|Annals of Nuclear Energy|
|Edited by||Lynn E. Weaver, S. Mostafa Ghiaasiaan, Imre Pázsit|
|Annals of Nuclear Science and Engineering (1974)|
|1975 – present|
|Ann. Nucl. Energy|
The journal is abstracted and indexed in:
Annals of Nuclear Energy is derived from the following former titles:
The advanced heavy-water reactor (AHWR) is the latest Indian design for a next-generation nuclear reactor that burns thorium in its fuel core. It is slated to form the third stage in India's three-stage fuel-cycle plan. This phase of the fuel cycle plan is supposed to be built starting with a 300MWe prototype in 2016.Closed-cycle gas turbine
A closed-cycle gas turbine is a turbine that uses a gas (e.g. air, nitrogen, helium, argon, etc.) for the working fluid as part of a closed thermodynamic system. Heat is supplied from an external source. Such recirculating turbines follow the Brayton cycle.Critical heat flux
Critical heat flux (CHF) describes the thermal limit of a phenomenon where a phase change occurs during heating (such as bubbles forming on a metal surface used to heat water), which suddenly decreases the efficiency of heat transfer, thus causing localised overheating of the heating surface.
The critical heat flux for ignition is the lowest thermal load per unit area capable of initiating a combustion reaction on a given material (either flame or smoulder ignition).Drop impact
Drop impact occurs when a liquid drop strikes a solid or liquid surface. The resulting outcome depends on the properties of the drop, the surface, and the surrounding fluid, which is most commonly a gas.FLUKA
FLUKA (FLUktuierende KAskade) is a fully integrated Monte Carlo simulation package for the interaction and transport of particles and nuclei in matter.
FLUKA has many applications in particle physics, high energy experimental physics and engineering, shielding, detector and telescope design, cosmic ray studies
, medical physics, radiobiology. A recent line of development concerns hadron therapy.FLUKA is available in the form of a pre-compiled object library for a number of computer platforms. Source code is also available subject to the conditions specified in the FLUKA license.
FLUKA is developed using the FORTRAN language. Under Linux the g77 compiler is at present necessary to build and run user programs. A 64 bit version compiled in GNU Fortran has been available since 2011 (for version >4.5).
A graphical user interface to run FLUKA named Flair has been developed using Python (programming language) and is available at the project's web-site.
The software is sponsored and copyrighted by INFN and CERN.
Early versions of the FLUKA hadronic event generator were implemented in other codes (in particular, GEANT3) and should be referenced as such (e.g. GEANT-FLUKA) and not as FLUKA. The hadronic FLUKA generator in GEANT3 is no more developed since 1993 and cannot be compared with the present stand-alone FLUKA.
FLUKA software code is used by Epcard, which is a software program for simulating radiation exposure on airline flights.Fissile material
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction. By definition, fissile material can sustain a chain reaction with neutrons of thermal energy. The predominant neutron energy may be typified by either slow neutrons (i.e., a thermal system) or fast neutrons. Fissile material can be used to fuel thermal-neutron reactors, fast-neutron reactors and nuclear explosives.Flattop (critical assembly)
Flattop is a benchmark critical assembly that is used to study the nuclear characteristics of uranium-233, uranium-235, and plutonium-239 in spherical geometries surrounded by a relatively thick natural uranium reflector.
Flattop assemblies are used to measure neutron activation and reactivity coefficients. Since the neutron energies gradually decrease in the reflector, experiments may be run in various energy spectra based on the location in which they are placed.List of scientific journals
The following is a partial list of scientific journals. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. The list given here is far from exhaustive, only containing some of the most influential, currently publishing journals in each field. As a rule of thumb, each field should be represented by more or less than ten positions, chosen by their impact factors and other ratings.
Note: there are many science magazines that are not scientific journals, including Scientific American, New Scientist, Australasian Science and others. They are not listed here.
For periodicals in the social sciences and humanities, see list of social science journals.Multilevel flow modelling
Mulitlevel flow modeling (MFM) is a framework for modeling industrial processes.
MFM is a kind of functional modeling employing the concepts of abstraction, decomposition, and functional representation. The approach regards the purpose, rather than the physical behavior of a system as its defining element. MFM hierarchically decomposes the function of a system along the means-end and whole-part dimensions in relation to intended actions. Functions are syntactically modeled by the relations of fundamental concepts contributing as part of a subsystem. Each subsystem is considered in the context of the overall system in terms of the purpose (end) of its function (means) in the system. Using only a few fundamental concepts as building blocks allows qualitative reasoning about action success or failure. MFM defines a graphical modeling language for representing the encompassed knowledge.Neutron radiation
Neutron radiation is a form of ionizing radiation that presents as free neutrons. Typical phenomena are nuclear fission or nuclear fusion causing the release of free neutrons, which then react with nuclei of other atoms to form new isotopes—which, in turn, may trigger further neutron radiation. Free neutrons are unstable, decaying into a proton, an electron, plus an anti-electron-neutrino with a mean lifetime of 887 seconds (about 14 minutes, 47 seconds).Noble gas
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases; sometimes referred to as aerogens) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity. The six noble gases that occur naturally are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn). Oganesson (Og) is variously predicted to be a noble gas as well or to break the trend due to relativistic effects; its chemistry has not yet been investigated.
For the first six periods of the periodic table, the noble gases are exactly the members of group 18. Noble gases are typically highly unreactive except when under particular extreme conditions. The inertness of noble gases makes them very suitable in applications where reactions are not wanted. For example, argon is used in incandescent lamps to prevent the hot tungsten filament from oxidizing; also, helium is used in breathing gas by deep-sea divers to prevent oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) toxicity.
The properties of the noble gases can be well explained by modern theories of atomic structure: their outer shell of valence electrons is considered to be "full", giving them little tendency to participate in chemical reactions, and it has been possible to prepare only a few hundred noble gas compounds. The melting and boiling points for a given noble gas are close together, differing by less than 10 °C (18 °F); that is, they are liquids over only a small temperature range.
Neon, argon, krypton, and xenon are obtained from air in an air separation unit using the methods of liquefaction of gases and fractional distillation. Helium is sourced from natural gas fields that have high concentrations of helium in the natural gas, using cryogenic gas separation techniques, and radon is usually isolated from the radioactive decay of dissolved radium, thorium, or uranium compounds. Noble gases have several important applications in industries such as lighting, welding, and space exploration. A helium-oxygen breathing gas is often used by deep-sea divers at depths of seawater over 55 m (180 ft). After the risks caused by the flammability of hydrogen became apparent, it was replaced with helium in blimps and balloons.Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy
Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy (Russian: Ядерные взрывы для народного хозяйства, translit. Yadernyye vzryvy dlya narodnogo khozyaystva; sometimes referred to as Program #7) was a Soviet program to investigate peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs). It was analogous to the United States program Operation Plowshare.
One of the better-known tests was Chagan of January 15, 1965. Radioactivity from the Chagan test was detected over Japan by both the U.S. and Japan in apparent violation of the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT). The United States complained to the Soviets, but the matter was dropped.Nuclear data
Nuclear data represents measured (or evaluated) probabilities of various physical interactions involving the nuclei of atoms. It is used to understand the nature of such interactions by providing the fundamental input to many models and simulations, such as fission and fusion reactor calculations, shielding and radiation protection calculations, criticality safety, nuclear weapons, nuclear physics research, medical radiotherapy, radioisotope therapy and diagnostics, particle accelerator design and operations, geological and environmental work, radioactive waste disposal calculations, and space travel calculations
It groups all experimental data relevant for nuclear physics and nuclear applications. It includes a large number of physical quantities, like scattering and reaction cross sections (which are generally functions of energy and angle), nuclear structure and nuclear decay parameters, etc. It can involve neutrons, protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and virtually all nuclear isotopes which can be handled in a laboratory.
There are two major reasons to need high-quality nuclear data: theoretical model development of nuclear physics, and applications involving radiation and nuclear power. There is often an interplay between these two aspects, since applications often motivate research in particular theoretical fields, and theory can be used to predict quantities or phenomena which can lead to new or improved technological concepts.Plutonium-240
Plutonium-240 (240Pu/Pu-240) is an isotope of the actinide metal plutonium formed when plutonium-239 captures a neutron. The detection of its spontaneous fission led to its discovery in 1944 at Los Alamos and had important consequences for the Manhattan Project.Pu-240 undergoes spontaneous fission as a secondary decay mode at a small but significant rate. The presence of Pu-240 limits the plutonium's use in a nuclear bomb, because the neutron flux from spontaneous fission initiates the chain reaction prematurely, causing an early release of energy that physically disperses the core before full implosion is reached.
It decays by alpha emission to Uranium-236.RELAP5-3D
RELAP5-3D is a simulation tool that allows users to model the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for various operational transients and postulated accidents that might occur in a nuclear reactor. RELAP5-3D (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) can be used for reactor safety analysis, reactor design, simulator training of operators, and as an educational tool by universities. RELAP5-3D was developed at Idaho National Laboratory to address the pressing need for reactor safety analysis and continues to be developed through the United States Department of Energy and the International RELAP5 Users Group (IRUG) with over $3 million invested annually. The code is distributed through INL's Technology Deployment Office and is licensed to numerous universities, governments, and corporations worldwide.Ratan Kumar Sinha
Ratan Kumar Sinha widely known by R. K. Sinha is an Indian nuclear scientist and mechanical engineer. He had served as the Secretary to the Government of India, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Government of India from April 2012 to October 2015. Prior to that, Ratan Kumar Sinha had served as Director of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai from May 2010 to June 2012. During his four decades of illustrious career, Ratan Kumar Sinha held several important positions related to design & development of nuclear reactors for the Indian nuclear programme. He has been actively involved in the development of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) and Compact High Temperature Reactor (CHTR), two of the highly acknowledged technological innovations which are suitable for large scale deployment of nuclear power, particularly in Indian scenario.
As Chairman, AEC and Secretary, DAE, Ratan Kumar Sinha had put special thrust on several key deliverables for sustainable development and deployment of nuclear energy. Major thrust areas, in continuation to his research at BARC, include advanced nuclear energy systems for thorium utilisation and accelerator technology. He had given high priority to application of radiation technology in the areas of healthcare management, agriculture, food preservation and water purification. He had also strengthened outreach activities of DAE for spreading awareness about the peaceful uses of atomic energy among the general public. He had been instrumental in kick starting several public outreach campaigns to present the human face of India's nuclear capabilities. Under his leadership, DAE displayed its first ever tableau in the 66th Republic Day Parade 2015 and had launched its social media page on Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/dae.connect) as a part of public outreach initiatives.Ratan Kumar Sinha has coined the phrase राष्ट्र की सेवा में परमाणु (Atoms in Service of the Nation) which has been imbibed as the motto of the Department of Atomic Energy. Motto of DAE is a part of the new logo of DAE launched in January 2014.Serpent (software)
Serpent is a continuous-energy multi-purpose three-dimensional Monte Carlo particle transport code. It is under development at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland since 2004. Serpent was originally known as Probabilistic Scattering Game (PSG) from 2004 to the first pre-release of Serpent 1 in October 2008. The development of Serpent 2 was started in 2010. The active development of Serpent 1 has been discontinued even though Serpent 2 is not officially released yet. Serpent 2 is however available for registered users of Serpent 1.Serpent was originally developed to be a simplified neutron transport code for reactor physics applications. Its main focus was on group constant generation with two-dimensional lattice calculations. Burnup calculation capability was included early on. Nowadays Serpent is used in a wide range of applications from the group constant generation to coupled multi-physics applications, fusion neutronics and radiation shielding. In addition to the original neutron transport capabilities, Serpent is able to perform photon transport.Single-photon emission computed tomography
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays. It is very similar to conventional nuclear medicine planar imaging using a gamma camera (that is, scintigraphy). but is able to provide true 3D information. This information is typically presented as cross-sectional slices through the patient, but can be freely reformatted or manipulated as required.
The technique requires delivery of a gamma-emitting radioisotope (a radionuclide) into the patient, normally through injection into the bloodstream. On occasion, the radioisotope is a simple soluble dissolved ion, such as an isotope of gallium(III). Most of the time, though, a marker radioisotope is attached to a specific ligand to create a radioligand, whose properties bind it to certain types of tissues. This marriage allows the combination of ligand and radiopharmaceutical to be carried and bound to a place of interest in the body, where the ligand concentration is seen by a gamma camera.