Annapurna (/ˌænəˈpʊərnəˌ -ˈpɜːr-/; Sanskrit, Nepali, Newar: अनन्पूर्णा) is a massif in the Himalayas in north-central Nepal that includes one peak over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft), thirteen peaks over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft), and sixteen more over 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). The massif is 55 kilometres (34 mi) long, and is bounded by the Kali Gandaki Gorge on the west, the Marshyangdi River on the north and east, and by Pokhara Valley on the south. At the western end the massif encloses a high basin called the Annapurna Sanctuary. Annapurna I Main is the tenth highest mountain in the world at 8,091 metres (26,545 ft) above sea level, and in 1950 Maurice Herzog led a French expedition to its summit, making it the first of the eight-thousanders to be climbed.
The entire massif and surrounding area are protected within the 7,629-square-kilometre (2,946 sq mi) Annapurna Conservation Area, the first and largest conservation area in Nepal. The Annapurna Conservation Area is home to several world-class treks, including Annapurna Sanctuary and Annapurna Circuit.
Historically, the Annapurna peaks are among the world's most dangerous mountains to climb, although in more recent history, using only figures from 1990 and after, Kangchenjunga has a higher fatality rate. By March 2012, there had been 191 summit ascents of Annapurna I Main, and 61 climbing fatalities on the mountain. This fatality-to-summit ratio (1:3.1, or 32%) is the highest of any of the eight-thousanders. In particular, the ascent via the south face is considered, by some, the most difficult of all climbs. In October 2014, at least 43 people were killed as a result of snowstorms and avalanches on and around Annapurna, in Nepal's worst ever trekking disaster.
South Face of Annapurna I (Main)
|Elevation||8,091 m (26,545 ft) |
|Prominence||2,984 m (9,790 ft) |
|Isolation||34 kilometres (21 mi)|
|Parent peak||Cho Oyu|
|Location||Gandaki Zone, Nepal|
|First ascent||3 June 1950|
Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal
(First winter ascent 3 February 1987 Jerzy Kukuczka and Artur Hajzer)
|Easiest route||northwest face|
The mountain is named after Annapurna, the Hindu goddess of food and nourishment, who is said to reside there. The name Annapurna is derived from the Sanskrit-language words purna ("filled") and anna ("food"), and can be translated as "everlasting food". Many streams descending from the slopes of the Annapurna Massif provide water for the agricultural fields and pastures located at lower altitudes.
The Annapurna massif contains six prominent peaks over 7,200 m (23,620 ft) elevation:
|Annapurna I (Main)||8,091 m (26,545 ft)||10th||2,984 m|
|Annapurna II||7,937 m (26,040 ft)||16th||2,437 m|
|Annapurna III||7,555 m (24,786 ft)||42nd||703 m|
|Annapurna IV||7,525 m (24,688 ft)||47th||225 m|
|Annapurna South||7,219 m (23,684 ft)||101st||775 m|
|Gangapurna||7,455 m (24,457 ft)||59th||563 m|
Less prominent and other peaks in the Annapurna Himal include:
Annapurna I was the first 8,000-metre (26,200 ft) peak to be climbed. Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, of the French Annapurna expedition led by Herzog (including Lionel Terray, Gaston Rébuffat, Marcel Ichac, Jean Couzy, Marcel Schatz, Jacques Oudot, Francis de Noyelle), reached the summit on 3 June 1950. Ichac made a documentary of the expedition, called Victoire sur l'Annapurna. Its summit was the highest summit attained for three years, until the first successful ascent of Mount Everest (although higher non-summit points - at least 8,500 metres (27,900 ft) - had already been attained on Everest in the 1920s).
The south face of Annapurna was first climbed in 1970 by Don Whillans and Dougal Haston using supplementary oxygen, members of a British expedition led by Chris Bonington that included the alpinist Ian Clough, who was killed by a falling serac during the descent. They were, however, beaten to the second ascent of Annapurna by a matter of days by a British Army expedition led by Colonel Henry Day.
In 1978, the American Women's Himalayan Expedition, a team led by Arlene Blum, became the first United States team to climb Annapurna I. The first summit team, composed of Vera Komarkova and Irene Miller, and Sherpas Mingma Tsering and Chewang Ringjing, reached the top at 3:30 pm on 15 October 1978. The second summit team, Alison Chadwick-Onyszkiewicz and Vera Watson, died during this climb.
In 1981 Polish expedition Zakopane Alpine Club set a new route on Annapurna I Central (8051 m). Maciej Berbeka and Bogusław Probulski reached the summit on 23 May 1981. The route called Zakopiańczyków Way was recognized as the best achievement of the Himalayan season in 1981.
On 8 and 9 October 2013 Swiss climber Ueli Steck soloed the Lafaille route on the main and highest part of the face; this was his third attempt on the route and has been called "one of the most impressive Himalayan climbs in history", with Steck taking 28 hours to make the trip from Base Camp to summit and back again.
Annapurna I has the greatest fatality rate of all the 14 eight-thousanders: as of March 2012, there have been 52 deaths during ascents, 191 successful ascents, and nine deaths upon descent. The ratio of 34 deaths per 100 safe returns on Annapurna I is followed by 29 for K2 and 21 for Nanga Parbat. Climbers killed on the peak include Britons Ian Clough in 1970 and Alex MacIntyre in 1982, Frenchman Pierre Béghin in 1992, Kazakh Russian Anatoli Boukreev in 1997, Spaniard Iñaki Ochoa in 2008, and Korean Park Young-seok, lost in 2011.
Gangapurna was first climbed in 1965 by a German expedition led by Günther Hauser, via the East Ridge. The summit party comprised 11 members of the expedition.
Annapurna South (also known as Annapurna Dakshin, or Moditse) was first climbed in 1964 by a Japanese expedition, via the North Ridge. The summit party comprised S. Uyeo and Mingma Tsering.
Hiunchuli (6,441 m/21,126 ft) is a satellite peak extending east from Annapurna South, Hiunchuli was first climbed in 1971 by an expedition led by U.S. Peace Corps Volunteer Craig Anderson.
Mount Machhapuchchhre (6,993 m or 22,943 ft), named after its resemblance to a fish-tail, is another important peak, though it just misses the 7,000 metre mark. Mount Machhapuchchhre and Hiunchuli are prominently visible from the valley of Pokhara. These peaks are the "gates" to the Annapurna Sanctuary leading to the south face of Annapurna I. Mount Machhapuchchhre was climbed in 1957 (except the final 50 metres for its local religious sanctity) by Wilfrid Noyce and A. D. M. Cox. Since then it has been off limits.
The Annapurna Conservation Area (7,629 km²) is a well known trekking region. There are three major trekking routes in the Annapurna region: the Jomson Trek to Jomsom and Muktinath (increasingly disturbed by a road-building project); the Annapurna Sanctuary route to Annapurna base camp; and the Annapurna Circuit, which circles the Annapurna Himal itself and includes the Jomsom route. The town of Pokhara usually serves as a starting point for these treks, and is also a good starting place for other short treks of one to four days, such as routes to Ghorepani or Ghandruk.
The Mustang district, a former kingdom bordering Tibet, is also geographically a part of the Annapurna region, but treks to upper Mustang are subject to special restrictions. Mustang is also increasingly becoming popular for mountain biking because of the construction of roads undertaken by the Nepali government in the region.
About two-thirds of all trekkers in Nepal visit the Annapurna region. The area is easily accessible, guest houses in the hills are plentiful, and treks here offer incredibly diverse scenery, with both high mountains and lowland villages. Also, because the entire area is inhabited, trekking in the region offers unique cultural exposure and experience. Trekkers are required to purchase a special permit for trekking from the Nepal Immigration Office, with the permit generally being valid for ten days.
In October 2014, at least 43 people were killed, and some 175 injured, as a result of snowstorms and avalanches on and around Annapurna, including trekkers from Nepal, Israel, Canada, India, Slovakia and Poland. Between 10 and 50 people were thought likely to be missing. It was believed that about 100 trekkers had left a guest house at 4,800 metres (15,700 ft), to climb to the top of Thorong La pass and then descend.
The authorities were criticized for not giving sufficient warning of the approaching bad weather. By 18 October, some 289 people were reported as having been rescued. An official from the Nepal Ministry of Tourism said on 18 October that helicopters were looking for survivors and bodies in snowy areas at up to 5,790 metres (19,000 ft), and were trying to reach 22 hikers stranded at Thorong La. The incident was said to be Nepal's worst-ever trekking disaster.
The 1950 French Annapurna expedition, led by Maurice Herzog, successfully reached the summit of Annapurna I at 8,091 metres (26,545 ft), the highest peak in the Annapurna Massif. The mountain is located in Nepal and the government had given permission for the expedition, the first time it had permitted mountaineering in over a century. After failing to climb Dhaulagiri I at 8,167 metres (26,795 ft), the higher peak nearby to the west, the team attempted Annapurna with Herzog and Louis Lachenal reaching the summit on 3 June 1950. It was only with considerable help from their team that they were able to return alive, though with very severe injuries following frostbite.
Annapurna became the highest mountain to have been ascended to its summit, exceeding that achieved by the 1936 expedition to Nanda Devi, and the mountain was the first eight-thousander to be climbed. The feat was a great achievement for French mountaineering and caught the public imagination with front-page coverage in a best-selling issue of Paris Match. Herzog wrote an immensely popular book Annapurna full of vivid descriptions of heroic endeavour and anguished suffering – but which much later was criticised for being too self-serving.Annapurna Circuit
The Circuit is a trek within the mountain ranges of central Nepal. The total length of the route varies between 160–230 km (100-145 mi), depending on where motor transportation is used and where the trek is ended. This trek crosses two different river valleys and encircles the Annapurna Massif. The path reaches its highest point at Thorung La pass (5416m/17769 ft), touching the edge of the Tibetan plateau. Practically all trekkers hike the route anticlockwise, as this way the daily altitude gain is slower, and crossing the high Thorong La pass is easier and safer.The mountain scenery, seen at close quarters includes the Annapurna Massif (Annapurna I-IV), Dhaulagiri, Machhapuchhre, Manaslu, Gangapurna, Tilicho Peak, Pisang Peak, and Paungda Danda. Numerous other peaks of 6000-8000m in elevation rise from the Annapurna range.
The trek begins at Besisahar or Bhulbhule in the Marshyangdi river valley and concludes in the Kali Gandaki Gorge. Besisahar can be reached after a seven-hour drive from Kathmandu. The trail passes along paddy fields and into subtropical forests, several waterfalls and gigantic cliffs, and various villages.
Annapurna Circuit has often been voted as the best long distance trek in the world, as it combined, in its old full form, a wide variety of climate zones from tropics at 600 m asl to the arctic at 5416 m asl at the Thorong La pass and cultural variety from Hindu villages at the low foothills to the Tibetan culture of Manang Valley and lower Mustang. Continuing construction of a road has shortened the trail and changed the villages. With construction of the road, mountain biking is becoming popular, with Mustang in particular becoming one of the world's most popular mountain biking destinations.Annapurna III
Annapurna III is a mountain in the Annapurna mountain range, and at 7,555 metres (24,787 ft) tall, it is the 42nd highest mountain that is not a subsidiary peak of another mountain.
It was first ascended 6 May 1961 by an Indian expedition led by Capt. Mohan Singh Kohli via the Northeast Face. The summit party comprised Mohan Kohli, Sonam Gyatso, and Sonam Girmi. A Japanese Women's expedition succeeded in putting the first women on top on 19 May 1970.Buddha Air
Buddha Air Pvt. Ltd (Nepali: बुद्ध एयर) is an airline based in Jawalakhel, Lalitpur District, Nepal, near Patan. It operates domestic as well as international services within Nepal and India, serving mainly large towns and cities in Nepal, linking Kathmandu with ten destinations and Varanasi of India since its establishment. Its main base is Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu. It is the largest Nepali carrier in terms of passengers carried and the second largest after Nepal Airlines in terms of fleet size.Double summit
A double summit, double peak, twin summit or twin peak refers to a mountain or hill that has two summits, separated by a col or saddle.
One well known double summit is Austria’s highest mountain, the Großglockner, where the main summit of the Großglockner is separated from that of the Kleinglockner by the Glocknerscharte col in the area of a geological fault. Other double summits have resulted from geological folding. For example, on Mont Withrow in British Columbia resistant sandstones form the limbs of the double summit, whilst the softer rock in the core of the fold was eroded.Triple peaks occur more rarely - one example is the Rosengartenspitze in the Dolomites. The Illimani in Bolivia is an example of a quadruple summit.Gaston Rébuffat
Gaston Rébuffat (7 May 1921, Marseille – 31 May 1985, Paris) was a French alpinist, mountain guide, and author. He is well known as a member of the first expedition to summit Annapurna 1 in 1950 and the first man to climb all six of the great north faces of the Alps. In 1984, he was made an officer in the French Legion of Honour for his service as a mountaineering instructor for the French military. At the age of 64, Gaston Rébuffat died of cancer in Paris, France. The climbing technique Gaston was named after him. A photo of Rébuffat atop the Aiguille du Roc in the French Alps can be found on the Voyager Golden Records.Hansjörg Auer
Hansjörg Auer ([hans.jœʁk ˈaʊ̯ɐ]; 18 February 1984 – 16 April 2019) was an Austrian mountaineer, noted for his free solo climbs, particularly of "The Fish" in the Italian Dolomites. National Geographic described him as "one of the boldest and best climbers in the world." He died in an avalanche while climbing Howse Peak in the Canadian Rockies.Himalayas
The Himalayas, or Himalaya (), form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest. The Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m (23,600 ft) in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia (Aconcagua, in the Andes) is 6,961 m (22,838 ft) tall.Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km (1,500 mi) long. Its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River (upper stream of the Brahmaputra River). The Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km (31–37 mi) wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the very low Indo-Gangetic Plain. The range varies in width from 350 km (220 mi) in the west (Pakistan) to 150 km (93 mi) in the east (Arunachal Pradesh). The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term 'Himalaya' (or 'Greater Himalaya') is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges.
The Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, and are spread across five countries: Nepal, India, Bhutan, China and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin is home to roughly 600 million people. The Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent, with many Himalayan peaks considered sacred in Hinduism and Buddhism.J. O. M. Roberts
Lieutenant Colonel James Owen Merion Roberts MVO MBE MC (1916–1997) was one of the greatest Himalayan mountaineer-explorers of the twentieth century; a highly decorated British Army officer who achieved his greatest renown as "the father of trekking" in Nepal. His exploratory activities are comparable to those of Eric Shipton and Bill Tilman.
Born in Gujarat, India on 21st September 1916 to Henry and Helen Roberts, Roberts spent his early life in India, where his father was a headmaster. After attending King's School, Canterbury and then the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, he was commissioned onto the Unattached List for the Indian Army in August 1936 as a 19-year-old subaltern to satisfy his ardent craving for mountaineering. After a probationary year attached to the 1st Battalion, the East Yorkshire Regiment in India, he was posted to the 1st battalion, 1st (King George V's Own) Gurkha Rifles in November 1937.His first major expedition was the J. Waller-led attempt in 1938 on Masherbrum, 7890 metres, in the Karakorams: the weather was bad, the attempt was unsuccessful and J.B. Harrison and R.A. Hodgkin got severely frostbitten. Roberts himself suffered at high altitude and suffered mild frostbite.He tried to join the post-monsoon 1939 Everest expedition led by Bill Tilman, but the attempt was called off. That year, he recorded the first of his many first ascents, that of Guan Nelda, 6303 metres (now called Chau Chau Kang Nilda) in the Spiti Himalaya. The ascent was remarkable for something which became a Roberts hallmark: he climbed without any other "sahib" for company, accompanied only by his Gurkhas. In this he was the true successor of the legendary Dr. A. M. Kellas who had climbed in the same fashion in Sikkim before 1914.
He was selected for the abortive 1940 Everest expedition.
The second major first ascent by Roberts was the 1941 climb of the 6431 metres/21,100 peak locally called Dharmsura in the Tos Glacier of Kullu Himalaya. He named it White Sail.Kaskikot
Kaskikot (Nepali: कास्कीकोट), commonly known as Kaski, is a Ward no. 24 of the Pokhara metropolitan city. It was earlier a part of the village development committee in Kaski District, a region in northern-central Nepal.Krzysztof Wielicki
Krzysztof Wielicki (born January 5, 1950 in Szklarka Przygodzicka, municipality Ostrzeszów, Poland) is a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber, regarded as one of the greatest Polish climbers in history. He is the fifth man to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders and the first ever to climb Mount Everest, Kangchenjunga, and Lhotse in the winter. He is a member of The Explorers Club.Manaslu
Manaslu (Nepali: मनास्लु, also known as Kutang) is the eighth highest mountain in the world at 8,163 metres (26,781 ft) above sea level. It is located in the Mansiri Himal, part of the Nepalese Himalayas, in the west-central part of Nepal. Its name, which means "mountain of the spirit", comes from the Sanskrit word manasa, meaning "intellect" or "soul". Manaslu was first climbed on May 9, 1956 by Toshio Imanishi and Gyalzen Norbu, members of a Japanese expedition. It is said that "just as the British consider Everest their mountain, Manaslu has always been a Japanese mountain".
Manaslu is the highest peak in the Gorkha District and is located about 64 km (40 mi) east of Annapurna. The mountain's long ridges and valley glaciers offer feasible approaches from all directions, and culminate in a peak that towers steeply above its surrounding landscape, and is a dominant feature when viewed from afar.The Manaslu region offers a variety of trekking options. The popular Manaslu trekking route of 177 kilometres (110 mi) skirts the Manaslu massif over the pass down to Annapurna. The Nepalese Government only permitted trekking of this circuit in 1991. The trekking trail follows an ancient salt-trading route along the Burhi Gandak River. En route, 10 peaks over 6,500 metres (21,300 ft) are visible, including a few over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). The highest point reached along the trek route is the Larkya La at an elevation of 5,106 metres (16,752 ft). As of May 2008, the mountain has been climbed 297 times with 53 fatalities.The Manaslu Conservation Area has been established with the primary objective of achieving conservation and sustainable management of the delimited area, which includes Manaslu.Marshyangdi
The Marshyangdi (or Marsyangdi) (Nepali: मर्स्याङ्दी, marśyāṅdī) is a mountain river in Nepal. Its length is about 150 kilometres.
The Marshyangdi begins at the confluence of two mountain rivers, the Khangsar Khola and Jharsang Khola, northwest of the Annapurna massif at an altitude of 3600 meters near Manang village. The Marshyangdi flows eastward through Manang District and then southward through Lamjung District.
The Marshyangdi joins the Trishuli near Mugling as one of its tributaries.
The beginning of the Annapurna Circuit trekking route follows the Marshyangdi river valley.Nilgiri Himal
The Nilgiri Himal is a range of three peaks in the Annapurna massif in Nepal. It is composed of Nilgiri North (7061 m), Nilgiri Central (6940 m) and Nilgiri South (6839 m).
Nilgiri North was first ascended in October 1962 by The Netherlands Himalayan Expedition; the team leader was a famous French climber, Lionel Terray.
The first ascents on Nilgiri South and Nilgiri Central were made by Japanese climbers in 1978 and 1979 respectively.Paudhur
Paundur (पाउँदुर)is a central village in Kaski district of Gandaki Province of Nepal. It lies 28 km west of the Pokhara valley and 38 km east of Kusma, Parbat. It is a part of ward no. 3 of Annapurna Gaupalika of Gandaki Pradesh of Nepal, and was the ward no.5 and 8 of the former Dhikurpokhari VDC.It lies west of Nagdanda, nearest sub urban area. There are more than 100 houses in this village.Pit Schubert
Pit Schubert (born December 2, 1935 in Wrocław) is a German non-fiction author, climber and mountaineer. He is the founder and former head of the safety commission of the German Alpine Club (DAV).Prithvi Highway
The Prithvi Highway (Nepali: पृथ्वी राजमार्ग) is a 174-kilometre-long (108 mi) highway connecting Naubise of Tribhuvan Highway, 26 km from Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, and Pokhara, a tourist city in the western part of Nepal.Roc Noir
Roc Noir (French for "black rock") may refer to:
Grand Roc Noir, mountain in Switzerland
a triangular rock formation jutting from the east ridge of Annapurna MassifSeti Gandaki River
The Seti Gandaki River, also known as the Seti River or the Seti Khola, is a river of western Nepal, a left tributary of the Trishuli River. It is one of the holiest rivers of Nepal, worshipped in Hinduism as a form of Vishnu. The river is also famous because it is close to some Holy places and is the central point of many stories of Hindu mythology, such as the Mahabharata, one of longest books of Hinduism, written by Vyasa, who was born near the confluence of the Gandaki and Madi rivers near Damauli, Tanahun, Nepal. Gandaki River . It rises from the base of the Annapurna massif, and flows south and south-east past Pokhara and Damauli to join the Trishuli River near Devghat.
The Seti Gandaki was successfully descended for the first time in June 1971 by Daniel C. Taylor and Jennifer Ide. They went by raft, having to portage around the three kilometer section where the whole Seti river goes underground.In May 2012 a devastating flood on the river killed more than 60 people north of Pokhara and changed the course of the river.