Anne of Austria

Anne of Austria (French: Anne d'Autriche;[1] 22 September 1601 – 20 January 1666), a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651. During her regency, Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister. Accounts of French court life of her era emphasize her difficult marital relations with her husband, her closeness to her son Louis XIV, and her disapproval of her son's marital infidelity to her niece and daughter-in-law Maria Theresa.

Anne of Austria
MariaAnnaofSpain06
Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1620s
Queen consort of France
Tenure24 November 1615 – 14 May 1643
Regent of France
Tenure14 May 1643 – 7 September 1651
Born22 September 1601
Benavente Palace, Valladolid, Spain
Died20 January 1666 (aged 64)
Paris, France
Burial
Basilica of St Denis, Paris, France
SpouseLouis XIII, King of France
Issue
Full name
Spanish: Ana María Mauricia de Austria y Austria
French: Anne-Marie-Mauricie d'Autriche
HouseHabsburg
FatherPhilip III, King of Spain
MotherMargaret of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Signature
Anne of Austria's signature

Early life

Juan Pantoja de la Cruz 018
Anne at the age of six, 1607.

Born at the Palace of the Counts of Benavente in Valladolid, Spain, and baptised Ana María Mauricia, she was the eldest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and his wife Margaret of Austria. She held the titles of Infanta of Spain and of Portugal (since her father was king of Portugal as well as Spain) and Archduchess of Austria. Despite her Spanish birth, she was referred to as Anne of Austria because the rulers of Spain belonged to the senior branch of the House of Austria,[2] known later as the House of Habsburg. This designation was relatively uncommon before the 19th century.

Anne was raised mainly at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid. Unusual for a royal princess, Anne grew up close to her parents, who were very religious. She was raised to be religious too, and was often taken to visit monasteries during her childhood. In 1611, she lost her mother, who died in childbirth. Despite her grief, Anne did her best to take care of her younger siblings, who referred to her with affection as their mother.

Life in France

Queen of France

At age eleven, Anne was betrothed to King Louis XIII of France. Her father gave her a dowry of 500,000 crowns and many beautiful jewels.[3] For fear that Louis XIII would die early, the Spanish court stipulated that she would return to Spain with her dowry, jewels, and wardrobe if he did die.[3] Prior to the marriage, Anne renounced all succession rights she had for herself and her descendants by Louis, with a provision that she would resume her rights should she be left a childless widow. On 24 November 1615, Louis and Anne were married by proxy in Burgos while Louis's sister, Elisabeth of France, and Anne's brother, Philip IV of Spain, were married by proxy in Bordeaux. These marriages followed the tradition of cementing military and political alliances between France and Spain that began with the marriage of Philip II of Spain to Elisabeth of Valois in 1559 as part of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. Anne and Elisabeth were exchanged on the Isle of Pheasants between Hendaye and Fuenterrabía. She was lively and beautiful during her youth. She was also a noted equestrian, a taste her son, Louis, would inherit. At the time, Anne had many admirers, including the handsome Duke of Buckingham, although her intimates believed their flirtations remained chaste.

Anna of Austria by Rubens (1622-1625, Norton Simon Museum)
Anne of Austria, coronation costume, by Peter Paul Rubens

Anne and Louis, both fourteen years old, were pressured to consummate their marriage in order to forestall any possibility of future annulment, but Louis ignored his bride. Louis's mother, Marie de' Medici, continued to conduct herself as queen of France, without showing any deference to her daughter-in-law. Anne, surrounded by her entourage of high-born Spanish ladies-in-waiting headed by Inés de la Torre, continued to live according to Spanish etiquette and failed to improve her French.

In 1617, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, Duke of Luynes, to dispense with the influence of his mother in a palace coup d'état and had her favorite Concino Concini assassinated on 26 April of that year. During the years he was in the ascendancy, the Duke of Luynes attempted to remedy the formal distance between Louis and his queen. He sent away Inés de la Torre and the other Spanish ladies and replaced them with French ones, notably the Princesse of Conti (Louise Marguerite of Lorraine) and his wife Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, with whom he organized court events that would bring the couple together under amiable circumstances. Anne began to dress in the French manner, and in 1619 Luynes pressed the king to bed his queen. Some affection developed, to the point where it was noted that Louis was distracted during a serious illness of the queen.

A series of stillbirths disenchanted the king and served to chill their relations. On 14 March 1622, while playing with her ladies, Anne fell on a staircase and suffered her second stillbirth. Louis blamed her for the incident and was angry with the Duchess of Luynes for having encouraged the queen in what was seen as negligence. Henceforth, the king had less tolerance for the influence that the duchess had over Anne, and the situation deteriorated after the death of her husband Luynes in December 1621. The king's attention was monopolized by his war against the Protestants, while the queen defended the remarriage of her inseparable companion Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, center of all court intrigue, to her lover Claude, Duke of Chevreuse, in 1622.

Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor, who served as his first minister from 1624 until his death in 1642. Richelieu's foreign policy of struggle against the Habsburgs, who surrounded France on two fronts, inevitably created tension between Louis and Anne, who remained childless for another sixteen years.

Under the influence of Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, the queen let herself be drawn into political opposition to Richelieu and became embroiled in several intrigues against his policies. Vague rumors of betrayal circulated in the court, notably her supposed involvement, first, with the conspiracies of the Count of Chalais that Marie organized in 1626, and then those of the king's treacherous favorite, Cinq-Mars, who had been introduced to him by Richelieu.

In 1626, the Cardinal placed Madeleine du Fargis as Dame d'atour in the household of the queen to act as a spy, but she was instead to become a trusted confidant and favorite of the queen. In December 1630, Louis XIII reduced Anne's court and purged a great amount of her favorites as punishment for a plot in which the queen had cooperated with queen dowager Marie de' Medici in an attempt to depose Cardinal Richelieu, and among those fired were Madame de Motteville and Madeleine du Fargis.[4] Queen Anne asked the Cardinal to intervene so that she might keep du Fargis. When he refused, she swore that she would never forgive him.[4] Du Fargis left for Brussels, where her spouse had sided with the king's brother Gaston, Duke of Orléans against the monarch. After the invasion of Gaston in 1632, letters were discovered from du Fargis to people in Paris describing the plans of a marriage between Gaston and Anne after the death of Louis XIII.[4] Anne was questioned and confirmed that the letters were written by du Fargis, but denied any knowledge of the plans.[4]

In 1635, France declared war on Spain, placing the queen in an untenable position. Her secret correspondence with her brother Phillip IV of Spain was not the only communication she had with the Spanish. She also corresponded with the Spanish ambassador Mirabel and the governor of the Spanish Netherlands.[4] With the assistance of Anne's servant La Porte, who acted as courier, Madeleine du Fargis and Marie de Rohan acted as agents for her secret correspondence and channeled her letters to other contacts. In July 1637, Anne gave du Fargis the mission to examine whether there was any truth to the rumor of an alliance between France and England, as this would force Spain to cut off diplomatic connections to France and disturb her network of couriers between the Spanish embassies of Paris and Brussels. [4]

On 11 August 1637, Anne came under so much suspicion that Richelieu issued an investigation. Her courier La Porte as well as the abbess of Anne's favorite convent Val-de-Grâce (where Anne had written many of her secret letters) were questioned and admitted to having participated in channeling the queen's secret correspondence.[4] Anne initially swore on the Holy Sacrament that she had participated in no illegal correspondence, but finally admitted her guilt on 15 August.[4] On 17 August, Queen Anne was forced to sign covenants regarding her correspondence, which was henceforth open to inspection; she was further banned from visiting convents without permission and was never to be left alone but was always to be in the presence of one of her ladies-in-waiting.[4] This was soon followed up by a purge of her household, where those officials loyal to the queen were replaced by those loyal to the king and the Cardinal. Consequently, count Jean de Galard de Bearn de Brassac, known to be loyal to Richelieu, was appointed chamberlain of her household, and his spouse Catherine de Brassac replaced Marie-Catherine de Senecey as her Première dame d'honneur to keep the queen and her household under control.[4]

Conventual Patronage and the Val-de-Grâce

As part of her role as a member of Spanish royalty, Anne visited churches and convents across France, where she met Marguerite de Veny d'Arbouze at the Notre-Dame-de-Grâce de la-Ville-d'Evêque. As well as securing from the King the position of Abbess at the Benedictine Val-de-Grâce de Notre-Dame-de-la-Crèche for Marguerite in 1618, Anne purchased lands and transferred the convent to Paris in 1621. She was named the new foundress of the convent in the same year. Her patronage included the building of a small church and an apartment for herself between 1620-1625, against the wishes of both Louis and Cardinal Richelieu.[5]

The Val-de-Grâce was commissioned by Anne in 1645, which was undertaken initially by Francois Mansart, who was dismissed in 1646 and succeeded by Jacques Lemercier. The Val-de-Grâce became Anne's main place of worship and would later gain dynastic significance during the Fronde when Anne was Queen Regent. IIn 1662, Anne acquired the heart of her ancestor, Anne Elizabeth of France, and placed it in the Chapel of Saint Anne. She, herself, was interred in 1666 in the Chapel of Saint Sacrament, alongside the body of Marguerite d'Arbouze.[6]

Birth of an heir

Louis XIII, Anne of Austria, and their son Louis XIV, flanked by Cardinal Richelieu and the Duchesse de Chevreuse
Louis XIII, Anne, and their son Louis XIV, flanked by Cardinal Richelieu and the Duchesse de Chevreuse.

Despite a climate of distrust, the queen became pregnant once more, a circumstance that contemporary gossip attributed to a single stormy night that prevented Louis from travelling to Saint-Maur and obliged him to spend the night with the queen.[8] Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638, an event that secured the Bourbon line. At this time, Anne was 37.[7] The official newspaper Gazette de France called the birth "a marvel when it was least expected".[7]

The birth of a living son failed to re-establish confidence between the royal couple. However, she conceived again fifteen months later. At Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 21 September 1640, Anne gave birth to her second son, Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, who later founded the modern House of Orléans. Both of her children were placed under the supervision of the royal governess Françoise de Lansac, who was disliked by Anne and loyal to the king and the cardinal.[4]

Richelieu made Louis XIII a gift of his palatial hôtel, the Palais Cardinal, north of the Louvre, in 1636, but the king never took possession of it. Anne left the Louvre Palace to install herself there with her two small sons and remained as regent, hence the name Palais-Royal that the structure still carries.

Regent of France

AnnaofAustria13
Anne of Austria widow, by Charles de Steuben, Versailles. She never lost her love for magnificent jewellery, and she especially loved bracelets, which emphasized her famously beautiful hands

Upon Louis’ death in 1643, Anne was named regent, despite his attempts to prevent her from obtaining the position. With the aid of Pierre Séguier, she had the Parlement de Paris revoke the will of the late king, which would have limited her powers. Their four-year-old son was crowned King Louis XIV of France. Anne assumed the regency but to general surprise entrusted the government to the chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin, who was a protégé of Cardinal Richelieu and figured among the council of the regency. Mazarin left the Hôtel Tubeuf to take up residence at the Palais Royal near Queen Anne. Before long he was believed to be her lover, and, it was hinted, even her husband.

With Mazarin's support, Anne overcame the aristocratic revolt, led by Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, that became known as the Fronde. In 1651, when her son Louis XIV officially came of age, her regency legally ended. However, she kept much power and influence over her son until the death of Mazarin.

Later life

Anne d'Autriche, infante d'Espagne, reine de France, en costume royal, vers 1650, copie autrichienne d'après Beaubrun
Last grand portrait of Anne of Austria, Charles Beaubrun

In 1659, the war with Spain ended with the Treaty of the Pyrenees. The following year, peace was cemented by the marriage of the young King to Anne's niece, the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Theresa of Spain.

In 1661, the same year as the death of Mazarin, an heir to the throne was born, Anne's first grandchild Louis. Many other children would follow, but all in the legitimate line would die except for Louis. Sometime after, Anne retired to the convent of Val-de-Grâce, where she died of breast cancer five years later.

Issue

Anne of Austria had the following children:

Name Lifespan Notes
stillborn child December 1619
stillborn child 14 March 1622 Was said to have lived through birth.
stillborn child 1626
stillborn child April 1631
Louis XIV of France 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715 Married Infanta Maria Theresa of Spain (1638–1683) in 1660. Had issue.
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans 21 September 1640 – 8 June 1701 Married (1) Princess Henrietta Anne of England (1644–1670) in 1661. Had issue. Married (2) Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate (1652–1722) in 1671. Had issue.

In fiction

She is one of the central figures in Alexandre Dumas's novel The Three Musketeers and its sequels Twenty Years After and The Vicomte de Bragelonne, and has thus been portrayed in numerous film adaptations.

Her lady-in-waiting Madame de Motteville wrote the story of the queen's life in her Mémoires d'Anne d'Autriche.

She was portrayed by Alexandra Dowling in the BBC series The Musketeers (2014–2016).

She first appears as a character in the anime, Dinosaur King, in Season 2 Episode 22 "The French Conniption" as a young teen along with a young King Louis and others.

She appeared in the first episode of Season Two of DC's Legends of Tomorrow, "Out of Time", played by Rebecca Roberts.

Gallery

Portrait équestre d'Anne d'Autriche

Anne

Anne of Austria (Queen mother) with her two sons Louis XIV of France and Philippe, Duke of Orléans (unknown artist)

Anne with her sons, Louis and Philippe

Anne of Austria by Rubens (c.1622, Prado)

Anne of Austria, 1622, by Peter Paul Rubens

Royal Monogram of Anne of Austria, Queen of France

Royal monogram as Queen of France

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ The French version of her name is also occasionally used in English, for example, see Jean Delaire, "Romances of the French Throne. VIII. Anne d'Autriche", Womanhood, vol. 8, no. 44 (July, 1902), pp. 91–94. OCLC 875141293.
  2. ^ Fraser, Antonia. Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King (p. 3; Doubleday Press)
  3. ^ a b Martha Walker Freer. The Married Life of Anne of Austria: Queen of France, Mother of Louis Xiv. ISBN 978-1112021442.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kleinman, Ruth (1985). Anne of Austria: Queen of France. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0-8142-0429-5.
  5. ^ Hills, Helen (2003). Architecture and the Politics of Gender in Early Modern Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 48–9. ISBN 0754603091.
  6. ^ Mignot, Claude (2001). Le Val-de-Grâce : l'ermitage d'une reine ([Réimpr.]. ed.). Paris: CNRS Éditions. p. 112. ISBN 2271051444.
  7. ^ a b c Antonia Fraser. Love and Louis XIV: The Women in the Life of the Sun King. ISBN 978-1400033744.
  8. ^ In fact the couple spent the week of 23 to 30 November 1637 together at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the presumed time of the conception of the Dauphin Louis Dieudonné
  9. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp III." . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 120 – via Wikisource.
  10. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Margaretha (Königin von Spanien)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 13 – via Wikisource.
  11. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Kurth, Godefroid (1911). "Philip II" . In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  12. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (Königin von Spanien)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 151 – via Wikisource.
  13. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Karl II. von Steiermark" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 352 – via Wikisource.
  14. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria von Bayern" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 20 – via Wikisource.
  15. ^ a b c d Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor at Encyclopædia Britannica
  16. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Elisabeth (Isabella von Portugal)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 169 – via Wikisource.
  17. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maximilian II." . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 103 – via Wikisource.
  18. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria von Spanien" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 19 – via Wikisource.
  19. ^ Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor at Encyclopædia Britannica
  20. ^ a b Obermayer-Marnach, Eva (1953), "Anna Jagjello", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 1, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, p. 299; (full text online)
  21. ^ a b Goetz, Walter (1953), "Albrecht V.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 1, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 158–160; (full text online)
  22. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Anna von Oesterreich (1528–1587)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 151 – via Wikisource.

Sources

  • Dulong, Claude (1980). Anne d'Autriche, mère de Louis XIII. Paris: Hachette. OCLC 1009451554. Paris: Perrin (2008 paperback): ISBN 9782262016241.
  • Freer, Martha Walker (1864). The Married Life of Anne of Austria, Queen of France, 2 volumes. London: Tinsley Brothers. Vols 1 & 2 at Google Books.
  • Kleinman, Ruth (1987). Anne of Austria: Queen of France. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 9780814204290.
  • La Varende, Jean de (1938). Anne d' Autriche: femme de Louis XIII. Paris: Les Éditions de France. OCLC 34567717. 2014 reprint: ISBN 9782851577269.
  • Mallick, Oliver (2011). "Freundin oder Gönnerin? Anna von Österreich im Spiegel ihrer Korrespondenz", in: Freundschaft. Eine politisch-soziale Beziehung in Deutschland und Frankreich, 12.–19. Jahrhundert (8. Sommerkurs des Deutschen Historischen Instituts Paris in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Paris-Sorbonne, der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg und der École des hautes études en sciences sociales, 3.–6. Juli 2011), ed. by Bertrand Haan, Christian Kühner (discussions, 8). Online at perspectivia.net
  • Mallick, Oliver (2013). "Clients and Friends: The Ladies-in-waiting at the Court of Anne of Austria (1615-1666)", in The Politics of Female Households. Ladies-in-Waiting across Early Modern Europe, ed. by Nadine N. Akkerman, Birgit Houben, Leiden: Brill, p. 231–264.
  • Mallick, Oliver (2016). "Au service de la reine. Anne d'Autriche et sa maison (1616-1666)", in: www.cour-de-france.de. Online at cour-de-france.fr
  • Mallick, Oliver (2016). »Spiritus intus agit«. Die Patronagepolitik der Anna von Österreich 1643-1666. Berlin: De Gruyter.
  • Robiquet, Paul (1912). Le coeur d'une Reine. Anne d'Autriche, Louis XIII et Mazarin. Paris: Felix Alcan. Copy at Hathitrust.
  • Vignal Souleyreau, Marie-Catherine (2006). Anne d' Autriche: La jeunesse d' une souveraine. Paris: Flammarion.

External links

Anne of Austria
Born: 22 September 1601 Died: 20 January 1666
French royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Marie de' Medici
Queen consort of France and Navarre
24 November 1615 – 1620
Vacant
Title next held by
French annexation
Vacant
Title last held by
Marie de' Medici
Queen consort of France
1620 – 14 May 1643
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Title next held by
Maria Theresa of Austria
Portuguese royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Philip (II)
Princess of Portugal
22 September 1601 – 8 April 1605
Succeeded by
Philip (III)
1615 in France

Events from the year 1615 in France

1644 in France

Events from the year 1644 in France.

1647 in France

Events from the year 1647 in France.

1650 in France

Events from the year 1650 in France.

Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain

Anna of Austria (2 November 1549 – 26 October 1580) was Queen of Spain by marriage to her uncle, King Philip II of Spain.

Anne of Austria, Duchess of Bavaria

Anna of Austria (1318–1343) was the youngest daughter of Frederick the Fair, of Austria and his wife, Isabella of Aragon. Her paternal grandparents were Albert I of Germany and Elisabeth of Tirol. Her maternal grandparents were James II of Aragon and Blanche of Anjou.

Anne of Austria, Landgravine of Thuringia

Anne of Bohemia and Austria (12 April 1432 – 13 November 1462) was a Duchess of Luxembourg in her own right, and as consort, Landgravine of Thuringia and of Saxony.

She was the eldest daughter of Albert of Austria, the future Emperor-Elect and Elisabeth, queen of Bohemia, the sole descendant of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor.

Her posthumous brother Ladislaus, Duke of Austria (1440–57) succeeded, very underage, as king of Bohemia and later also as king of Hungary. Anne also had a younger sister, Elisabeth, who was to become later a queen of Poland and grand duchess of Lithuania.

On 2 June 1446 the young Anne was married to William "the Brave" of Saxony (1425–82), Landgrave of Thuringia, a younger son of Frederick I "the Warlike" of Saxony.

In right of Anne, William became Duke of Luxembourg from 1457 when Anne's brother Ladislaus died childless. Though, their rights to the land were disputed by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, and in 1469, William concluded that the possession's keeping was untenable against Burgundian attacks, and retreated to his Thuringian lands – that however took place when Anne was already dead.

They had two surviving daughters:

Margaret of Thuringia (1449 – 13 July 1501), who married John II, Elector of Brandenburg, and whose direct main heirs have been Electors of Brandenburg, then Kings of Prussia, and then German Emperors.

Katharina of Thuringia (1453 – 10 July 1534), who married Duke Henry II of Münsterberg and who has surviving descendants, mainly among Bohemian high nobility.

Anne of Austria, Margravine of Brandenburg

Anna of Austria (1275–1327) was a daughter of Albert I of Germany and his wife Elisabeth of Tirol. She was a member of the House of Habsburg.

Anne of Austria, Queen of Poland

Anne of Austria (16 August 1573 – 10 February 1598) was queen consort of Poland and Sweden by marriage to King Sigismund III Vasa.

Archduchess Marie Anne of Austria

Marie Anne of Austria (Maria Anna Franziska Theresia Josepha Medarde; 8 June 1804 – 28 December 1858) was an Archduchess of Austria and the daughter of Franz II, Holy Roman Emperor and his second wife, Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily.

Cardinal Mazarin

Cardinal Jules Mazarin (French: [ʒyl mazaʁɛ̃]; 14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino [ˈdʒuːljo raiˈmondo madːzaˈriːno] or Mazarini, was an Italian cardinal, diplomat and politician, who served as the chief minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death. In 1654 he acquired the title Duke of Mayenne, and in 1659, 1st Duke of Rethel and Nevers.

After serving as a papal diplomat for Pope Urban VIII, Mazarin offered his diplomatic services to Cardinal Richelieu and moved to Paris in 1640. Following the death of Richelieu, Mazarin took his place as first minister, and after that of Louis XIII in 1643, Mazarin acted as the head of the government for Anne of Austria, the regent for the young Louis XIV, and was also made responsible for the king's education until he came of age.

The first years of Mazarin in office were marked by military victories in the Thirty Years' War, which he used to make France the main European power and establish the Peace of Westphalia (1646–48). A major uprising against Anne of Austria and Mazarin, called the Fronde and led by the nobles of the Parliament of Paris, broke out in Paris in 1648, followed by a second Fronde led by Louis, Grand Condé, who turned from his chief ally to his chief enemy. Mazarin took Anne of Austria and Louis XIV out of Paris, and then shifted his base to Germany for a time. Turenne, a general loyal to Louis XIV and Mazarin, defeated Condé, and Mazarin made a triumphal return to Paris in 1653.

The last years of Mazarin's life, between 1657 and his death in 1661, were marked by a series of major diplomatic victories, In 1657 he made a military alliance with England. In 1658 he unveiled the League of the Rhine, a new group of fifty small German principalities which were now linked by a treaty with France. In the same month, Marshal Turenne decisively defeated the army of Condé at the Battle of the Dunes in Flanders. Between February and June 1659, Mazarin conducted intensive negotiations with the Spanish. On 7 November 1659 Spain signed the Treaty of the Pyrenees, which added Artois, the Cerdagne and Roussillon as new provinces of France. This was followed in June 1660 by an even more important diplomatic event carefully arranged by Mazarin; the marriage of Louis XIV with Maria Theresa of Spain. The marriage took place in Saint-Jean-de-Luz in Spain, close to the French border. The couple made a triumphant entry into Paris on 26 August 1660. This marriage and accompanying agreements ended, at least for a time, the long and costly wars between the Hapsburgs and France.

Exhausted by his diplomatic efforts, Mazarin died on 9 March 1661.

Mazarin, as the actual (de facto) ruler of France, played a crucial role in establishing the Westphalian principles that would guide European states' foreign policy and the prevailing world order. Some of these principles, such as the nation state's sovereignty over its territory and domestic affairs and the legal equality among states, remain the basis of international law to this day.

In addition to his diplomacy, Mazarin was an important patron of the arts. He introduced Italian opera on a grand scale to Paris, and assembled a remarkable art collection, much of which today can be seen in the Louvre. He also founded the Bibliothèque Mazarine, the first true public library in France, which is now found in the Institut de France, across the Seine from the Louvre.

D'Artagnan and Three Musketeers

D'Artagnan and Three Musketeers (Russian: д'Артаньян и три мушкетёра, D'Artanyan i tri mushketera) is a three-part musical miniseries produced in the Soviet Union and first aired in 1978. It is based on the novel The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas, père.

The film stars Mikhail Boyarsky as D'Artagnan, Veniamin Smekhov as Athos, Igor Starygin as Aramis, Valentin Smirnitsky as Porthos, Margarita Terekhova as Milady de Winter, Oleg Tabakov as King Louis XIII, Alisa Freindlich as Anne of Austria, Aleksandr Trofimov as Cardinal Richelieu, and Lev Durov as Captain de Tréville. The film, and its numerous songs became extremely popular in the Soviet Union throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s, and is now considered a classic.

Three sequels were made: Musketeers Twenty Years After (1992), The Secret of Queen Anne or Musketeers Thirty Years After (1993) and The Return of the Musketeers, or The Treasures of Cardinal Mazarin (2009).

Dame d'atour

Dame d'atour was an office at the royal court of France. It existed in nearly all French courts from the 16th-century onward. The dame d'honneur was selected from the members of the highest French nobility.

Louise Boyer

Anne Louise, Duchess of Noailles (1632 – 22 May 1697, in Paris), was a French courtier. She served as dame d'atour to the queen dowager of France, Anne of Austria, from 1657 until 1666.

She was the daughter of Antoine Boyer Lord of Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, she married Anne de Noailles, who became 1st Duke of Noailles in 1646. He preceded her, dying on 15 February 1678. She did not remarry and died in Paris 12 May 1697.She had two notable children:

Anne Jules de Noailles, 2nd Duke of Noailles (1650–1708) Marshal of France, married Marie-Françoise de Bournonville.

Louis Antoine de Noailles, cardinal de Noailles (1651–1729), never married.

Margaret of Thuringia

Margaret of Thuringia or Margaret of Saxony (1449 – 13 July 1501) was a German noblewoman, Electress of Brandenburg by marriage.

She was the daughter of William III, Landgrave of Thuringia and Anne of Austria, Duchess of Luxembourg suo jure.

Maria Anna of Austria

Maria Anna of Austria (Maria Anna Josepha Antonia Regina; 7 September 1683 – 14 August 1754) was Queen consort of Portugal by marriage to King John V of Portugal. She was Regent of Portugal from 1742 until 1750 during the illness of John V.

Mariana of Austria

Mariana of Austria or Maria Anna (24 December 1634 – 16 May 1696) was Queen of Spain from 1649 until her husband Philip IV died in 1665. She was appointed regent for their three-year-old son Charles II and due to his ill health remained an influential figure until her own death in 1696.

Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle

Notre-Dame-de-Bonne-Nouvelle, located at 25 Rue de la Lune, in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris and is a Catholic parish church built between 1823 and 1830. It is dedicated to Notre-Dame de Bonne-Nouvelle ("our lady of good news"), referring to the Annunciation. The neighbourhood of Bonne-Nouvelle, the Boulevard de Bonne-Nouvelle (one of the Grand Boulevards that replaced the Louis XIII wall in 1709) and the Bonne Nouvelle metro station are named after it.

It was originally built in 1551 and was destroyed in 1591 by the Catholic League during the siege of Paris by the future Henry IV. Queen Anne of Austria laid the first stone of a new church in 1628. As a result of destruction during the French Revolution it became unsafe and was demolished in 1823, except the bell-tower which was integrated into the current building. The 17th-century church faced west (as possibly did the 16th century version) onto the Rue Notre-Dame de Bonne-Nouvelle. This was when the area east of the church, sloping down to the arch of Porte Saint-Denis, was a graveyard. The current church is neoclassical and was built by the architect Étienne-Hippolyte Godde between 1823 and 1830. Its entrance, facing north at 25, Rue de la Lune, has Tuscan columns before a bold, cool, barrel-vaulted interior.

Queen Anne

Queen Anne most commonly refers to:

Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714), queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (1702–1707) and of Great Britain (1707–1714)

Queen Anne style architecture, an architectural style from her reign, and its revivals

Queen Anne style furniture

Queen Anne (play), a 2015 play on Anne's life

Ancestors of Anne of Austria
16. Philip I of Castile[15] (= 24)
8. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor[11] (= 22)
17. Joanna I of Castile[15] (= 25)
4. Philip II of Spain[9]
18. Manuel I of Portugal[16]
9. Isabella of Portugal[11] (= 23)
19. Maria of Aragon[16]
2. Philip III of Spain
20. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor[17] (= 12, 30)
10. Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor[12]
21. Anne of Bohemia and Hungary[17] (= 13, 31)
5. Anna of Austria[9] (≠ 15)
22. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor[18] (= 8)
11. Maria of Austria[12]
23. Isabella of Portugal[18] (= 9)
1. Anne of Austria
24. Philip I of Castile[19][15] (= 16)
12. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor[13] (= 20, 30)
25. Joanna I of Castile[15] (= 17)
6. Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria[10]
26. Vladislaus II of Hungary and Bohemia[20]
13. Anne of Bohemia and Hungary[13] (= 21, 31)
27. Anne of Foix-Candale[20]
3. Margaret of Austria
28. William IV, Duke of Bavaria[21]
14. Albert V, Duke of Bavaria[14]
29. Marie of Baden-Sponheim[21]
7. Maria Anna of Bavaria[10]
30. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor[22] (= 12, 20)
15. Anna of Austria[14] (≠ 5)
31. Anne of Bohemia and Hungary[22] (= 13, 21)
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