ISBN 8481644862.
  • Introducción al Sufismo (152 pages). Barcelona: Editorial Kairós, 2007.
  • I Am Wind, You Are Fire: The Life and Work of Rumi. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 1997. Reissued as Rumi's World : The Life and Works of the Great Sufi Poet. Boston: Shambhala Publications, 2001. ISBN 0877736111.
  • Im Reich der Grossmoguls: Geschichte, Kunst, Kultur. Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck, 2000. English translation: The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art, and Culture (352 pages). London: Reaktion Books, 2004. ISBN 1861892519.
  • Look! This Is Love. Boston: Shambhala Centaur Editions, 1996. ISBN 1570622248.
  • The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalaloddinn Rumi. London: East-West Publications, 1980.
  • Islamic Literatures of India. Wiesbaden : Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1973. ISBN 3447015098.
  • Mohammad Iqbal, Poet and Philosopher: A Collection of Translations, Essays, and Other Articles. Karachi : Pakistan-German Forum, 1960.
  • Classical Urdu Literature: From the Beginning to Iqbal. A History of Indian Literature, v. 8. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1975. ISBN 344701671X.
  • Islam: An Introduction (166 pages). Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992. ISBN 0791413276.
  • We Believe in One God: The Experience of God in Christianity and Islam, edited by Annemarie Schimmel and Abdoldjavad Falaturi; translated by Gerald Blaczszak and Annemarie Schimmel. London: Burns & Oates, 1979.
  • Islamic Calligraphy. Evanston, Ill.: Adler's Foreign Books, 1970.
  • Calligraphy and Islamic Culture. New York University Press, 1990. ISBN 0814778968.
  • Islamic Names: An Introduction (134 pages). Edinburgh University Press, 1990. ISBN 0852246129.
  • Meine Seele ist eine Frau. Munich: Kosel Verlag, 1995. English translation: My Soul Is a Woman: The Feminine in Islam (192 pages). New York and London: Continuum, 1997. ISBN 9780826414441.
  • Make a Shield from Wisdom: Selected Verses from Nasir-I Khusraw's Divan (112 pages), translated and introduced by Annemarie Schimmel. London: I.B. Tauris, in association with the International Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2001. ISBN 1860647251.
  • Pain and Grace: A Study of Two Mystical Writers of Eighteenth-Century Muslim India. Leiden: Brill, 1976. ISBN 9004047719.
  • Das Mysterium der Zahl (310 pages). Munich: Eugen Diederichs Verlag, 1983. English edition, The Mystery of Numbers (314 pages). New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0195089197.
  • Islam and the Wonders of Creation: The Animal Kingdom. London: Al-Furqan, Islamic Heritage Foundation 2003. ISBN 9781873992814.
  • Introduction to Cats of Cairo: Egypt's Enduring Legacy, with photographs by Lorraine Chittock. New York: Abbeville Press, 1995. Reissued as Cairo Cats: Egypt's Enduring Legacy (96 pages). American University in Cairo Press, 2005. ISBN 9771724312.

See also

  • Malamatiyya
  • Iranology
  • Famous Americans in Iran
  • Annemarie Schimmel Festschrift: Essays Presented to Annemarie Schimmel on the Occasion of Her Retirement from Harvard University by Her Colleagues, Students, and Friends (334 pages), edited by Maria Eva Subtelny. Journal of Turkish Studies 18 (1994). Published by the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Harvard University.


  1. ^ a b c Ali Asani; William Graham; Roy Mottahedeh; Wheeler Thackston; Wolfhart Heinrichs (16 November 2004). "Annemarie Schimmel". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  2. ^ Annemarie Schimmel, A Life of Learning. The Charles Homer Haskins Lecture, 1993. New York: American Council of Learned Societies, 1993. Autobiographical reflections and reminiscences of a lifetime of work as a scholar.
  3. ^ Der Islam. Volume 80, Issue 2, Page 213
  4. ^ Stephen Kinzer, "Annemarie Schimmel, Influential Scholar of Islam, Dies at 80," obituary, New York Times, 2 February 2003.
  5. ^ Kinzer, "Annemarie Schimmel, Influential Scholar of Islam, Dies at 80" (2003). This obituary is the source of much biographical information given herein.
  6. ^ Obituary: Professor Annemarie Schimmel Archived May 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Ascherson, Neal. "The itch of guilt won't go away while Rushdie remains condemned".
  8. ^ Peace Prize Award speech (
  9. ^ "Mrs. Annemarie Schimmel (1922 - 2003)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  10. ^

External links

  • Burzine K. Waghmar, Professor Annemarie Schimmel (April 7, 1922 to January 26, 2003), Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 13 (2003): 377-79. [1]
  • Burzine K. Waghmar, Annemarie Schimmel, The Guardian, Feb. 6, 2003, p. 24. [2]
  • Shusha Guppy, Professor Annemarie Schimmel, The Independent, Jan. 30, 2003.[3]
  • Leonard Lewisohn, Annemarie Schimmel, The Times, Feb. 6, 2003.[4]
  • Annemarie Schimmel, A Life of Learning, autobiographical brochure, Charles Homer Haskins Lecture, American Council of Learned Societies, Williamsburg 1993.[5]
Canal Bank Road

Canal Bank Road (Punjabi, Urdu: سڑک نہر‬‎, Sarak-e-Nehr), also known as Khayaban-e-Annemarrie Schimmel (Punjabi, Urdu: خیابان اننمرے سچمل ‬‎), is a major six lane east-west signal free road which extends along the banks of the Lahore Canal in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The road serves as a major central artery of Lahore and extends from Multan Road in Thokar Niaz Beg to BRB Canal Road in Khaira, passing through the neighbourhoods of Johar, Gulberg, Mughalpura and Harbanspura. Originally known as Canal Bank Road, in 2000, the Government of Pakistan renamed Canal Bank Road in honour of Annemarie Schimmel, for her works in Sufism and Muhammad Iqbal, a prominent philosopher and national poet of Pakistan.

Die Welt des Islams

Die Welt des Islams or the International Journal for the Study of Modern Islam is an academic journal on Islam and the Muslim world published by Brill. The journal publishes articles in three languages—English, French, and German—and its German title translates into English as "The World of Islam" and French as "Le Monde de l'Islam". It is one of the oldest Western journals for the study of Islam. It has published articles by C. H. Becker, Miriam Cooke, Maxime Rodinson, Annemarie Schimmel, Bernard Lewis, Hamid Algar, and Muhammad Hamidullah.

Fikrun wa Fann

Fikrun wa Fann (meaning Art and Thought in English) is a biannual multilingual cultural magazine owned by Goethe Institute.


Iblīs (or Eblis) is a figure frequently occurring in the Quran, commonly in relation to the creation of Adam and the command to prostrate himself before him. After he refused, he was cast out of heaven. For many classical scholars, he was an angel, but regarded as a jinn in most contemporary scholarship. Due to his fall from God's grace, he is often compared to Satan in Christian traditions. In Islamic tradition, Iblis is often identified with Al-Shaitan ("the Devil"). However, while Shaitan is used exclusively for an evil force, Iblis himself holds a more ambivalent role in Islamic traditions.

Javid Nama

The Javid Nama (Persian: جاوید نامہ‎), or Book of Eternity, is a Persian book of poetry written by Allama Muhammad Iqbal and published in 1932. It is considered to be one of the masterpieces of Iqbal. It is inspired by Dante's Divine Comedy, and just as Dante's guide was Virgil, Iqbal is guided by Moulana Rumi. Both of them visit different spheres in the heavens coming across different people. Iqbal uses the pseudonym Zinda Rud for himself in this book.

It was translated into English by Arthur J. Arberry and into German as Dschavidnma: Das Buch der Ewigkeit by Annemarie Schimmel and in Italian as Il poema Celeste by Alessandro Bausani. Schimmel also prepared a Turkish translation, Cevidname, based on her German edition.

List of religious studies scholars

Religious studies is the academic field of multi-disciplinary, secular study of religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions.

Edwin David Aponte

Raymond Apple, Australian Rabbi, writer on Jewish, interfaith and freemasonic issues

Karen Armstrong, author of A History of God

Miguel Asín Palacios, Spanish Arabist, work on the mutual influence between Christianity and Islam

Robert Baker Aitken, author of numerous academic books on Zen Buddhism

Reza Aslan, author of Zealot: The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth, professor of creative writing at the University of California, Riverside

Edmond La Beaume Cherbonnier, professor and scholar, author of Hardness of Heart (1955)

Catherine Bell, ritual studies scholar

Herbert Berg, scholar of Islamic origins

Peter Berger, author of The Sacred Canopy

Pascal Boyer, author of Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought

Joseph Epes Brown, author of The Sacred Pipe and Teaching Spirits: Understanding Native American Religious Traditions

Rudolf Bultmann

Frank G. Carver

John Corrigan, co-author of Religion in America, editor of the "Chicago History of American Religion" book series (University of Chicago Press)

Frank M. Cross, emeritus professor Harvard Divinity School, interpreter of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Ioan P. Culianu, author of The HarperCollins Concise Guide to World Religions and Out of This World

Miguel A. De La Torre

Arti Dhand, associate professor at the University of Toronto, Department for the Study of Religion

Wendy Doniger, (formerly published as Wendy O'Flaherty) is a leading researcher in Hinduism among other topics on religion.

Émile Durkheim, author of The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, a seminal work on sociology of religion

Diana L. Eck

Bart Ehrman, author, and James A. Gray Distinguished Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Mircea Eliade, author of The Sacred and the Profane and History of Religious Ideas, vol.I-III

Steven Engler, Canadian scholar of religion

Desiderius Erasmus

Carl W. Ernst, specialist in Islamic studies, author of Sufism: An Introduction to the Mystical Tradition of Islam

Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard

James George Frazer, author of The Golden Bough

Sigmund Freud, author of Totem and Taboo, The Future of an Illusion, and Moses and Monotheism

Rajmohan Gandhi, author of Revenge and Reconciliation

Arnold van Gennep

Anthony Giddens

René Girard, whose theological works include Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World

Stephen D. Glazier, editor of The Encyclopedia of African and African American Religions

Richard Gombrich

Justo Gonzalez, author of The Story of Christianity and a leading figure in Hispanic theology

Wouter Hanegraaff, author of New Age Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought

Ishwar C. Harris

Nathan O. Hatch, author of "The Democratization of American Christianity"

Friedrich Heiler

Steven Heine, scholar of East Asian Buddhism, especially Zen and Dogen

Susan Henking, scholar of religion, gender and sexuality, and president of Shimer College

Peter L Hobson, author of The Hermeneutics of Followship: Relocating Narratives of Discipleship

Zora Neale Hurston, author of Mules and Men and Hoodoo in America

Ada Maria Isasi-Diaz

William James, author of The Varieties of Religious Experience

Grace Jantzen

Carl G. Jung

Klaus Klostermaier

Adam Kotsko, author of Zizek and Theology and The Politics of Redemption, and translator of Agamben

Hans Küng, Catholic theologian, author of Tracing the Way. Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions

Gerardus van der Leeuw

Peggy Levitt

Bruce Lincoln (University of Chicago), author of Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11, Theorizing Myth: Narrative, Ideology, and Scholarship and Discourse and the Construction in Society

Philip Lindholm

Bronislaw Kaspar Malinowski

Martin E. Marty (University of Chicago), author of the series Modern American Religion, editor of The Fundamentalism Project

John Macquarrie, Christian Existentialist and Systematic Theologian

Russell T. McCutcheon

Josef W. Meri

George Foot Moore, scholar and theologian, author of History of Religions (two wolumes – 1914, 1919) and Judaism (two volumes, 1927)

Friedrich Max Müller, editor of Sacred Books of the East

Seyyed Hossein Nasr, author of Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization

Rudolf Otto, author of The Idea of the Holy

Elaine Pagels, author of The Gnostic Gospels

Christopher Partridge, author of The Re-enchantment of the West

Geoffrey Parrinder, former professor at King's College London and author of What World Religions Teach Us (1968)

F. E. Peters, Professor at New York University and author of numerous books on Christianity, Judaism and Islam

Stephen Prothero, Professor at Boston University and author of "American Jesus"; "Religious Literacy"; and "God Is Not One."

Roy Rappaport

Olivier Roy

Arne Runeberg (1912–1979), Finnish sociologist, anthropologist and linguist

Annemarie Schimmel, author of Mystical Dimensions of Islam

Wilhelm Schmidt

Arvind Sharma, author of Women in World Religions

Christian Smith, author of Soul Searching: the Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers

Huston Smith, author of The World's Religions

Jonathan Z. Smith (University of Chicago), author of Map is Not Territory; Imagining Religion: From Babylon to Jonestown and To Take Place: Toward Theory in Ritual

Wilfred Cantwell Smith

William Robertson Smith, Scottish theologian, early work in the "higher criticism" of the Bible

Ninian Smart, author of Dimensions of the Sacred

Nathan Söderblom

Rodney Stark

Michael Stausberg

John Shelby Spong, author The Sins of Scripture: Exposing the Bible's Texts of Hate to Reveal the God of Love and other works

Einar Thomassen

Toulmin, Joshua (1740–1815), English radical Dissenting minister

Edward Burnett Tylor

Joachim Wach

James Webb, author of The Occult Underground and The Harmonious Circle

Max Weber

Christian K. Wedemeyer

Wesley Wildman

Linda Woodhead, MBE. Director of The Religion and Society Programme

Zakir Naik

Heinrich Robert Zimmer, Indologist, author of Philosophies of India and Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization

Volker Zotz

Ghil'ad Zuckermann, linguist, revivalist, scholar of language, religion and nationhood

Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan

Mirzā Mazhar Jān-i Jānān (Urdu: مرزا مظہر جانِ جاناں‬‎), also known by his laqab Shamsuddīn Habībullāh (1699–1781), was a renowned Naqshbandī Sufi poet of Delhi, distinguished as one the "four pillars of Urdu poetry." He was also known to his contemporaries as the sunnītarāsh, "Sunnicizer", for his absolute, unflinching commitment to and imitation of the Sunnah.He established the Naqshbandī suborder Mazhariyya Shamsiyya.

Qutb Shahi dynasty

The Qutb Shahi dynasty (or Golconda Sultanate) was a territory in south India. It was initially a highly Persianate Muslim Turkmens dynasty established in the 16th century that eventually adopted the regional culture of the Deccan (Telugu culture, language and the newly developed Deccani idiom of Urdu).

Its members were collectively called the Qutub Shahis and were the ruling family of the kingdom of Golkonda, in and near the modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. The Golconda sultanate was constantly in conflict with the Adil Shahis and Nizam Shahis. In 1636, Shah Jahan forced the Qutb Shahis to recognize Mughal suzerainty, which lasted until 1687 when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the Golcondan sultanate.


Reza is an Arabic name, originating from the Arabic word رضا‎, Riḍā, which literally means 'the fact of being pleased or contented; contentment, approval". In religious context, this name is interpreted as satisfaction or "perfect contentment with God's will or decree". It is an Arabic word, and the name is neutral and not one used only by a particular sect, and is thus used by (Arab) Muslims, Arab Christians and Arab Druze. According to Annemarie Schimmel, "riḍā is closely related to shukr", Shukr is an Arabic term denoting thankfulness and gratitude. It is also frequently given as a male first name in Shīʻa Muslim communities as the 8th Shia Imam is named Ali ar-Ridha. Sometimes alternately spelled as Ridha, Rida, Redha. The name is widely popular in Iran, as the Ali ar-Ridha is buried there.


Rida (Arabic: رضا‎, Riḍā) is one of the lives discussed in Sufism as well as early Islamic belief. The term "riḍā" literally means 'the fact of being pleased or contented; contentment, approval'. In religious context, this term is interpreted as satisfaction or "perfect contentment with God's will or decree". It is also frequently given as a male first name in Shīʻa Muslim communities, however is it also a male name given in the Arab Christian community, and in the Druze community. Sometimes alternately spelled: Ridha, after the eighth Shīʻa Imām, ʻAlī ibn Mūsā al-Riḍā (Ali ar-Ridha).


Schimmel as a surname may refer to:

Annemarie Schimmel (1922–2003), German Islam scholar

Corrie Schimmel (born 1939), Dutch swimmer

Hendrik Jan Schimmel (1823–1906), Dutch poet and novelist

Jason Schimmel (born 1978), American musician from the band Estradasphere

Michael Schimmel (1896–1981), honorary trustee of Pace University

Michael Schimmel Center for the Arts, principal theatre of pace University, New York City, named after Michael Schimmel

Paul Schimmel (born 1940), American biophysical chemist

Paul Schimmel (curator) (born 1954), American curator of contemporary art

Robert Schimmel (1950–2010), American stand-up comedian

Sean Schimmel, American swimming coach

Shoni Schimmel (born 1992), American basketball player

Sven Schimmel (born 1989), German football defender

Wilhelm Schimmel, German piano manufacturer founded by Wilhelm Schimmel (1854–1946)

William Schimmel (born 1946), American accordionist

Sohni Mahiwal

Sohni Mahiwal or Suhni Mehar (Punjabi: سوہنی معینوال‬, ਸੋਹਣੀ ਮਹੀਂਵਾਲ; Sindhi: سهڻي ميهار‎) is one of the four popular tragic romances of Punjab. The others are Sassi Punnun, Mirza Sahiba, and Heer Ranjha. Sohni Mahiwal is a tragic love story which inverts the classical motif of Hero and Leander. The heroine Sohni, unhappily married to a man she despises, swims every night across the river using an earthenware pot to keep afloat in the water, to where her beloved Mehar herds buffaloes. One night her sister-in-law replaces the earthenware pot with a vessel of unbaked clay, which dissolves in water and she dies in the whirling waves of the river.The story also appears in Shah Jo Risalo and is one of seven popular tragic romances from Sindh. The other six tales are Umar Marui, Sassui Punhun, Lilan Chanesar, Noori Jam Tamachi, Sorath Rai Diyach and Momal Rano commonly known as Seven Heroines (Sindhi: ست سورميون ‎) of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai. Shah begins the story at the most dramatic moment, when a young woman cries out for help in the cold river, attacked by crocodiles. The whole chapter (Sur Sohni) is merely an extension of this dreadful and yet hoped-for moment when the vessel of her body breaks and she, faithful to her pre-eternal love-covenant with Mehar, will be forever united through death.

Sohni is one of the favourite folktales both in Sindh and Punjab.

Sufism in Sindh

Sufism in Sindh covers the tradition of Sufism in Sindh, which is reputed to be an area of mystics. Sindh is famous for the enormous number of saints and mystics who lived there and preached peace and brotherhood. According to popular legend, 125,000 of them are buried on Makli Hill near Thatta. There is an abundance of Sufi literature produced in Sindh throughout history.

Tarkhan dynasty

The Tarkhan dynasty (Urdu: سلسله ترخان‎), or Turkhan dynasty, was established by Turkic Tarkhan and ruled Sindh, Pakistan from 1554 to 1591 AD. General Mirza Isa Beg founded the Tarkhan dynasty in Sindh after the death of Shah Husayn Arghun of the Arghun dynasty. Mughal emperor Akbar annexed Sindh after defeating the last Tarkhan ruler.

Tomb of Allama Iqbal

The Tomb of Allama Muhammad Iqbal, or Mazaar-e-Iqbal (Urdu: مزار اقبال‬‎) is a mausoleum located within the Hazuri Bagh, in the Pakistani city of Lahore, capital of Punjab province.

Tor Andræ

Tor Julius Efraim Andræ (Swedish: [ˈtuːr anˈdreː]; 9 July 1885 in Vena – 24 February 1947 in Linköping) was a Swedish scholar of comparative religion and bishop of Linköping from 1936.

Coming from a clerical family, Tor Andræ studied Theology at Uppsala University, where he completed his Ph.D. in 1917. He became professor of the History of Religions at the University College of Stockholm in 1927, and in Uppsala two years later. He was appointed bishop of Linköping in 1936 and was the same year briefly Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs (an archaic title which in reality meant Minister of Education) in the short-lived cabinet of Axel Pehrsson-Bramstorp.

Andræ was a student of Nathan Söderblom, whom he succeeded as member of the Swedish Academy in 1932. As a historian of religion, his particular interest lay in the early history of Islam, particularly its Jewish and Christian origins, and in the psychology of religion, but he also combined these interests in the study of early Islamic mysticism.

In 1985, Annemarie Schimmel remarked that until then only one study had "tried specifically to depict Muhammad's role in Islamic piety. Even today Tor Andrae's Die person Muhammeds in lehre und glaube seiner Gemeinde (1918) remains the standard work in this area, unsuperseded by any other major study, though complemented by random remarks in numerous modern work on Sufism. It is, however, unfortunately too little known even among Islamicists."


Waḥy (Arabic: وحي‎, IPA: [waħj]; also spelled wahi) is the Arabic word for revelation. In Islamic belief, revelations are God's Word delivered by his chosen individuals – known as Messenger prophets – to mankind. In Islam, the Quran is considered a wahy given to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. The word awha (أوحى awḥá) occurs in a number of shades of meaning in the Quran, each of them indicating the main underlying idea of directing or guiding someone or something. For example, "And inspired in each heaven its command," (Fussilat-12). "And your lord inspired to the bee," (An Nahl-68). "And we inspired to the mother of Mosses," (Al Qasas-7). Islamic scholars say that there is a clear difference between these kind of "wahy "and "wahy" to the Messenger Prophet. The prophets were very much conscious about revelations and they firmly believed that the revelations were true and came from the Almighty God. The word "wahy" (revelation) is derived from awha.

Wheeler Thackston

Wheeler M. Thackston, Jr. (born 1944) is an Orientalist and distinguished editor and translator of numerous Chaghatai, Arabic and Persian literary and historical sources.

Thackston is a graduate of Princeton's Oriental Studies department, where he was a member of Princeton's Colonial Club, and Harvard's Near Eastern Studies department (Ph.D., 1974), where he was Professor of the Practice of Persian and other Near Eastern Languages since 1972. He studied at Princeton under Martin Dickson and at Harvard with Annemarie Schimmel. Thackston retired from teaching at Harvard in 2007.

His best-known works are Persian and Classical and Qur'anic Arabic grammars and his translations of the Babur-nama, the memoirs of the Mughal prince and emperor Babur, and the memoirs of Emperor Jahangir, or the Jahangir-nama. He has also produced important manuals or editions of texts in Levantine Arabic, Ottoman Turkish, Syriac, Uzbek, Luri, and Kurdish.

He has also studied Urdu and Sindhi but has not published texts from these languages.

Thackston has retired from his position at the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Harvard University. He currently resides in Cambridge, Massachusetts.


Ḥ-S-N (Arabic: ح س ن‎) is the triconsonantal root of many Arabic words. Many of those words are used as names. The basic meaning expressed by the root is "good", "handsome" or "beautiful".This root occurs 194 times in the Qur'an, in 12 derived forms.

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